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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 26, 2020


Pantera leo's family tree takes shape
Once upon a time, lions were the world's most widespread mammals.
International team of scientists warns of increasing threats posed by invasive species
URI Professor Laura Meyerson part of a team of researchers published in the journal Biological Reviews for a study on proliferation of alien invasive species and the dangers they pose.
Life-emulating molecules show basic metabolism
In a system with self-replicating molecules -previously shown to have the capability to grow, divide and evolve - chemists from the University of Groningen have now discovered catalytic capabilities that result in a basic metabolism.
Process for 'two-faced' nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech
A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory used a simple process to implant atoms precisely into the top layers of ultra-thin crystals, yielding two-sided structures with different chemical compositions.
New study examines recursive thinking
A multi-institutional research team found the cognitive ability to represent recursive sequences occurs in humans and non-human primates across age, education, culture and species.
Precise measurement of liquid iron density under extreme conditions
Using the large synchrotron facility SPring-8 in Japan, scientists from Kumamoto University and the University of Tokyo, with collaborators from other institutes, have measured the density of liquid iron--the main component of rocky planet cores--under conditions similar to the Earth's liquid core: 1,000,000 atmospheres and 4,000 degrees Celsius.
Gas cooker exposure can lower blood pressure, study finds
Sitting next to a gas cooker can lower blood pressure, research suggests.
The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons
IFJ PAN scientists together with colleagues from the University of Milano (Italy) and other countries confirmed the need to include the three-nucleon interactions in the description of electromagnetic transitions in the 20O atomic nucleus.
Al2Pt for oxygen evolution reaction in water splitting
Looking for rational design of new types of OER electrocatalysts and addressing fundamental questions about the key reactions in energy conversion, the inter-institutional MPG-consortium MAXNET Energy integrated the scientists from different institutions in Germany and abroad.
Tiny Japanese dinosaur eggs help unscramble Cretaceous ecosystem
A research team led by the University of Tsukuba excavated over 1300 eggshell fossils from the Lower Cretaceous Ohyamashimo Formation of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.
1/3 of parents in 3 states may not send children to school because of COVID-19
And as lawmakers and educators reimagine the K-12 model for fall, a new survey assessed parents' plans for in-person school and support for 15 potential measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 in schools in Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio.
Novel and simple method to engineer a platform mimicking blood vessels
SUTD collaborated with Keio University to design and fabricate a versatile platform to replicate the pulsatile blood flow in blood vessels, which allows for in-depth investigation into pathological conditions.
Computational model decodes speech by predicting it
UNIGE scientists developed a neuro-computer model which helps explain how the brain identifies syllables in natural speech.
Chemistry paves the way for improved electronic materials
Indium nitride is a promising material for use in electronics, but difficult to manufacture.
Ancient Maya reservoirs contained toxic pollution
Reservoirs in the heart of an ancient Maya city were so polluted with mercury and algae that the water likely was undrinkable.
Case for axion origin of dark matter gains traction
In a new study of axion motion, researchers propose a scenario known as ''kinetic misalignment'' that greatly strengthens the case for axion/dark matter equivalence.
Sexist views on education within families affect future academic choices
The lockdown measures introduced to prevent the spread of the coronavirus have led to classrooms being closed.
A focused approach to imaging neural activity in the brain
MIT engineers have developed calcium indicators, or sensors, that accumulate only in the body of a neuron.
Clinical characteristics, outcomes in patients with COVID-19, multiple sclerosis
The clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis who contract COVID-19 are described in this observational study, which identifies factors associated with COVID-19 severity.
Common childhood vaccine might prevent severe complications of COVID-19
A paper published by LSU Health New Orleans and Tulane University School of Medicine researchers suggests that live attenuated vaccines such as MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) may prevent the severe lung inflammation and sepsis associated with COVID-19 infection.
Cellulose for manufacturing advanced materials
The last decade has seen an increase in scientific publications and patents on cellulose, the most abundant natural polymer.
SARS-CoV-2-attacking T cells found in 10 COVID-19 patients and 2 uninfected controls
Patients suffering from severe respiratory symptoms as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection can rapidly generate virus-attacking T cells, and can increase this production over time, suggests a new study of T cells from 10 COVID-19 patients under intensive care treatment.
Pattern analysis of phylogenetic trees could reveal connections between evolution, ecology
In biology, phylogenetic trees represent the evolutionary history and diversification of species -- the ''family tree'' of Life.
More evidence of causal link between air pollution and early death
Strengthening U.S. air quality standards for fine particulate pollution to be in compliance with current World Health Association (WHO) guidelines could save more than 140,000 lives over the course of a decade, according to a new study from Harvard T.H.
Developing new techniques to improve atomic force microscopy
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new method to improve the noise associated with nanoscale chemical imaging using atomic force microscopy.
Many families must 'dance' their way to COVID-19 survival -- study
Marketing managers and academics have been studying how families plan ahead and make decisions about family care and family consumption for a long time - but what happens when planning ahead is not possible?
