Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 30, 2020
Oncotarget: IQGAP1 control of centrosome function defines variants of breast cancer
The cover for issue 26 of Oncotarget features Figure 6, 'Mislocalization of IQGAP1-BRCA1 in human TNBC tumors phenocopies the dominant mutants and the TNBC cells,' by Osman, et al. and reported that IQGAP1 is a signaling scaffold implicated in TNBC, but its mechanism is unknown.

Rutgers co-leads first nationwide study of COVID-19 related multiple inflammatory syndrome
Parents and clinicians need to be aware in looking for symptoms of multiple inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children who have been diagnosed or exposed to COVID-19.

Research reveals fishing pressures affect tropical and temperate reefs differentl
In a study published recently in Ecology and Evolution, an international team of researchers focused on what can happen to ocean ecosystems when fishing pressure increases or decreases, and how this differs between tropical to temperate marine ecosystems.

Sneaky salmonella finds a backdoor into plants
Researchers have discovered that bacteria such as salmonella, E.coli and listeria have a backdoor to take advantage of humans' reliance on leafy greens for a healthy diet.

A cosmic mystery: ESO telescope captures the disappearance of a massive star
Using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have discovered the absence of an unstable massive star in a dwarf galaxy.

Study finds that plastic recycling from europe being dumped in Asian waters
New research from NUI Galway and the University of Limerick has for the first time quantified the volume of plastic from European countries (EU, UK, Switzerland and Norway) that contributes to ocean littering from exported recycling.

New winter squash decline research paves the way for understanding the disease
Winter squash is an important crop grown in the Willamette Valley, and the most important processing cultivar, Golden Delicious, has been grown in Oregon since the 1970s.

Decoding material wear with supercomputers
What happens at the atomic level cannot be observed directly.

Roadside hedges protect human health at the cost of plant health
Roadside hedges take a hit to their health while reducing pollution exposure for humans.

Glowing dye may aid in eliminating cancer
When a solid cancer is surgically removed, any small piece that is left behind increases the chance of a local recurrence or spread.

About half of people use health technology to communicate with their health providers
Only 47 percent of people are using technology to communicate with healthcare providers.

COVID-19 causes 'hyperactivity' in blood-clotting cells
Changes in blood platelets triggered by COVID-19 could contribute to the onset of heart attacks, strokes, and other serious complications in some patients who have the disease, according to University of Utah Health scientists.

Food taxes and subsidies would bring major health gains, study shows
A consumer tax on the saturated fat, salt and sugar content of food, accompanied by a 20 per cent subsidy on fruit and vegetables, would bring major benefits for the health sector, researchers from Otago, Auckland and Melbourne Universities say.

World's widest graphene nanoribbon promises the next generation of miniaturized electronics
Standard semiconductor technology is reaching its limit in miniaturization, but the demand for smaller electrical devices with higher performance continues to grow.

Electrochemical reaction powers new drug discoveries
A Cornell-led collaboration is flipping the switch on traditional synthetic chemistry by using electricity to drive a new chemical reaction that previously stumped chemists who rely on conventional methods.

Buzzing to rebuild broken bone
Healing broken bones could get easier with a device that provides both a scaffold for the bone to grow on and electrical stimulation to urge it forward, UConn engineers report.

A data treasure for gait analysis
The St. Pölten UAS and the Austrian general accident insurance institution AUVA have made one of the biggest data records for automated gait analysis worldwide openly accessible.

RDA publishes final version of COVID-19 recommendations and guidelines on data sharing
Today, 30 June 2020, the Research Data Alliance publishes the final version of the RDA COVID-19 Recommendations and Guidelines for Data Sharing covering four research areas - clinical data, omics practices, epidemiology and social sciences.

Light from inside the tunnel
Steering and monitoring the light-driven motion of electrons inside matter on the time-scale of a single optical cycle is a key challenge in ultrafast light wave electronics and laser-based material processing.

Face mask construction, materials matter for containing coughing, sneezing droplets
While the use of face masks in public has been widely recommended by health officials during the current COVID-19 pandemic, there are relatively few specific guidelines pertaining to mask materials and designs.

