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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 23, 2020


Scientists modelled natural rock arcades
Researchers from Russia and the Czech Republic performed numerical modelling of natural rock arcades using a mathematical model that describes a succession of arches forming as a result of weathering and then turning into rock pillars without human involvement, despite their striking resemblance to architectural arcades.
NASA analyzes the newest Atlantic Ocean subtropical depression
NASA's Aqua satellite used infrared light to analyze the strength of storms in the North Atlantic Ocean's newly formed Subtropical Depression 4.
New drug candidate reawakens sleeping HIV in hopes of functional cure
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have created a next-generation drug called Ciapavir (SBI-0953294) that is effective at reactivating dormant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Long-tailed tits avoid incest by recognising the calls of relatives
Long-tailed tits actively avoid harmful inbreeding by discriminating between the calls of close family members and non-family members, according to new research from the University of Sheffield.
Lack of damage after secondary impacts surprises researchers
When a material is subjected to a shock or blast wave, damage often forms internally through spall fracture, and research is needed to know how these damaged materials respond to subsequent shock waves.
Simple device monitors health using sweat
A device that monitors health conditions in the body using a person's sweat has been developed by Penn State and Xiangtan University researchers, according to Huanyu 'Larry' Cheng, assistant professor of engineering science and mechanics, Penn State.
Getting real with immersive sword fights
Sword fights are often the weak link in virtual reality (VR) fighting games, with digital avatars engaging in battle using imprecise, pre-recorded movements that barely reflect the player's actions or intentions.
Sweet or sour natural gas
Natural gas that contains larger amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is termed sour gas.
Nearly 70% of patients make personal or financial sacrifices to afford medications
The 2020 Medication Access Report uncovers the impact of common medication access challenges, including those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and assesses how the market is responding to these challenges with tools that inform medication decisions, streamline administrative tasks and support remote healthcare.
CAR T cell therapy: potential for considerable savings
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a new and in some cases highly effective form of immunotherapy to treat certain types of cancer.
Marching for change: 2017 Women's March met with mostly positive support online
New Penn State research found that the 2017 Women's March, which championed goals in support of women and human rights, was met with mostly positive support on social media, with relatively few negative messages.
At height of COVID-19, nurses and doctors reported high levels of distress
During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, health care workers on the front lines had high levels of acute stress, anxiety, and depression.
HKU develops non-destructive method of analyzing molecules in cells
A research group led by Professor Kenneth K.Y. Wong of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Hong Kong, in collaboration with Bielefeld University in Germany, has developed a compact fibre laser microscope that brought breakthroughs to analysing molecules in cells and clinical applications.
Exciting new developments for polymers made from waste sulfur
Researchers at the University of Liverpool are making significant progress in the quest to develop new sulfur polymers that provide an environmentally friendly alternative to some traditional petrochemical based plastics.
Two-thirds of Americans think government should do more on climate
A new Pew Research Center report examining U.S. views of climate change and other environmental issues, including attitudes toward expanding renewable energy and the federal government's response to climate change.
Study: Air pollution major risk for cardiovascular disease regardless of country income
From low-income countries to high-income countries, long-term exposure to fine particulate outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease and death, a new Oregon State University study found.
NASA satellite gives a hello to tropical storm Dolly
During the morning of June 23, the fourth system in the Northern Atlantic Ocean was a subtropical depression.
Postoperative atrial fibrillation does not impact on overall survival after esophagectomy
Volume 11, Issue 25 of Oncotarget reported that Administration of landiolol hydrochloride was found to be associated with reduced incidence of atrial fibrillation after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in our previous randomized controlled trial.
Slow-growing rotavirus mutant reveals early steps of viral assembly
A serendipitous observation led researchers at Baylor College of Medicine to uncover new insights into the formation of rotavirus viroplasms.
