Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 06, 2020
Electrically focus-tuneable ultrathin lens for high-resolution square subpixels
In accordance to rising demand of high-resolution, ultrathin lens device for display panels, the scientists from Korea, UK, and USA have invented an electrically focus-tunable, graphene-based ultrathin subpixel square lens device that demonstrates excellent focusing performance.

A tiny ancient relative of dinosaurs and pterosaurs discovered
Dinosaurs and pterosaurs may be known for their remarkable size, but a newly described species that lived around 237 million years ago suggests that they originated from extremely small ancestors.

Highest peak power and excellent stability
Optical amplifiers based on chirped pulse amplification (CPA) are used to generate high intensity pulses.

NYAUD researchers study effects of cellular crowding on the cell's transport system
In the recent study Macromolecular crowding acts as a physical regular of intracellular transport, published in the journal Nature Physics, lead researcher and Assistant Professor of Physics at NYU Abu Dhabi George Shubeita and his team present the findings that in a native cell environment, which is crowded with a high concentration of macromolecules, the crowding significantly impacts the speed of groups of motor proteins, but not singular motor proteins.

Running in Tarahumara culture
Running in Tarahumara (Rarámuri) Culture. The Tarahumara (Rarámuri) are a Native American people from Chihuahua, Mexico, who have long been famous for running, but there is widespread incredulity about how and why they run such long distances.

Encouraging results from functional MRI in an unresponsive patient with COVID-19
A patient with severe COVID-19 who, despite prolonged unresponsiveness and structural brain abnormalities, demonstrated functionally intact brain connections and later recovered the ability to follow commands.

Using Epo against Covid-19
The doping agent erythropoietin could attenuate severe progression of COVID-19.

Sorting and secreting insulin by expiration date
Visualizing the age of insulin secreting granules in cells allowed researchers to investigate how cells' preference for secreting newer granules is disrupted in diabetes.

Black patients have higher rates of death after PCI
Black patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are at an increased risk for major adverse outcomes, including death, compared to white patients, according to a study published today in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.

Global success for Canadian companies depends on prior R&D investment, receptiveness to new learning
Canadian companies that go international are known to be more productive and successful than those that don't.

Common hypertension medications may reduce colorectal cancer risk
People who take angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for conditions such as high blood pressure were less likely to be diagnosed with colorectal cancer after having a normal colonoscopy.

Fathers are more likely to be referred for nutrition or exercise counseling
Fatherhood status has been linked to medical providers' weight-related practices or counseling referrals.

Low-threshold topological nanolasers based on the second-order corner state
Topological lasers are immune to imperfections and disorder, which are mostly at microscale.

Owner behavior affects effort and accuracy in dogs' communications
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have found that dogs adapt their communicative strategies to their environment and that owner behavior influences communicative effort and success.

Researchers develop software to find drug-resistant bacteria
The program could make it easier to identify the deadly antimicrobial resistant bacteria that exist in the environment.

Algorithm predicts risk for PTSD after traumatic injury
With high precision, a new algorithm predicts which patients treated for traumatic injuries in the emergency department will later develop posttraumatic stress disorder.

New room-temperature liquid-metal battery could be the path to powering the future
Researchers at The University of Texas have created a new liquid battery with components that can remain molten at room temperature.

Time to get real on the power of positive thinking -- new study
Positive thinking has long been extolled as the route to happiness, but it might be time to ditch the self-help books after a new study shows that realists enjoy a greater sense of long-term wellbeing than optimists.

Follow-up appointments for children hospitalized for bronchiolitis may not be needed
A new study at Intermountain Primary Children's Hospital in Salt Lake City has found that follow-up appointments for hospitalized children treated for childhood bronchitis are often not necessary, and that switching from mandatory to 'as-needed' follow-up care can save families from unnecessary medical care and expense - and may help guide treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Diabetic nephropathy: Study results on proteomic analysis do not show benefit
First study on a treatment strategy using a proteomic analysis does not clarify which therapeutic consequence of the test could offer a benefit for people with diabetes and high blood pressure.

A different Chia-PET provides insight into prostate cancer
UT Southwestern researchers have identified vast webs of small snippets of the genome that interact with each other and with genes to promote prostate cancer.

Atomic 'Swiss army knife' precisely measures materials for quantum computers
Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a novel instrument that can make three kinds of atom-scale measurements simultaneously.

Study: Dying stars breathe life into Earth
As dying stars take their final few breaths of life, they gently sprinkle their ashes into the cosmos through the magnificent planetary nebulae.

The electrified brain
A group of researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have further refined the use of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Motherhood overrides the brain's decision-making
Motherhood takes over the brain's decision-making regions to prioritize caring for offspring, according to new research in rats published in eNeuro.

