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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 12, 2020


Heart attack in a dish: a 3D model
Researchers in the Medical University of South Carolina Clemson Bioengineering program report in Nature Biomedical Engineering that they have developed human cardiac organoids that model what happens in a heart attack in a microtissue less than 1 millimeter in diameter.
Up to 45 percent of SARS-CoV-2 infections may be asymptomatic
Asymptomatic infections may have played a significant role in the early and ongoing spread of COVID-19 and highlight the need for expansive testing and contact tracing to mitigate the pandemic.
Hibernation in mice: Are humans next?
University of Tsukuba and RIKEN researchers identified cells in the brain that can induce a hibernation-like state in mice or rats, species that do not naturally hibernate.
Study links elevated levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with breast cancer risk
Hollings Cancer Center researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and colleagues assessed the connection between dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and breast cancer risk.
Corrona Psoriasis Registry shares real-world evidence at AAD Virtual Meeting
The Corrona® Psoriasis Registry, a joint collaboration between the National Psoriasis Foundation, NPF, and Corrona, LLC, the leading sponsor of registries in immune-mediated diseases, announces that studies from the registry will be presented at the American Academy of Dermatology Virtual Meeting Experience (AAD VMX) taking place June 12-14, 2020.
Research links personality traits to toilet paper stockpiling
People who feel more threatened by COVID-19 and rank highly on scales of emotionality and conscientiousness were most likely to stockpile toilet paper in March 2020, according to a new study by Theo Toppe of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and colleagues.
Minimizing thermal conductivity of crystalline material with optimal nanostructure
Japanese researchers successfully minimized thermal conductivity by designing, fabricating, and evaluating the optimal nanostructure-multilayer materials through materials informatics (MI), which combines machine learning and molecular simulation.
Keeping governments accountable: The COVID-10 assessment scorecard
Many actors in the response to COVID-19 are holding out for a vaccine to be developed.
School may be the key to improvement for children in social care
Children in social care have poorer mental health and perform worse in school than other children.
Artificial intelligence makes blurry faces look more than 60 times sharper
Researchers have developed an AI tool that can turn blurry faces into eerily convincing computer-generated portraits, in finer detail than ever before.
Analysing the effects two decades after a mining spill
There has been an important fall in the total concentrations and evolution of the metal fraction towards their more innocuous forms, so the environmental risk is much reduced.
Protecting scientific diversity
The COVID-19 pandemic means that scientists face great challenges because they have to reorient, interrupt or even cancel research and teaching.
Bird feeding helps females more than males
A new study from Lund University in Sweden shows that female birds benefit more from extra food in the winter.
Elastomeric masks provide a more durable, less costly option for health care workers
A cost-effective strategy for health care systems to offset N95 mask shortages due to COVID-19 is to switch to reusable elastomeric respirator masks.
Royal Marsden trial leads to practice changing milestone for advanced anal cancer
Results from the first ever randomised clinical trial in advanced anal cancer patients, led and supported by The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Cancer Research UK, in collaboration with colleagues in the US, Norway and Australia, has led to a practice changing milestone with a new approach to treatment which is safer and more effective than previously recommended treatments for this group of patients.
COVID-19: Relationship between social media use and prejudice against Chinese Americans
The novel coronavirus pandemic that originated in China has created a backlash in the United States against Asian Americans.
As rare animals disappear, scientist faces 'ecological grief'
As the wilds around Joanna Lamberts research sites in Africa and North America have vanished, the conservation biologist has struggled to keep hopeful amid the losses.
Self-swabbing tests for COVID-19 accurate and safe, Stanford study reports
Test samples collected by people who swabbed their own nasal passages yielded results for the COVID-19 virus that were as accurate as samples collected by a health care worker, according to a small study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
LJI scientists uncover immune cells that may lower airway allergy and asthma risk
In a new Science Immunology study, published on June 12, 2020, scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) offer a clue to why non-allergic people don't have a strong reaction to house dust mites.
Parasites and the microbiome
In a study of ethnically diverse people from Cameroon, the presence of a parasite infection was closely linked to the make-up of the gastrointestinal microbiome, according to a research team led by Penn scientists.
Pandemics and the environment: China's COVID-19 interventions reduced nitrogen dioxide levels
A new Special Collection of Science Advances papers will delve into how pandemics such as COVID-19 affect -- and are affected by -- global environmental conditions, underscoring the interconnectedness of
Inhibitory interneurons in hippocampus excite the developing brain
A new study from the George Washington University, however, reports that in some critical structures of the developing brain, the inhibitory neurons cause excitation rather than suppression of brain activity.
