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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 19, 2020


Adolescents from disadvantaged neighborhoods show gene regulation differences
An 18-year study of 2,000 children born in England and Wales found that young adults raised in communities marked by more economic deprivation, physical dilapidation, social disconnection, and danger display differences in the epigenome -- the proteins and chemical compounds that regulate the activity of their genes.
Environmental conditions found to affect stability of virus that causes COVID-19
A new study led by Marshall University researcher M. Jeremiah Matson found that environmental conditions affect the stability of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human nasal mucus and sputum.
Variation in ventilator allocation guidelines by state during COVID-19 pandemic
State guidelines for ventilator allocation decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic are examined in this review.
Renewed hope for treatment of pain and depression
Researchers at the Department of Infection and Immunity of the Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH) developed LIH383, a novel molecule that binds to and blocks a previously unknown opioid receptor in the brain, thereby modulating the levels of opioid peptides produced in the central nervous system (CNS) and potentiating their natural painkilling and antidepressant properties.
Proteins expressed by viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti Mosquito
The female Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several arthropodborne viruses, such as Mayaro, Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever, and Zika.
Researchers pioneer new production method for heterostructure devices
Researchers at the University of Exeter have developed a pioneering production method for heterostructure devices, based on 2D materials such as graphene.
Smartphone app uses voice recordings to detect fluid in the lungs
Voice analysis by a smartphone app identifies lung congestion in heart failure patients, allowing early intervention before their condition deteriorates.
Teaching physics to neural networks removes 'chaos blindness'
Teaching physics to neural networks enables those networks to better adapt to chaos within their environment.
New therapy reduces chronic low back pain in large international study
A new study has found that tanezumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits nerve activity, provides relief in patients with chronic low back pain, one of the leading reasons why people seek medical care and the number one cause of disability worldwide.
Higher rates of severe COVID-19 in BAME populations remain unexplained
Higher rates of severe COVID-19 infections in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) populations are not explained by socioeconomic or behavioral factors, cardiovascular disease risk, or by vitamin D status, according to new research led by Queen Mary University of London.
The exhaust gas from a power plant can be recovered and used as a raw reaction material
A Japanese research group developed a new technology that can drastically conserve the energy used to capture CO2 from gases exhausted from a concentrated source such as thermal power plants.
Extremely low thermal conductivity in 1D soft chain structure BiSeX (X = Br, I)
Researchers found a new sort of simple one-dimensional (1D) crystal structured bismuth selenohalides (BiSeX, X = Br, I) with extremely low thermal conductivity.
Depression and anxiety rise among new moms amidst the COVID-19 pandemic
Pregnant and postpartum women are more likely to experience depression and anxiety since the coronavirus pandemic began, according to a recent study at the University of Alberta.
New light shone on inflammatory cell death regulator
Australian researchers have made significant advances in understanding the inflammatory cell death regulatory protein MLKL and its role in disease.
MMR vaccine could protect against the worst symptoms of COVID-19
Administering the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine could serve as a preventive measure to dampen septic inflammation associated with COVID-19 infection, say a team of experts in this week's mBio, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.
Geologists shed light on the tibetan plateau origin puzzle: an open-and-shut perspective
Earth's geographical surfaces have been formed over millions of years.
An ant-inspired approach to mathematical sampling
In a paper published by the Royal Society, a team of Bristol researchers observed the exploratory behaviour of ants to inform the development of a more efficient mathematical sampling technique.
The brain's functional organization slows down following a relationship breakup
During a person's life, the experience of a stressful life event can lead to the development of depressive symptoms, even in a non-clinical population.
Skyrmion dynamics and traverse mobility
In a study published in EPJ B authors N.P. Vizarim and C.J.O.
Coronavirus: A wake-up call to strengthen the global food system
A new commentary in the journal One Earth highlights not only climate-related risks to the global food system, such as drought and floods, but also exposes the coronavirus pandemic as a shock to the system that has led to food crises in many parts of the world.