Norman Conquest of 1066 did little to change people's eating habits
Archaeologists from Cardiff University and the University of Sheffield have combined the latest scientific methods to offer new insights into life during the Norman Conquest of England.

Study indicates that Medicaid expansion has led to earlier cancer detection among individuals with low income
New research found that the likelihood of being diagnosed with advanced cancer decreased among individuals with low income after expansion of Medicaid coverage.

New recommendations: People with high cholesterol should eliminate carbs, not saturated fat
An international team of experts on heart disease and diet say there's no evidence that a low-saturated fat diet reduces cholesterol in people with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Cranfield academics call for 'Five Capitals' approach to global resilience
Writing in the leading academic journal, Nature, Cranfield academics are calling for global resilience to be shaped around the 'Five Capitals' - natural, human, social, built and financial.

Innovations for sustainability in a post-pandemic future
The COVID-19 pandemic has thrust the world into turmoil and disrupted the status quo, but it is also providing opportunities for innovation in the way we live and work.

First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the gulf stream
Study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences provides first direct evidence for Gulf Stream blender effect, identifying a new mechanism of mixing water across the swift-moving current.

Newly discovered pathogen in NY apples causes bitter rot disease
In a study of New York state apple orchards, Cornell University plant pathologists have identified a new fungal pathogen that causes bitter rot disease in apples.

Study reveals secret life of lithium in sun-like stars: Created not just destroyed
A new study led by Prof. ZHAO Gang and Dr. Yerra Bharat Kumar from National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) provides a fresh understanding of both how lithium is made, and how it is destroyed.

Injections are two-and-a-half times safer when nurses use revamped guidelines
Injections are two-and-a-half times safer when nurses use revamped guidelines.

High-throughput sequencing tracks historical spread of grapevine viruses
A group of scientists based in France used systematical datamining to gather information on two grapevine trichoviruses, grapevine Pinot gris virus and grapevine berry inner necrosis virus.

To quench or not to quench: Understanding the role of a cyanobacterial photosystem protein
Photosynthesis is one of the most fundamental processes that support life on earth.

Herpesvirsuses hedge their bets to optimize survival
In a new paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Gladstone researchers detail how cytomegalovirus enters its dormant state: by varying the levels of some proteins in its viral particles.

2D semiconductors found to be close-to-ideal fractional quantum hall platform
Columbia University researchers report that they have observed a quantum fluid known as the fractional quantum Hall states (FQHS), one of the most delicate phases of matter, for the first time in a monolayer 2D semiconductor.

Leap in lidar could improve safety, security of new technology
Researchers have developed a new silicon chip with major applications in lidar systems for self-driving cars and smart phones.

Cancer treatment in young women need not mean the end of their fertility
The first long-term record of how cancer patients made use of their stored eggs and embryos after cancer treatment is presented today at the 36th Annual Meeting of ESHRE.

Plant study challenges tropics' reputation as site of modern evolutionary innovation
In a surprise twist, a major group of flowering plants is evolving twice as quickly in temperate zones as the tropics.

Scientists discover a new connection between the eyes and touch
Tiny eye movements can be used as an index of humans' ability to anticipate relevant information in the environment independent of the information's sensory modality.

St. Jude researchers create an analytic tool that opens a new frontier of cancer discovery
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have developed software to identify cancer-causing mutations lurking in vast regions of the human genome.

Nematode has potential to reduce cotton yields by 50 percent
The reniform nematode is one of the most commonly found pests of cotton, with the ability to cause severe economic damage.

What ethical models for autonomous vehicles don't address - and how they could be better
There's a fairly large flaw in the way that programmers are currently addressing ethical concerns related to artificial intelligence and autonomous vehicles (AVs).

Group genomics drive aggression in honey bees
Researchers often study the genomes of individual organisms to try to tease out the relationship between genes and behavior.

IU School of Medicine study paves way for earlier autism diagnosis in Indiana
Led by Nancy Swigonski, MD and Mary Ciccarelli, MD, a team of faculty at Indiana University School of Medicine have developed a statewide early ASD screening and evaluation system in the primary care setting showing success in improving access to evaluations and lowering the age of diagnosis.

Harmful microbes found on sewer pipe walls
Can antibiotic-resistant bacteria escape from sewers into waterways and cause a disease outbreak?

Light a critical factor in limiting carbon uptake, even in the north
A new Columbia Engineering study demonstrates that even when temperatures warm and cold stress is limited, light is still a major factor in limiting carbon uptake of northern high latitudes.

Researchers develop novel approach to modeling yet-unconfirmed rare nuclear process
Researchers from the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) Laboratory at Michigan State University (MSU) have taken a major step toward a theoretical first-principles description of neutrinoless double-beta decay.