Wet wipes and sanitary products found to be microplastic pollutants in Irish waters
Researchers from Earth and Ocean Sciences and the Ryan Institute at NUI Galway have carried out a study on the contribution of widely flushed personal care textile products (wet wipes and sanitary towels) to the ocean plastic crisis.
Illuminating cell surface receptors
Human cells sense and communicate via cell surface receptors on their surface.
Deep drone acrobatics
A navigation algorithm developed at the University of Zurich enables drones to learn challenging acrobatic maneuvers.
Oncotarget: Bacteriome and mycobiome and bacteriome-mycobiome interactions
Volume 11 Issue 25 of @Oncotarget reported that the authors aimed to characterize the bacteriome, mycobiome, and mycobiome-bacteriome interactions of oral wash in Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, or HNSCC, patients and to determine if they are distinct from those of the oral wash of matched non-Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Death risk highest for people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes who get heart failure
People newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were more likely to die within five years if they developed heart failure.
Juul Labs shares new research at the College on Problems of Drug Dependence Annual Meeting
As part of the Company's ongoing engagement with the public health community, Juul Labs today announced findings from its sciences and research program at the 82nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence.
Statement on metabolic and bariatric surgery during COVID-19 pandemic
The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the leading organization of bariatric surgeons and integrated health professionals in the nation, declared metabolic and bariatric surgery 'medically necessary and the best treatment for those with the life-threatening and life-limiting disease of severe obesity' and called for the safe and rapid resumption of procedures, which have been largely postponed along with other surgeries deemed elective amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
Current serotype of dengue virus in Singapore disguises itself to evade vaccines and therapeutics
Singapore saw 1,158 dengue cases in the week ending 13 June 2020, the highest number of weekly dengue cases ever recorded since 2014*.
Laser allows solid-state refrigeration of a semiconductor material
A team from the University of Washington used an infrared laser to cool a solid semiconductor by at least 20 degrees C, or 36 F, below room temperature, as they report in a paper published June 23 in Nature Communications.
Companies spent more than $1 billion in ads for sugary drinks and energy drinks in 2018
Beverage companies spent $1.04 billion to advertise sugary drinks and energy drinks in 2018, a 26% increase compared to 2013, according to Sugary Drinks FACTS 2020, a new report from the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity at the University of Connecticut.
Reducing the damage of a heart attack
Cardiology researchers have discovered how a key protein can help the heart regulate oxygen and blood flow and repair damage.
An environmental warning system to monitor the coast
This technique acts a warning of incidents of a local nature, such as water pollution from poorly treated urban wastewater discharges; or of a more global nature, which become evident by monitoring climate change through species that are sensitive to temperature increases; or incidents caused by the intrusion of potential invasive species.
Breaking the limit
University of Freiburg researchers introduce new transition metal carbonyl complexes relevant to textbooks and applications
Examining association of despair with suicidal thoughts, substance misuse among young adults
Researchers looked at whether despair among young adults was associated with suicidal thoughts and behavior and alcohol and drug misuse.
Tracking down cryptic peptides
Using a newly developed method, researchers from the University of Würzburg, in cooperation with the University Hospital of Würzburg, were able to identify thousands of special peptides on the surface of cells for the first time.
Herd immunity threshold could be lower according to new study
Herd immunity to Covid-19 could be achieved with less people being infected than previously estimated according to new research.
Prenatal stress associated with infant gut microbes
Mother's chronic prenatal psychological distress and elevated hair cortisol concentrations are associated with gut microbiota composition of the infant, according to a new publication from the FinnBrain research project of the University of Turku, Finland.
Innovative smartphone-camera adaptation images melanoma and non-melanoma
An article published in the Journal of Biomedical Optics (JBO), ''Point-of-care, multispectral, smartphone-based dermascopes for dermal lesion screening and erythema monitoring,'' shows that standard smartphone technology can be adapted to image skin lesions, providing a low-cost, accessible medical diagnostic tool for skin cancer.