The relationship between looking/listening and human emotions
Toyohashi University of Technology has indicated that the relationship between attentional states in response to pictures and sounds and the emotions elicited by them may be different in visual perception and auditory perception.
Researchers attempt new treatment approach for blood cancer
In an effort to improve the survival of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, a type of leukemia, researchers inhibited a specific protein (alpha5beta1 integrin) to decrease the number of large bone marrow cells (megakaryocytes) in an experimental model.
Survey finds US adults largely supported measures to limit spread of COVID-19 in May
A new study published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report presents data from a survey of Americans assessing their behaviors and attitudes about measures that were adopted by states to try to mitigate the spread of COVID-19.
Human activity on rivers outpaces, compounds effects of climate change
The livelihoods of millions of people living along the world's biggest river systems are under threat by a range of stressors caused by the daily economic, societal and political activity of humans -- in addition to the long-term effects of climate change, researchers report.
NASA observes large Saharan dust plume over Atlantic ocean
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite observed a huge Saharan dust plume streaming over the North Atlantic Ocean, beginning on June 13.
Why businesses should offer free trials to existing customers
Offering free trials to existing customers might seem counterintuitive, but new research shows it can increase sales.
Babies with COVID-19 tend to have mild illness, mostly with fever
A report from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago shows that infants under 90 days of age who tested positive for COVID-19 tend to be well, with little or no respiratory involvement.
Is teleportation possible? Yes, in the quantum world
Researchers at the University of Rochester are exploring new ways of creating quantum-mechanical interactions between distant electrons.
Early clinical trial supports tumor cell-based vaccine for mantle cell lymphoma
A phase I/II clinical trial by researchers at Stanford University suggests that vaccines prepared from a patient's own tumor cells may prevent the incurable blood cancer mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) from returning after treatment.
Fungal pathogen disables plant defense mechanism
Cabbage plants defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens by deploying a defensive mechanism called the mustard oil bomb.
Wind beneath their wings: Albatrosses fine-tuned to wind conditions
A new study of albatrosses has found that wind plays a bigger role in their decision to take flight than previously thought, and due to their differences in body size, males and females differ in their response to wind.
Signs of being prone to adult diabetes are already visible at age 8 years old
Early signs of being more susceptible to type 2 diabetes as an adult can be seen in children as young as 8 years old, decades before it is likely to be diagnosed, according to a new study published in Diabetes Care today [19 June 2020].
New adjuvant successful in extending immunity against HIV
Emory researchers are the first to show a new adjuvant, 3M-052, helps induce long-lasting immunity against HIV.
Heat may kill more people in US than previously reported: BU and UBC study
As temperatures rise this summer, a new study by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) and the University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health (UBC SPPH) researchers finds that thousands of U.S. deaths may be attributable to heat each year, far more than the 600 deaths previously estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Simulating wind farm development
Engineers have devised a model to describe how, in the process of establishing wind farms, interactions between developers and landowners affect energy production costs.
A novel radioisotope therapy for children with neuroblastoma
Researchers from Kanazawa University retrospectively analyzed children with refractory or relapsed high-risk neuroblastoma who were treated with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine at Kanazawa University Hospital.
Patient data can predict life expectancy for older adults with diabetes
A new study finds that clinicians can use patient data, such as a history of co-occurring health conditions and medication, to predict the 5- and 10-year life expectancy of older people with diabetes.
Overconsumption and growth economy key drivers of environmental crises
If we want to mitigate and solve the many global environmental issues the world is facing, we can't rely on technology alone, scientists have warned.
The rate we acquire genetic mutations could help predict lifespan, fertility
Differences in the rate that genetic mutations accumulate in healthy young adults could help predict remaining lifespan in both sexes and the remaining years of fertility in women, according to University of Utah Health scientists.
Measuring a tiny quasiparticle is a major step forward for semiconductor technology
A team of researchers led by Sufei Shi, an assistant professor of chemical and biological engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, has uncovered new information about the mass of individual components that make up a promising quasiparticle, known as an exciton, that could play a critical role in future applications for quantum computing, improved memory storage, and more efficient energy conversion.