Researchers foresee linguistic issues during space travel
It lacks the drama of a shape-shifting alien creature, but another threat looms over the prospect of generations-long, interstellar space travel: Explorers arriving on Xanadu could face problems communicating with previous and subsequent arrivals, their spoken language having changed in isolation along the way.

White dwarfs reveal new insights into the origin of carbon in the universe
A new analysis of white dwarf stars supports their role as a key source of carbon in galaxies.

US hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin outpatient prescriptions October 2019-March 2020
How the prescription of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to outpatients has changed in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic is examined in this study.

LSU Health New Orleans discovers new class of safer analgesics
Researchers at LSU Health New Orleans Neuroscience Center of Excellence and colleagues have discovered a new class of pipeline drugs to relieve pain and reduce fever without the danger of addiction or damage to the liver or kidneys.

Common inherited genetic variant identified as frequent cause of deafness in adults
A common inherited genetic variant is a frequent cause of deafness in adults, meaning that many thousands of people are potentially at risk, reveals research published online in the Journal of Medical Genetics.

Future teachers more likely to view black children as angry, even when they are not
A new study of prospective teachers finds that they are more likely to interpret the facial expressions of Black boys and girls as being angry, even when the children are not angry.

How does Earth sustain its magnetic field?
Life as we know it could not exist without Earth's magnetic field and its ability to deflect dangerous ionizing particles.

Palm trees most abundant in American rainforests
Characteristics of palm trees differ from those of other tropical trees in many ways.

Behind the dead-water phenomenon
What makes ships mysteriously slow down or even stop as they travel, even though their engines are working properly?

Why it's no last orders for the Tequila bat
Scientists studying the 'near threatened' tequila bat, best known for its role in pollinating the Blue Agave plant from which the drink of the same name is made from, have analysed its DNA to help inform conservationists on managing their populations.

Consumers prefer round numbers even when the specific number is better news
Consider this scenario: A vaccine for the novel coronavirus has been developed that is 91.27% effective.

Desert algae shed light on desiccation tolerance in green plants
Deserts of the US Southwest are extreme habitats for most plants, but, remarkably, microscopic green algae live there that are extraordinarily tolerant of dehydration.

U of SC: How non-alcoholic fatty liver disease causes Alzheimer's-like neuroinflammation
Research from UofSC associate professor Saurabh Chatterjee's laboratory in Environmental Health Sciences at the Arnold School of Public Health has revealed the cause behind the previously established link between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and neurological problems.

One in five Georgian Londoners had syphilis by their mid-30s
250 years ago, over one-fifth of Londoners had contracted syphilis by their 35th birthday, historians have calculated.

A new biotinylation enzyme for analyzing protein-protein interactions
Proteins play roles by interacting with various other proteins. Therefore, interaction analysis is an indispensable technique for studying the function of proteins.

Coronary calcium scoring: Personalized preventive care for those most at risk
An imaging test called coronary calcium scoring can help doctors to make the right recommendation about the use of statin therapy.

Lack of lockdown increased COVID-19 deaths in Sweden, analysis finds
The analysis will help doctors understand the effects of individual compliance with infection-control measures.

New study resolves mystery surrounding unique light-harvesting structures in algae
Photosynthesis is a biochemical process that converts solar energy into chemical energy, releasing oxygen into the atmosphere.

Order from noise: How randomness and collective dynamics define a stem cell
Without stem cells, human life would not exist. Due to them, a lump of cells becomes an organ, and a fertilized egg develops into a baby.

COVID-19 shines spotlight on gender inequity in academia
In a new article, a team of 17 faculty members from across the nation, including nine from Texas Tech, examines how the pandemic amplifies gender inequity and proposes novel solutions.

New vitamin K-based drug shows promise against medication-resistant epilepsy
Medical University of South Carolina researchers have designed a new vitamin K-based compound that shows excellent seizure-control properties, even in preclinical models of medication-resistant seizures.

NASA finds wind shear battering tropical storm Edouard
The latest tropical storm in the Atlantic Ocean formed one day ago and was already being battered by wind shear.

Making plastic more transparent while also adding electrical conductivity
In an effort to improve large touchscreens, LED light panels and window-mounted infrared solar cells, researchers at the University of Michigan have made plastic conductive while also making it more transparent.

When it comes to DNA repair, it's not one tool fits all
Researchers at UT Health San Antonio studied double-strand breaks with complex damage and found that enzyme tools to resect the breaks are highly specific to the type of break to be repaired.

Incoming CEOs with premium pay packages perform accordingly, study shows
New research from the University of Notre Dame examines how compensation for incoming chief executives -- which serves as a sign of the board's upfront confidence in the CEO's ability -- is related to subsequent performance in the years that follow.