Early-onset colorectal cancer study in young adult men reveals 'hotspots' of death in US
A study led by Charles Rogers, PhD, examines a trend of increasing incidence and mortality among young men diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite sees Tropical Storm Boris form
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with visible image of the Eastern Pacific Ocean's second tropical storm of the season, Boris.
A new mechanism of toxicity in Alzheimer's disease revealed by the 3D structure of Aβ protein
Researchers led by Natàlia Carulla find that specific amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein ensembles have the capacity to disrupt the membrane of neurons, causing their death.
Pilot program increases access to Medication for Opioid Use Disorder (MOUD) in Colorado
Researchers at the University of Colorado College of Nursing at the Anschutz Medical Campus found that an 18-month pilot project that trained Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants to prescribe Medication for Opioid Use Disorders (MOUD) was successful in increasing availability and access of services to residents of two rural Colorado counties experiencing high overdose rates.
FSU News: MagLab geochemists solve mystery of Earth's vanishing crust
A team of geochemists based at the Florida State University-headquartered National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has found new evidence that Earth has been consistently churning out crust since its formation 4.5 billion years ago and that some crust is made of ancient, resurfaced chunks.
We feel connected when we move together in time with music
Go dancing! A new study conduted at Center for Music in the Brain at Aarhus University, Denmark, suggest that then moving together with music, synchronous movements between individuals increase social closeness.
Designer peptides show potential for blocking viruses, encourage future study
Chemically engineered peptides, designed and developed by a team of researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, could prove valuable in the battle against some of the most persistent human health challenges.
New way to analyze fMRI data offers path to improving treatment for schizophrenia
Researchers at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) have developed tools to improve the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data.
Repeated head impacts associated with later-life depression symptoms, worse cognitive function
In the largest study of its kind, an association has been found in living patients exposed to repetitive head impacts and difficulties with cognitive functioning and depression years or decades later.
Unknown currents in Southern Ocean have been observed with help of seals
Using state-of-the-art ocean robots and scientific sensors attached to seals, researchers in Marine Sciences at the University of Gothenburg have for the first time observed small and energetic ocean currents in the Southern Ocean.
No leg to stand on for Australia's flamingos
The sweeping pink salt lakes across Australia's interior are all that remain of the lush green places three species of pink flamingos once thrived the outback.
Planning for a growing elderly population
The fact that people are living longer lives represents one of the crowning achievements of the last century, but also requires careful planning on the part of governments.
Templating S100A9 amyloids on Aβ fibrillar surfaces revealed
A research team has provided the mechanistic insight into protein co-aggregation in Alzheimer's disease.
SNAP work requirements put low-income Americans at risk
When work requirements for a federal food safety-net program start again, many low-income Americans will lose benefits -- and Black adults will be hardest hit, according to a study published today.
Non-tobacco plant identified in ancient pipe for first time
People in what is now Washington State were smoking Rhus glabra, a plant commonly known as smooth sumac, more than 1,400 years ago.
Analysis of volcanic tuff gives new data about Permian-Triassic extinction event
It's not often that scientists are able to find tuff in continental sedimentation, but this was accomplished in the PreUrals region by Kazan Federal University, Borisyak Institute of Paleontology, and Institute of Geology (the latter two are parts of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
The millenial pre-colonial cultural inluence is evident in the Amazon forest
Before the arrival of European colonizers, the Amazonian Indigenous peoples cultivated their food - cassava, corn, pineapple, peppers and squash, among other things.
From the lab, the first cartilage-mimicking gel that's strong enough for knees
The thin, slippery layer of cartilage between the bones in the knee is magical stuff: strong enough to withstand a person's weight, but soft and supple enough to cushion the joint against impact, over decades of repeat use.
IO hybrid adsorbent to remove hazardous Cadmium(II) from wastewater
In a paper published in NANO, a group of researchers from Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China have discovered an effective way to remove heavy metal Cadmium(II) from wastewater.
Agricultural fires in central Africa light up in Suomi NPP satellite image
Fires have spread across the majority of the landscape in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in this NOAA/NASA Suomi NPP satellite image using the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) instrument from June 25, 2020.
Gender bias kept alive by people who think it's dead
Workplace gender bias is being kept alive by people who think it's no longer an issue, new research suggests.
Trends in the global burden of thyroid cancer
This study examined the worldwide trends of thyroid cancer from 1990 to 2017 according to geographic location, sex, age and socioeconomic factors.
Macroscopic quantum interference in an ultra-pure metal
As high school students see in experiments with water waves, and we observe and use with light waves in many optical devices, interference is a fundamental property associated with wave-like behavior.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite analyzes Saharan dust aerosol blanket
Dust storms from Africa's Saharan Desert traveling across the Atlantic Ocean are nothing new, but the current dust storm has been quite expansive and NASA satellites have provided a look at the massive June plume.
Development of safe liver sinusoid coating agents to increase the efficacy of gene therapy
A new technology to improve the efficacy and safety of gene therapy drugs was developed.