Research shows quality of prostate MRI is highly variable among institutions
A recent multi-site study published in Radiology was designed to gauge the difference in imaging quality for prostate MRI by looking retrospectively at performance across 26 institutions and found that the positive predictive value of the test for prostate cancer was highly variable at different sites.

'Morning sickness' is misleading and inaccurate, new study argues
The term 'morning sickness' is misleading and should instead be described as nausea and sickness in pregnancy, argue researchers led by the University of Warwick who have demonstrated that these symptoms can occur at any time of the day -- not just the morning.

Malaria's secret to surviving in the blood uncovered
New research from the Francis Crick Institute has found how the malaria parasite protects itself from toxic compounds in red blood cells.

Brain iron accumulation linked to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's patients
Researchers using MRI have found that iron accumulation in the outer layer of the brain is associated with cognitive deterioration in people with Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study.

Novel pathology could improve diagnosis and treatment of Huntington's and other diseases
Bristol scientists have discovered a novel pathology that occurs in several human neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease.

A revolutionary new treatment alternative to corneal transplantation
A new approach in ophthalmology that offers a revolutionary alternative to corneal transplantation has just been developed by researchers and clinicians in North America, Europe, and Oceania.

Is a 'cytokine storm' relevant to COVID-19?
The term ''cytokine storm'' and its relevance to COVID-19 are examined in this editorial.

Wild bees depend on the landscape structure
Sowing strips of wildflowers along conventional cereal fields and the increased density of flowers in organic farming encourage bumblebees as well as solitary wild bees and hoverflies.

For cardiac rehab patients, in-home portable air cleaners lower fine-particle pollutant exposure
Using an in-home portable air cleaner (PAC) can significantly reduce exposure to fine-particle air pollutants -- a major risk factor for cardiovascular events in people with pre-existing heart disease, reports a pilot study in the July issue of Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention.

Findings weaken notion that size equals strength for neural connections
Among a new study's many surprises about synaptic plasticity may be a new approach to addressing Fragile X syndrome: Finding and targeting a ''Protein X'' that appears to promote shrinkage of dendritic spines.

As wildfires flare up across West, research highlights risk of ecological change
Following high-severity fire, scientists have found forest recovery may increasingly be compromised by lack of tree seed sources, warmer and drier post-fire climate and more frequent reburning.

Seeing is believing: Effectiveness of facemasks
Using flow visualization, researchers assessed the efficacy of facemasks in obstructing respiratory droplets.

Breaking the silence: scientists investigate epigenetic impact across whole genome
Researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have uncovered a clue to the mystery of how epigenetic regulation impacts the entire plant genome, by looking at how plant cells suppress transcription - the first stage of how genes manufacture their products.

Plant tissue engineering improves drought and salinity tolerance
After several years of experimentation, scientists have engineered thale cress, or Arabidopsis thaliana, to behave like a succulent, improving water-use efficiency, salinity tolerance and reducing the effects of drought.

Nearly half of Americans lack knowledge of burn injuries and treatment
Summertime means Americans spend more time around grills, firepits, and fireworks, increasing their risk for fire-related burn injuries.

Countries group into clusters as COVID-19 outbreak spreads
Mathematicians based in Australia and China have developed a method to analyze the large amount of data accumulated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Major new paleoclimatology study shows global warming has upended 6,500 years of cooling
Over the past 150 years, global warming has more than undone the global cooling that occurred over the past six millennia, according to a major study published June 30 in Nature Research's Scientific Data, ''Holocene global mean surface temperature, a multi-method reconstruction approach.'' The findings show that the millennial-scale global cooling began approximately 6,500 years ago when the long-term average global temperature topped out at around 0.7°C warmer than the mid-19th century.

Scientists develop N-doped self-cleaning membranes that use visible light irradiation
Researchers from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in the U.S. have recently employed atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate visible light-activated membranes that efficiently utilize solar energy.

Kessler survey shows education paves the way to employment for youth with disabilities
The 2020 survey collected a wealth of information, including details of college majors and occupations, finding that students with disabilities were more likely to pursue career paths focused on helping people, and less likely to choose STEM majors, or to work in STEM disciplines.