Obesity linked to higher dementia risk
Obesity is associated with a higher risk of dementia up to 15 years later, finds a new UCL study suggesting that weight management could play a significant role in reducing risk.
Oncotarget: Mutation profile of primary subungual melanomas in Caucasians
Volume 11 Issue 25 of @Oncotarget reported that this study aimed to define the mutation profile of SUM in Caucasians.
Supply chain expert reveals methodology behind Bordeaux pricing model
M. Hakan Hekimoglu, an assistant professor in the Lally School of Management at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and his co-author, Burak Kazaz of Syracuse University, have developed a robust and highly accurate pricing model for Bordeaux wine futures using four factors: temperature, precipitation, market index, and expert reviews.
Females use anti-inflammatory T cells to keep their blood pressure down
In the face of a multipronged front to drive blood pressure up, including a high-salt diet, females are better able to keep their pressure down by increasing levels of a T cell that selectively dials back inflammation, scientists say.
Existing drugs may limit damage caused by HIV
Yale researchers have identified four drugs that may help minimize the long-term health effects of HIV infection, they report June 23 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Research determines financial benefit from driving electric vehicles
Motorists can save as much as $14,500 on fuel costs over 15 years by driving an electric vehicle instead of a similar one fueled by gasoline, according to a new analysis conducted by researchers at the U.S.
Bedtime media use linked to less sleep in children who struggle to self-regulate behavior
Researchers in the Arizona State University Department of Psychology followed 547 children for a week and measured their media use and sleep patterns.
Towards a green future: Efficient laser technique can convert cellulose into biofuel
The plant product cellulose is the most abundant form of biomass globally and can be converted into useful products such as biofuels.
New research deepens mystery of particle generation in proton collisions
Researchers have shown that in polarized proton-proton collisions, the neutral pions in the very forward area of collisions -- where direct interactions involving quarks and gluons are not applicable -- still have a large degree of left-right asymmetry.
Extending the coverage of PM2.5 monitoring to help improve air quality
A team of researchers in China has improved the method to obtain mass concentrations of particulate matter from widely measured humidity and visibility data.
New research confirms higher rates of new coronavirus in Latinx populations
In a new analysis of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, test results for nearly 38,000 people has found a positivity rate among Latinx populations about 3 times higher than for any other racial and ethnic group.
Experts identify steps to expand and improve antibody tests in COVID-19 response
More than 300 scientists and clinicians from the federal government, industry and academia published a report of their conclusions and recommendations on COVID-19 serology studies online in Immunity.
Could drones deliver packages more efficiently by hopping on the bus?
In a simulation, drones were able to hitch rides on public transit vehicles to save energy and increase flight range.
Researchers identify distinct subtypes of polycystic ovary syndrome with novel genetic associations
Findings could transform understanding of the syndrome's cause and have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment.
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate concentration in coral reef invertebrates
New research highlights the effect of benthic assemblages on the sulfur metabolism of coral and giant clam species.
Tropical forest loss
A new study from the University of Delaware finds that tropical forest loss is increased by large-scale land acquisitions and that certain kind investment projects -- including tree plantations and plantations for producing palm oil and wood fiber -- are ''consistently associated with increased forest loss.''
Income, race are associated with disparities in access to green spaces
Access to green spaces in metro areas--parks, trails, even the tree cover in a neighborhood - is largely associated with income and race, new research indicates.
Brexit's and research networks: Lower efficiency, reorganization of research communities
Brexit has affected trade and security, but scientists wanted to know how it might also affect the EU Framework Programmes for Research, known as Horizon 2020.
Launch of mobile app that controls the perfect amount of fertilizers and water
The tool allows for effectively calculating fertigation with reclaimed water, a technique that applies nutrients to crops by means of the irrigation system.
Healthcare facilities rapidly adapt & refine practices based on new evidence & supply shortages
Healthcare epidemiologists report using unprecedented methods in response to the unique circumstances resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the results of a new study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA).