Our sleep during lockdown: Longer and more regular, but worse
A survey conducted at the University of Basel and the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel has investigated how sleep has changed during the Covid-19 lockdown.
India's 50-year drying period and subsequent reversal -- Battle between natural and anthropogenic variability
Increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere generally tends to increase rainfall over India.
Pitt study shows optical fields can modify electrons in metal
The paper, 'Coherent multidimensional photoelectron spectroscopy of ultrafast quasiparticle dressing by light,' describes how applying intense optical fields to electrons in metals can change how electrons flow between the ions.
Protecting bays from ocean acidification
As oceans absorb more man-made carbon dioxide from the air, a process of ocean acidification occurs that can have a negative impact on marine life.
Study reveals impacts of climate change on migrating mule deer
The benefits of migration are likely to decrease for mule deer and other migratory herbivores as drought becomes more common due to ongoing climate change.
Statistical analyses of plant metabolites allow solid testing of plant defense theories
High-throughput analyses of small substances in Nicotiana attenuata reveal that plants re-organize their metabolism to produce highly-specific defense metabolites after insect attack.
A* model
Like most galaxies, the Milky Way hosts a supermassive black hole at its center.
Study identifies mechanism affecting X chromosome that could lead to new disease therapies
Learning how to inactivate and reactivate an X chromosome would have important implications for medicine.
The best parents: Genetically as divergent as possible with similar preferences
The more diverse in genetics, than better. But only in cases of similar preferences.
UCI researchers uncover cancer cell vulnerabilities; may lead to better cancer therapies
A new University of California, Irvine-led study reveals a protein responsible for genetic changes resulting in a variety of cancers, may also be the key to more effective, targeted cancer therapy.
COVID-19 in Geneva, less than 11% have been infected
A study carried out among 2766 people reveals that, at the time of the decline of the Coronavirus pandemic, only 10.8% of the Geneva population had been infected with Covid-19.
Where have the swans gone?
Nearly 13 kilometres per year: that is the rate at which the wintering area of Bewick's swans has shifted east over the past 50 years.
Radioactive cloud over Europe had civilian background
A mysterious cloud containing radioactive ruthenium-106, which moved across Europe in 2017, is still bothering Europe's radiation protection entities.
Transient increase in blood pressure promotes some blood vessel growth
Blood vessels are the body's transportation system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to cells and whisking away waste.
University of Michigan researchers identify new approach to turning on the heat in energy-burning fat cells
Researchers have discovered a new set of signals that cells send and receive to prompt one type of fat cell to convert fat into heat.
All that base
Researchers have created a new searchable library of base editors -- an especially efficient and precise kind of genetic corrector.
Case series: Teriflunomide therapy in COVID-19 patients with MS
Co-authors present the cases of five multiple sclerosis patients who developed COVID-19 infection while taking the oral disease-modifying therapy teriflunomide and continued taking the medication.
State-level R&D tax credits spur growth of new businesses
Here's some good news for US states trying to spur an economic recovery in the years ahead: The R&D tax credit has a significant effect on entrepreneurship, according to a new study led by an MIT professor.
Addressing the drug problem in health and social care will produce better outcomes
Researchers at the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) have evaluated the impact of decriminalization policy in different settings.
Plant cell gatekeepers' diversity could be key to better crops
Scientists have shed new light on how the network of gatekeepers that controls the traffic in and out of plant cells works, which they think is key to develop food crops with bigger yields and greater ability to cope with extreme environments.
Genetics could help diagnose diabetes in Indians, study shows
A new way of using genetics to diagnose diabetes could pave the way for better diagnosis and treatment in Indians, new research has concluded.
Versatile symbionts: Reed beetles benefit from bacterial helpers through all life stages
Researchers have investigated the contributions that symbiotic bacteria make to the unusual life cycle and diet of reed beetles.
New approach to DNA data storage makes system more dynamic, scalable
Researchers have developed a fundamentally new approach to DNA data storage systems, giving users the ability to read or modify data files without destroying them and making the systems easier to scale up for practical use.
Scientists call for long-term research on ozone source apportionment
More long-term research should be carried out to provide references for the development of emission reduction strategies to achieve long-term ozone attainment in China
NASA catches development of Tropical Cyclone Nuri in South China Sea
A low-pressure system that developed in the Philippine Sea and tracked over the central Philippines has moved into the South China Sea and become a depression.