Revisiting energy flow in photosynthetic plant cells
By developing innovative methods to visualize energy changes in subcellular compartments in live plants, the team of Dr Boon Leong LIM, Associate Professor of the School of Biological Sciences of The University of Hong Kong, recently solved a controversial question in photosynthesis: what is the source of NADH (Reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) for mitochondria to generate ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)?

New strategy emerges for vaccine against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal aureus
Experiments in mice have shown early success in vaccinating them against potentially deadly bacterial infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus, or MRSA, the strain resistant to most drug treatments.

Ohio University professor, alum publish paper on record warming of the South Pole
The South Pole has been warming at more than three times the global average over the past 30 years, according to research led by Ohio University professor Ryan Fogt and OHIO alumnus Kyle Clem.

Mathematical noodling leads to new insights into an old fusion problem
Scientists at PPPL have gained new insight into a common type of plasma hiccup that interferes with fusion reactions.

Spider silk can create lenses useful for biological imaging
Spider silk is useful for a variety of biomedical applications: It exhibits mechanical properties superior to synthetic fibers for tissue engineering, and it is not toxic or harmful to living cells.

Researchers have found a promising therapy for cardiac regeneration
New research gives information in order to understand safety, efficacy and mechanisms of action of a new cardiac therapy.

Chanterelle mushrooms as a taste enhancer
Chanterelles give savoury dishes a rich body and a unique complex flavor.

A new view of microscopic interactions
When two cars collide at an intersection -- from opposite directions -- the impact is much different than when two cars -- traveling in the same direction -- 'bump' into each other.

Geologists identify deep-earth structures that may signal hidden metal lodes
In a new study, scientists have discovered previously unrecognized structural lines 100 miles or more down in the earth that appear to signal the locations of giant deposits of copper, lead, zinc and other vital metals lying close enough to the surface to be mined, but too far down to be found using current exploration methods.

Discovery of key protein behind cancer relapse and progression can lead to new therapies
Reports show that cancer is the second-highest leading cause of death globally.

Researchers identify multiple molecules that shut down SARS-Cov-2 polymerase reaction
Researchers at Columbia Engineering and the University of Wisconsin-Madison have identified a library of molecules that shut down the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase reaction, a key step that establishes the potential of these molecules as lead compounds to be further modified for the development of COVID-19 therapeutics.

New treatment strategy may benefit patients with brain cancer
A team led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital has uncovered a potentially promising strategy to treat gliomas with mutations in the IDH genes.

No touching: Skoltech researchers find contactless way to measure thickness of carbon nanotube films
Scientists from Skoltech and their colleagues from Russia and Finland have figured out a non-invasive way to measure the thickness of single-walled carbon nanotube films, which may find applications in a wide variety of fields from solar energy to smart textiles.

Study reveals magnetic process that can lead to more energy-efficient memory in computers
Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of California, Los Angeles have made an important advance that could lead to more energy efficient magnetic memory storage components for computers and other devices.

New Curtin research uncovers the two 'faces' of the Earth
New Curtin University-led research has uncovered how rocks sourced from the Earth's mantle are linked to the formation and breakup of supercontinents and super oceans over the past 700 million years, suggesting that the Earth is made up of two distinct 'faces'.

Functional in silico dissection of the brain during the natural wake-sleep cycle
The human brain is a complex system comprising 1010 non-linear units (neurons) that interact in 1015 sites (synapses).

Microplastic pollution accumulates heavily in coastal areas such as fjords and estuaries
Microplastic pollution in marine environments is concentrated most highly in coastal habitats, especially fjords and estuaries, according to a new review article published in the journal Marine Pollution Bulletin.

New materials of perovskite challenge the chemical intuition
Materials scientists have synthesized a new type of perovskite--one of the most common crystal structures of materials deployed for a range of uses, from superconductors to photovoltaics--that goes against conventional thinking about how such structures behave at extreme pressures such as those that exist deep in the Earth.

Hints at jaw evolution found in marsupials and monotremes
Infant marsupials and monotremes use a connection between their ear and jaw bones shortly after birth to enable them to drink their mothers' milk, new findings in eLife reveal.

Excess neutrinos and missing gamma rays?
A new model points to the coronoe of supermassive black holes at the cores of active galaxies to help explain the excess neutrinos observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

Toward principles of gene regulation in multicellular systems?
Quantitative biologists from Northwestern combine precision measurements and mathematical models to uncover a common mechanism regulating gene expression during development.