Immune system works differently between and first and later pregnancies
A study in Cell Reports shows the delicate physiological balancing act a mother's immune system must pull off to prevent a fetus from being rejected by the body works differently in first and second pregnancies.
Defining paths to possible mother to child coronavirus transmission
UC Davis Health researchers took a critical step in defining the possible paths for SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 to get transmitted from the mother to her newborn baby.
A furry social robot can reduce pain and increase happiness -- Ben-Gurion University researchers
Ben-Gurion University researcher Levy-Tzedek and her team discovered that a single, 60-minute interaction with PARO actually improved mood as well as reduced mild or severe pain.
Virtually captured
The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) takes only 100 milliseconds to trap its prey.
Oncotarget: Indoximod opposes the immunosuppressive effects mediated by IDO and TDO
Volume 11 Issue 25 of Oncotarget reported that Indoximod has shaped the understanding of the biology of IDO1 in the control of immune responses, though its mechanism of action has been poorly understood.
Using chaos as a tool, scientists discover new method of making 3D-heterostructures
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and their collaborators from Iowa State University have developed a new approach for generating layered, difficult-to-combine, heterostructured solids.
Researcher develops tool to protect children's online privacy
A University of Texas at Dallas study of 100 mobile apps for kids found that 72 violated a federal law aimed at protecting children's online privacy.
St. Jude creates resource for pediatric brain tumor research
Researchers worldwide can access orthotopic patient-derived xenograft models to speed discovery and test novel therapies for childhood brain tumors.
NIH investigators hope CD47 study leads to infectious diseases immunotherapy
NIH investigators and colleagues have discovered that when the immune system first responds to infectious agents such as viruses or bacteria, a natural brake on the response prevents overactivation.
Does 'mommy brain' last? Study shows motherhood does not diminish attention
'Mommy brain' is a long-held perception that mothers are more forgetful and less attentive.
Chemist develops potential drug to treat type 2 diabetes without harsh side effects
Syracuse University chemistry professor Dr. Robert P. Doyle has developed a new drug lead to treat type 2 diabetes in millions of patients who are seeking to better control their blood sugar without the common side effects of nausea, vomiting, and in select cases, undesired weight loss.
Introducing a new isotope: Mendelevium-244
A team of scientists working at Berkeley Lab's 88-Inch Cyclotron has discovered a new form of the human-made element mendelevium.
UK 'close contact' definition for track and trace should curb COVID-19 spread but at a cost
The UK's definition of a 'close contact'--15 or more minutes within 2 metres of distance--used for its coronavirus track and trace system, should curb the spread of COVID-19 infection, indicates research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
A bacterial toxin turning cells into swiss cheese
Researchers from Kanazawa University developed a novel tool to study how the innate immune system fights bacterial toxins.
Oncotarget: RSK inhibitor BI-D1870 inhibits acute myeloid leukemia cell proliferation
The cover for issue 25 of Oncotarget features Figure 8, 'BI-D1870 in combination with vincristine increase metaphase arrest and apoptosis synergistically,' by Chae, et al.
Airborne mapping sheds light on climate sensitivity of California redwoods
To better understand redwood habitat suitability, a team of researchers from the University of Texas, Arizona State University, University of Miami, and Stanford University combined high-resolution redwood distribution maps with data on moisture availability to identify the environmental factors that shape redwood distribution
Blocking sugar metabolism slows lung tumor growth
Blocking a pair of sugar-transporting proteins may be a useful treatment approach for lung cancer, suggests a new study in mice and human cells published today in eLife.
Size matters in the sex life of salmon
For Atlantic salmon, size matters when it comes to love.
Dieting success: Top performers provide more positive support than peers
The weight loss industry in the United States is vast and generates about $20 billion each year from over 100 million dieters.
Oncotarget: Tumor suppressor p53 regulates insulin receptor gene expression
Volume 11, Issue 25 of @Oncotarget reported that the present study was aimed at evaluating the hypothesis that p53 governs the expression and activation of the INSR gene in breast cancer cells.