Maryland offshore wind farm could become stop-over for migrating sturgeon, striped bass
For the endangered Atlantic sturgeon and the commercially important striped bass, the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia coastal shelf serves as an important spring and fall migratory route.
St. Jude Cloud portal expands access to treasure trove of pediatric solid tumor data
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital develops the Childhood Solid Tumor Network data portal to speed discoveries and novel therapies for treatment of childhood solid tumors.
Global economic stability could be difficult to recover in the wake of the COVID-19, finds study
Analysis from the University of Surrey suggests that the economies of countries such as America, the United Kingdom and Germany should prepare for a long slow recovery with prolonged periods of instability.
Traffic density, wind and air stratification influence concentrations of air pollutant NO2
Traffic density is the most important factor for much the air pollutant nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
Side effects of testicular cancer predicted by machine learning
In collaboration with Rigshospitalet, researchers from DTU Health Technology have developed a machine learning model that can predict chemotherapy-associated nephrotoxicity, a particularly significant side effect in patients treated with cisplatin.
Automated stage discrimination of Parkinson's Disease -- BIO Integration
Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal. In this research article the authors Vered Aharonson, Nabeel Seedat, Simon Israeli-Korn, Sharon Hassin-Baer, Michiel Postema and Gilad Yahalom from the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Tel Aviv Academic College of Engineering, Tel Aviv, Israel, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel and Tel Aviv University, Israel consider automated stage discrimination of Parkinson's Disease.
Scientists propose strategy for site-selective chiral drug synthesis in living systems
Prof. QU Xiaogang from the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (CIAC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and his colleagues recently presented a novel strategy using a neutrophil-directed ATH reaction to achieve site-selective chiral drug synthesis in living systems.
It's not just Alzheimer's disease: Sanders-Brown research highlights form of dementia
The long-running study on aging and brain health at the University of Kentucky's Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Center has once again resulted in important new findings -- highlighting a complex and under-recognized form of dementia.
How ApoE4 endangers the brain
Apolipoprotein E4 is considered the most important genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.
Air pollution could help London transport planners fight COVID-19
Measuring air quality across London could help fight COVID-19 by providing a rapid means of deciding whether to reduce public transport movement -- given strong links between exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 transmission, a new study reveals.
The geological record of mud deposits
The UPV/EHU's HAREA: Coastal Geology research group has conducted a study into how human activities may have influenced the mud depocentres on the Basque shelf, in other words, in the area of the Basque Mud Patch (BMP) on the coast of Gipuzkoa down the ages.
Children more resilient against coronavirus, study reveals
Most children with COVID-19 fared better than adults during the first four months of the pandemic, according to a systematic review of 131 studies worldwide.
Function-based sequencing technique permits analysis of just a single bacteria cell
A new function-based sequencing technique using optical tweezers and taking advantage of the properties of gravity is letting researchers analyze bacteria cells one by one.
New protein complex gets chromosomes sorted
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have identified a novel protein complex that regulates Aurora B localization to ensure that chromosomes are correctly separated during cell division.
Rapid genomic profiling of colon cancers can improve therapy selection for patients
A new multicenter study led by researchers from Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center show that across different types of cancer centers, results for mutation testing that are critical to therapeutic selection in patients with colorectal cancer can be obtained quickly, accurately and less invasively using a new instrument.
Extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors: Next-generation spintronics candidates
An Australian has published an extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs), a new class of 'zero bandgap' materials which have fully spin polarised electrons and holes, and first proposed in 2008 by the review team's lead, Professor Xiaolin Wang (University of Wollongong).
Simple bed-side test detects bleeding risk in patients after surgery or major injury
A team led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital has developed a novel, inexpensive and portable device that can quickly and accurately measure the ability of blood to properly clot (or coagulate).
How to have a better day during the pandemic
Many think they're doing good by texting with others to stay connected while physically distancing during the pandemic, but a national survey by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill shows more meaningful connections happen when people can hear or see the person they're interacting with.
Long-term use of muscle relaxants has skyrocketed since 2005
Penn Medicine researchers found the drugs were prescribed disproportionately to older adults, often concurrently with opioids, despite warnings against this dangerous combination.
New compounds from starfish of Kuril basin show efficacy against cancer cells.
Russian scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), G. B.
Study finds strong evidence for a causal link between long-term exposure to fine air particles and greater mortality in elderly Americans
A new analysis of 16 years of publicly accessible health data on 68.5 million Medicare enrollees provides broad evidence that long-term exposure to fine particles in the air - even at levels below current EPA standards - leads to increased mortality rates among the elderly.
Fancy Aussie bees flew in from Asia
Ancestors of a distinctive pollinating bee found across Australia probably originated in tropical Asian countries, islands in the south-west Pacific or greater Oceania region, ecology researchers claim.
Neuromarketing of taste
Marina Domracheva and Sofya Kulikova, researchers from HSE University's campus in Perm, have discovered a new approach to analyse the perceived similarity of food products, based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals.

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