Many antibiotic substitutions for self-reported penicillin allergies likely unnecessary
Diagnostic testings or evaluations show that the vast majority of patient-reported allergies to penicillin could be disproven.

Brain receptor pulls open electrical gate like a puppet master
NMDA receptors convert chemical messages into electrical signals within a neuron.

Auditory hallucinations rooted in aberrant brain connectivity
A study from researchers at the University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland reports that auditory hallucinations, a phenomenon in which people hear voices or other sounds, may arise through altered brain connectivity between sensory and cognitive processing areas.

Fat check: Yale researchers find explanation for stress' damage in brown fat
In their search for what triggers the damaging side-effects caused by acute psychological stress, Yale researchers found an answer by doing a fat check.

NASA's TESS delivers new insights into an ultrahot world
KELT-9 b is one of the hottest planets known. New measurements from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) have enabled astronomers to greatly improve their understanding of this bizarre world.

Novel potassium channel activator which acts as a potential anticonvulsant discovered
Mount Sinai neuroscience researchers discover a novel potassium channel activator which acts as a potential anticonvulsant.

UTEP research reveals more about path bacterial pathogen travels to cause tuberculosis
Jianjun Sun, Ph.D., associate professor in UTEP's Department of Biological Sciences, led the research on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb).

Light drinking may protect brain function
Light to moderate drinking may preserve brain function in older age, according to a new study from the University of Georgia.

Amber fossils unlock true color of 99-million-year-old insects
A research team from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NIGPAS) has now unlocked the secrets of true coloration in the 99-million-year-old insects.

Goodbye Northwestern Crow, hello Mexican Duck
The latest supplement to the American Ornithological Society's Checklist of North and Middle American Birds, published in The Auk: Ornithological Advances, includes several major updates to the organization of the continent's bird species, including the addition of the Mexican Duck and the removal of the Northwestern Crow.

Microscope allows gentle, continuous imaging of light-sensitive corals
Many corals are sensitive to bright light, so capturing their dynamics with traditional microscopes is a challenge.

A vaccine targeting aged cells mitigates metabolic disorders in obese mice
Researchers from Osaka University developed a novel vaccine that removes senescent T cells from adipose tissues.

Scientists shed new light on how seabirds cruise through air and water
New insight on how four species of seabirds have developed the ability to cruise through both air and water has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.

Discovery of new step in how brain cells work could lead to new therapies for epilepsy
Researchers have identified a critical new step in how brain cells function in people with one of the most common forms of epilepsy.

Respiratory droplet motion, evaporation and spread of COVID-19-type pandemics
It is well established the COVID-19 virus is transmitted via respiratory droplets.

The "eyes" say more than the "mouth" and can distinguish English sounds
Toyohashi University of Technology has discovered that the difference in the ability to hear and distinguish English words including L and R, which are considered difficult for Japanese people, appears in pupillary responses.

Universal gut microbiome-derived signature predicts cirrhosis
UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers report that stool microbiomes of NAFLD patients are distinct enough to potentially be used to accurately predict which persons with NAFLD are at greatest risk for having cirrhosis.

Time trends in pregnancy-related outcomes among American women with type 1 diabetes
Largest US database of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes provides a first-time, big picture view of mother's health, and neonatal and delivery outcomes.

Scientists urge business and government to treat PFAS chemicals as a class
All per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) should be treated as one class and avoided for nonessential uses, according to a peer-reviewed article published today in Environmental Science & Technology Letters.

Implants: Can special coatings reduce complications after implant surgery?
New coatings on implants could help make them more compatible.

More than medicine: Pain-relief drug delivers choices for mothers in labor
Choice and control are important factors for ensuring a positive childbirth experience, yet until recently, little was known about the impact of alternative administrations of fentanyl -- one of the pain relief drugs used during labour- on both mother and baby.

From age 8 we spontaneously link vocal to facial emotion
Do children have to wait until age 8 to recognize -- spontaneously and without instructions -- the same emotion of happiness or anger depending on whether it is expressed by a voice or on a face?