Researchers identify novel genetic variants linked to type-2 diabetes
After examining the genes of more than 200,000 people all over the world who have type-2 diabetes, researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Veterans Health Administration's Corporal Michael J.
Gravitational wave scientists grapple with the cosmic mystery of GW190814
A highly unusual gravitational wave signal, detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories in the US and Italy, was generated by a new class of binary systems (two astronomical objects orbiting around each other), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed.
LIGO-Virgo finds mystery astronomical object in 'mass gap'
Scientists from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the European Virgo observatory, including Northwestern University astronomers, have detected a mystery object inside the puzzling area known as the ''mass gap'' -- the range that lies between the heaviest known neutron star and the lightest known black hole.
LIGO-Virgo finds mystery object in 'mass gap'
Researchers have discovered what is either the heaviest known neutron star, or the lightest black hole.
Machine learning has a flaw; it's gullible
Research forthcoming in Strategic Management Journal explores potential biases that limit the effectiveness of ML process technologies and the scope for human capital to be complementary in reducing such biases.
Study links increased exercise with lower sleep apnea risk
A study published online as an accepted paper in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine found that increased physical activity is associated with a lower risk of obstructive sleep apnea, a common sleep-related breathing disorder.
Simulation of pool testing strategies to identify patients with COVID-19
The feasibility of using pool testing to identify patients with COVID-19 in a setting with limited testing availability was examined in this decision analytical model study.
Helicopter or cartwheel?
What happens when a molecule collides with a surface? Researchers at Swansea University have shown that the orientation of the molecule as it moves - whether it is spinning like a helicopter blade or rolling like a cartwheel - is important in determining what happens in the collision.
Genetic analysis suggests distinct subtypes of polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an infertility disorder affecting at least 15% of reproductive-age women, may have at least two different subtypes, suggests a study funded by the National Institutes of Health.
A blue spark to shine on the origin of the Universe
An interdisciplinary team of scientists led by researchers from DIPC, Ikerbasque and UPV/EHU, has demonstrated that it is possible to build an ultra-sensitive sensor based on a new fluorescent molecule able to detect the nuclear decay key to knowing whether or not a neutrino is its own antiparticle.
Scientists create program that finds synteny blocks in different animals
Scientists developed a software tool that makes it possible to quickly and efficiently find similar parts in the genomes of different animals, which is essential for understanding how closely related two species are, and how far they have evolved from their common ancestor.
Role-play shows which expectant dads will thrive as new fathers
A five-minute role-play done with men before the birth of their first child predicted the quality of their parenting after the baby arrived, a new study showed.
Striking differences revealed in COVID-19 mortality between NHS trusts
A University of Cambridge team led by Professor Mihaela van der Schaar and intensive care consultant Dr Ari Ercole of the Cambridge Centre for AI in Medicine (CCAIM) is calling for urgent research into the striking differences in COVID-19 deaths they have discovered between the intensive care units of NHS trusts across England.
Starved cancer cells became more sensitive to chemotherapy
By preventing sugar uptake, researchers succeeded in increasing the cancer cells' sensitivity to chemotherapeutic treatment.
Hot ring produces microwave-powered ultrasound pulses wirelessly
Lan and colleagues, reporting in the peer-reviewed open access journal Advanced Photonics, have developed a wireless ultrasound transducer that is efficiently excited by microwaves.
Are you a hugger? It might be hereditary
Affection is partly genetic for women but not for men, finds a new study led by the University of Arizona.
UTEP researchers uncover brain mechanisms in fruit flies that may impact future learning
A research team from The University of Texas at El Paso has made strides in understanding how memories are formed through the brain mechanisms of fruit flies.
Teens' technology use and mental health: New report released
Three leading researchers have just published Youth Connections for Wellbeing, an integrative review paper that illuminates how teens support each other through digital media during times of stress and isolation.