Old drug standards delay new drug approvals
The more information the FDA has about existing drugs, the longer it takes to OK new ones for the same conditions.
A new social role for echolocation in bats that hunt together
To find prey in the dark, bats use echolocation. Some species, like Molossus molossus, may also search within hearing distance of their echolocating group members, sharing information about where food patches are located.
Study finds 'dark matter' DNA is vital for rice reproduction
Researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have shed light on the reproductive role of 'dark matter' DNA - non-coding DNA sequences that previously seemed to have no function.
The Kerguelen oceanic plateau sheds light on the formation of continents
How did the continents form? Although to a certain extent this remains an open question, the oceanic plateau of the Kerguelen Islands may well provide part of the answer, according to a French-Australian team led by the Géosciences Environnement Toulouse laboratory (CNRS/Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier/IRD/CNES).
Mortality rates higher following kidney injury, University of Cincinnati research finds
New research from the University of Cincinnati shows kidney failure resulting from acute kidney injury leads to a higher risk of death in the first six months compared to kidney failure from diabetes or other causes.
New research hints at the presence of unconventional galaxies containing 2 black holes
A Clemson University scientist has joined forces with an international team of astronomers to identify periodic gamma-ray emissions from 11 active galaxies, paving the way for future studies of unconventional galaxies that might harbor two supermassive black holes at their centers.
Polymers can fine-tune attractions between suspended nanocubes
In new research published in EPJ E, researchers demonstrate a high level of control over a type of colloid in which the suspended particles take the form of hollow, nanoscale cubes.
Ancient societies hold lessons for modern cities
Today's modern cities, from Denver to Dubai, could learn a thing or two from the ancient Pueblo communities that once stretched across the southwestern United States.
Memory impairment in mice reduced by soy derivate that can enter the brain intact
Researchers from Japan have found that a soy-derived protein fragment that reaches the brain after being ingested reduces memory degradation in mice with an induced cognitive impairment, providing a new lead for the development of functional foods that help prevent mental decline.
Two quantum cheshire cats exchange grins
Prof. LI Chuanfeng, XU Jinshi, and XU Xiaoye from University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), collaborating with Prof.
Resounding yes to message on a bottle
A new study examining the levels of support of various alcohol control policies across seven countries including Australia, has found broad support for the proposition that alcohol products should carry pregnancy health warnings.
Single-spin electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum with kilohertz spectral resolution
A high-resolution paramagnetic resonance detection method based on the diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center quantum sensor was proposed and experimentally implemented by academician DU Jiangfeng from USTC.
Cell removal as the result of a mechanical instability
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Biophysical Journal that the process of cell removal from an epithelial layer follows from an inherent mechanical instability.
Fantastic muscle proteins and where to find them
Setting out to identify all proteins that make up the sarcomere, the basic contractile unit of muscle cells, resulted in an unexpected revelation, providing experimental evidence that helps explain a fundamental mystery about how muscles work.
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and resuscitations during COVID-19 pandemic in New York
This study describes the characteristics associated with outpatient cardiac arrests and death during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York.
How a historic drought led to higher power costs and emissions
A researcher at North Carolina State University led a study of the impact of a historic drought in California on economic and environmental impacts for electric power systems.
Synaptic variability provides adaptability for rhythmic motor pattern
From snail to man, one of the most common features in behavior is arguably the variability of motor acts--for example, a soccer player evading an opponent.
MRI test for football players that could detect CTE, developed by Ben-Gurion U. researcher
'We believe that those with persistent leak encompassing months or years are more likely to develop CTE,' says Prof.
Matching-commitment agreements to incentivize climate action
Many countries are failing to comply with the non-binding commitments of the Paris Agreement, making it increasingly clear that we have to reconsider how to ensure collective action to limit global warming to less than 2°C above preindustrial levels.
New system uses wind turbines to defend the national grid from power cuts
A 'smart' system that controls the storage and release of energy from wind turbines will reduce the risk of power cuts and support the increase of wind energy use world-wide, say researchers at the University of Birmingham.

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