MIPT bioinformaticians find way to personalize drug prescription against stomach cancer
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and their colleagues have developed the first technique for personalizing stomach cancer therapy based on RNA sequencing of tumor cells.

How stress affects bone marrow
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) identified the protein CD86 as a novel marker of infection- and inflammation-induced hematopoietic responses.

Scientists develop novel predictable multi-nucleotide deletion systems in plants
Based on the cytidine deamination and base excision repair (BER) mechanism, the researchers led by Prof.

To find giant black holes, start with Jupiter
On a quest to find the Universe's largest black holes, Vanderbilt researcher identifies the center of the solar system within 100 meters.

Just add sugar: How a protein's small change leads to big trouble for cells
A study from investigators in the Sloan Kettering Institute reveals how a protein called GRP94, which is normally a 'good guy' in the cell, turns bad when it has a sugar molecule added to it.

Lab-grown 'mini-brains' suggest COVID-19 virus can infect human brain cells
A multidisciplinary team from two Johns Hopkins University institutions, including neurotoxicologists and virologists from the Bloomberg School of Public Health and infectious disease specialists from the school of medicine, has found that organoids known as ''mini-brains'' can be infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.

Traditional strength training vs jump training for physically inactive young adults
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 4-weeks of Traditional Resistance Training versus Plyometric Jump Training programs on the muscular fitness of sedentary and physically inactive participants.

Breast cancer drug, olaparib, depletes store of immature eggs in mouse ovaries
Australian researchers have shown for the first time that a new drug used to treat breast cancer patients damages the store of immature eggs in the ovaries of mice.

New genomic atlas of the developing human brain
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF) Weill Institute for Neurosciences have created a comprehensive region-specific atlas of the regulatory regions of the genome linked to human embryonic brain development.

Novel software reveals molecular barcodes that distinguish different cell types
A new set of computational methods developed at Baylor College of Medicine allows researchers to identify cell-type specific methylation patterns -- molecular barcodes -- in complex cell mixtures.

Life-hack: Rituals spell anxiety relief
UConn Assistant Professor of Anthropology Dimitris Xygalatas studies rituals and how they impact our health.

Ethics and AI: An unethical optimization principle
EPFL professor Anthony Davison and co-authors provide a mathematical basis for concerns about ethical implications of AI.

To support lactating emergency physicians, consider these strategies
A new paper highlights strategies that emergency departments can implement to support lactating emergency physicians.

NASA catches a short-lived Eastern Pacific Depression 4E
Tropical Depression 4E formed late on June 29 and it is forecast to become a remnant low-pressure area by the end of the day on June 30.

Pandemic resource allocation needs to address health inequity
The Johns Hopkins team provides recommendations for how hospitals can provide equitable care during pandemic resource allocation, such as by requiring regular bias training and creating periodic checkpoints to assess inequities in the system.

Next-generation sequencing to provide precision medicine for rare metabolic disorders
Advances in next-generation-sequencing technology that allow researchers to look at billions of pieces of genetic information are changing the way a disease is diagnosed.

Could your computer please be more polite? Thank you
In a tense time when a pandemic rages, politicians wrangle for votes and protesters demand racial justice, a little politeness and courtesy go a long way.

Whole-town study reveals more than 40% of COVID-19 infections had no symptoms
A study of COVID-19 in the quarantined Italian town of Vò, where most of the population was tested, reveals the importance of asymptomatic cases.

Study gauges how Kansans get information on COVID-19, which sources they trust
A researcher in KU's Center for Excellence in Health Communications to Underserved Populations surveyed Kansans over a 96-hour window to gauge where they got coronavirus info.

3D ultrasound enables accurate, noninvasive measurements of blood flow
A 3D ultrasound system provides an effective, noninvasive way to estimate blood flow that retains its accuracy across different equipment, operators and facilities, according to a new study.

COVID-19: Study shows virus can infect heart cells in lab dish
A new study shows that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (coronavirus), can infect heart cells in a lab dish, indicating it may be possible for heart cells in COVID-19 patients to be directly infected by the virus.

Study asks who's playing 'hard-to-get' and who's attracted by the ploy
Research just published in the peer-reviewed journal Personality and Individual Differences looks at the psychological underpinnings of making yourself seem more desirable by withholding obvious signs of romantic interest.
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