Modeling population differences influences the herd immunity threshold for COVID-19
A new modeling study illustrates how accounting for factors such as age and social activity influences the predicted herd immunity threshold for COVID-19, or the level of population immunity needed to stop the disease's transmission.
Welfare concerns highlighted over 'institutional hoarding' of cats
The compulsive hoarding of animals is a poorly understood psychiatric disorder in people.
Scientists use protein, RNA to make hollow, spherical sacks called vesicles
Using protein and RNA, scientists have created hollow, spherical sacks known as vesicles.
Star-shaped brain cells may play a critical role in glaucoma
After a brain injury, cells that normally nourish nerves may actually kill them instead, a new study in rodents finds.
Gear treated with 'forever chemicals' poses risk to firefighters
Graham Peaslee's team tested more than 30 samples of used and unused PPE from six specialty textile manufacturers in the United States and found them to be treated extensively with PFAS or constructed with fluoropolymers, a type of PFAS used to make textiles oil and water resistant.
Vets walking pets: Strolls with shelter dogs may reduce PTSD symptoms in military veterans
About 6 to 8 million dogs end up in shelters in the U.S. each year.
Agricultural conservation schemes not enough to protect Britain's rarest butterflies
Conservation management around the margins of agriculture fail to protect butterfly species at greatest risk from the intensification of farming, a new study says.
Study suggests universal flu vaccine may be more challenging than expected
Some common strains of influenza have the potential to mutate to evade broad-acting antibodies that could be elicited by a universal flu vaccine, according to a study led by scientists at Scripps Research.
Leveraging biodiversity science infrastructure in the COVID-19 era
The BioScience Talks podcast (http://bioscienceaibs.libsyn.com) features discussions of topical issues related to the biological sciences.
Tongue microbes provide window to heart health
Microorganisms on the tongue could help diagnose heart failure, according to research presented today on HFA Discoveries, a scientific platform of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Unravelling the circuitry that controls cancer growth and spread
Research led by Queen Mary University of London has revealed novel insights into the molecular circuitry controlling cancer cell growth and spread.
Research brings tech tutorials to people with visual impairments
Project allows users to interact with models of circuit boards that provide audio feedback in response to being touched.
Microscopic computers: The wires of the future may be made of molecules
There are physical limits to how powerful computers can become if they are to maintain their size.
New opportunities for ocean and climate modelling
The continuous development and improvement of numerical models for the investigation of the climate system is very expensive and complex.
New compressor delivers above-terawatt 1.5-cycle pulses at kilohertz repetition rate
Researchers at the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have reached a new milestone in few-cycle pulse generation, breaking a 10-year-old record and achieving 1.5-optical-cycle-long laser pulses with 1.2 terawatt peak power by a new high-energy hollow fiber compressor beamline.
Ideologically extreme Facebook users spread the most fake news
Facebook is a more fertile breeding ground for fake news than Twitter, and ideological extremists are most likely to spread it, according to a new study of 783 social media users.
NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite captures 63 mile smoke trail from bush fire
NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite captured this image of the Bush Fire on June 22, 2020 showing clouds of smoke pouring off the Bush Fire that is plaguing Arizona.
Faulty brain processing of new information underlies psychotic delusions, finds new research
Problems in how the brain recognizes and processes novel information lie at the root of psychosis, researchers have found.
82% of Irish adults willing to download COVID-19 contact tracing app
The vast majority of Irish adults -- 82% -- are willing to download a contact tracing app to their smartphone to curb the COVID-19 pandemic, according to new research carried out by a team from Lero, the Science Foundation Ireland Research Centre for Software, University of Limerick (UL) and National University of Ireland Galway (NUI Galway).
75% of US workers can't work exclusively from home, face greater risks during pandemic
About three-quarters of US workers, or 108 million people, are in jobs that cannot be done from home during a pandemic, putting these workers at increased risk of exposure to disease.

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