Cytokine implicated in HLH treatment resistance
Research sheds light on cytokine storm syndromes and how ruxolitinib may benefit patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Prodigiosin-based solution has selective activity against cancer cells
Together with colleagues from the University of Palermo, KFU employees offer a nano preparation based on biocompatible halloysite nanotubes and bacterial pigment prodigiosin; the latter is known to selectively disrupt cancer cells without damaging the healthy ones.
New algorithm uses artificial intelligence to help manage type 1 diabetes
Researchers and physicians at Oregon Health & Science University have designed a method to help people with type 1 diabetes better manage their glucose levels.
Water bacteria have a green thumb
Research team from University of Jena discover new natural products that bacteria in water use to regulate the growth of competing organisms.
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health: Experts call for more awareness of the potential impact of physical distancing on adolescent peer relationships and social development
Authors of an opinion piece, based on a review of evidence and published in The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health journal, are urging policymakers to consider the effects of physical distancing measures introduced to tackle the spread of COVID-19 on young people's social development and wellbeing.
Changes in frequency of sex among US adults
This survey study of US adults ages 18 to 44 looked at changes in the reported frequency of sexual activity, the number of sexual partners and factors associated with frequency and numbers of partners.
Printed perovskite LEDs
A team of researchers from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin has succeeded for the first time in producing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) from a hybrid perovskite semiconductor material using inkjet printing.This opens the door to broad application of these materials in manufacturing many different kinds of electronic components.The scientists achieved the breakthrough with the help of a trick: ''inoculating'' (or seeding) the surface with specific crystals.
New biomaterial has potential to repair damaged bone with lower risk of inflammation
Scientists at RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences have developed a new biomaterial that has the potential to accelerate bone regeneration by promoting an immune response that encourages repair and lowers the risk of inflammation.
Silicones may lead to cell death
Silicone molecules from breast implants can initiate processes in human cells that lead to cell death.
Nitrogen in permafrost soils may exert great feedbacks on climate change
A new Sino-German scientific collaboration investigating nitrogen in the soils of China's melting permafrost aims to get to the bottom of why emissions of nitrous oxide -- an often overlooked greenhouse gas -- are greater than they are supposed to be.
Face masks critical in preventing spread of COVID-19
A study by a team of researchers led by a Texas A&M University professor has found that not wearing a face mask dramatically increases a person's chances of being infected by the COVID-19 virus.
Modeling the trajectory of COVID-19 cases in settings with weaker health systems
A new modeling study evaluating unfolding COVID-19 epidemics among different income countries reports that, in lower income countries, even if risk is reduced because populations are younger, this benefit is largely negated by limited health system capacity and closer inter-generational contact.
Mixture and migration brought food production to sub-Saharan Africa
A new interdisciplinary study published in the journal Science Advances reports on 20 newly sequenced ancient genomes from sub-Saharan Africa, including the first genomes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Botswana, and Uganda.
Discovery of oldest bow and arrow technology in Eurasia
The origins of human innovation have traditionally been sought in the grasslands and coasts of Africa or the temperate environments of Europe.
Health profession: Social interdependence in active learning evaluated by Delphi procedure
An instrument was developed and validated for measuring social interdependence in collaborative learning in the health professional education field.
Steering new mobility in the right direction
The latest report from the National Institute for Transportation and Communities (NITC), by Marc Schlossberg and Heather Brinton of the University of Oregon, is a guide for city staff and leadership on adopting local policy and code to respond to the emergence of emerging transportation technologies and encourage their responsible use.
Together they stay alive longer
Hamburg/Borstel/Leipzig. The tuberculosis pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis can protect itself better when combined and thus stay alive longer in the air.
Cash me outside: Transfers to the poor linked to eco-benefits
In a new study, researchers recently discovered that Indonesia's national anti-poverty program reduced deforestation by about 30%.
UHN AI scientist develops platform to track changes in genetic structure of COVID-19 virus
The COVID-19 Genotyping Tool (CGT) offers an online, user-friendly platform where researchers can compare the genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in their hospital against the global picture.
Scientists report heavy ion transfer in charged vdW cluster for the first time
Researchers from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, and Centre de recherche sur les Ions, les MAtériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) in France reported reporting a new channel involving heavy N+ ion transfer observed in a charged Van der Waals cluster.
COVID-19 may trigger new diabetes, experts warn
Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 may actually trigger the onset of diabetes in healthy people and also cause severe complications of pre-existing diabetes.
Unlocking PNA's superpowers for self-assembling nanostructures
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a method for self-assembling nanostructures with gamma-modified peptide nucleic acid, a synthetic mimic of DNA.

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