One million epilepsy patients in China missing out on beneficial surgery
In 2010, Professor Patrick Kwan from Monash University's Department of Neuroscience, led an international team researching the causes and outcomes of epilepsy patients in rural China.

Flashes bright when squeezed tight: How single-celled organisms light up the oceans
Research explains how a unicellular marine organism generates light as a response to mechanical stimulation, lighting up breaking waves at night.

Colony-level genetics predict gentle behavior in Puerto Rican honey bees
Puerto Rico's population of African-European hybrid honey bees (AHB) are famously known for being much gentler than their continental counterparts.

Machine learning reveals vulnerabilities in 3D-printed carbon-fiber composites
Components made of glass- and carbon- fiber reinforced composites, soaring in high-performance applications, can be 3D printed.

New guideline: Don't routinely screen for EAC in patients with chronic GERD
A new guideline from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, based on a rigorous systematic review of the latest evidence, found no benefit of routine screening for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and precursor conditions (Barrett esophagus and dysplasia) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Story tips: Predicting fire risk, solid state stability check and images in a flash
ORNL Story Tips: Predicting fire risk, solid state stability check and images in a flash.

Asthma and allergies more common in 'night owl' teens: study
Teenagers who prefer to stay up late at night and sleep in late the next day are more likely to develop asthma and allergies than their 'early bird' counterparts, according to new research published today.

BU researchers design artificial genes to sense cellular responses to drugs
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have developed and implemented a new way to better understand how human cells communicate with each other, how this communication.

Context reduces racial bias in hate speech detection algorithms
When it comes to accurately flagging hate speech on social media, context matters, says a new USC study aimed at reducing errors that could amplify racial bias.

Epigenetics: What the embryo can teach us about cell reprogramming
Cell reprogramming provides an outstanding opportunity for the artificial generation of stem cells for regenerative medicine approaches in the clinic.

Simulations shows magnetic field can change 10 times faster than previously thought
A new study by the University of Leeds and University of California at San Diego reveals that changes in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field may take place 10 times faster than previously thought.

Real-time monitoring of proteins in the nuclear pore complex
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Biomaterials a high-speed atomic-force microscopy study of protein filaments in the nuclear pore complex.

Do we know what we want in a romantic partner? No more than a random stranger would
New research coming out of the University of California, Davis, suggests that people's ideal partner preferences do not reflect any unique personal insight

A 'breath of nothing' provides a new perspective on superconductivity
Zero electrical resistance at room temperature? A material with this property, i.e. a room temperature superconductor, could revolutionize power distribution.

Walking along blue spaces such as beaches or lakes benefits mental health
Short, frequent walks in blue spaces--areas that prominently feature water, such as beaches, lakes, rivers or fountains -- may have a positive effect on people's well-being and mood, according to a new study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) and published in Environmental Research.

Moffitt researchers identify protein that causes epithelial cancers to spread
In a new article published in the July issue of Cancer Research, Elsa Flores, Ph.D., and her team discovered a key protein that oscillates its expression through microRNA regulation to facilitate cancer spread to distant organs.

Age-related impairments reversed in animal model
Frailty and immune decline are two main features of old age.

Viruses beware: scientists show how bacterial 'attack dog' toxin disrupts protein synthesis
A team of Skoltech researchers from the Severinov laboratory and their colleagues have identified the way in which a component of a two-part bacterial self-defense system from the toxin-antitoxin family works, leading to cell dormancy that helps fight off bacterial viruses, antibiotics and other insults.

Liquid crystal integrated metalens for versatile color focus
A research team from Nanjing University recently demonstrated active manipulation of chromatic dispersion, achieving achromatic focusing within a designated broadband.

Multisample technique to analyze cell adhesion
An assay for imaging the physical interactions between multiple cell populations could help cancer research and treatment assessment.

Coconut confusion reveals consumer conundrum
Coconut oil production may be more damaging to the environment than palm oil, researchers say.

Deterministic reversal of single magnetic vortex circulation by an electric field
Chinese researchers discover a deterministic reversal of magnetic vortex circulation in a Ni79Fe21 (NiFe) island on top of a layered-perovskite Bi2WO6 (BWO) thin film using an electric field.

Double take: New study analyzes global, multiple-tailed lizards
Curtin research into abnormal regeneration events in lizards has led to the first published scientific review on the prevalence of lizards that have re-generated not just one, but two, or even up to six, tails.

Neurobiology -- How much oxygen does the brain need?
The brain has a high energy demand and reacts very sensitively to oxygen deficiency.

Gut bacteria improve type 2 diabetes risk prediction
The composition and function of bacteria in the human intestine -- the so-called gut microbiome -- changes as the day progresses.

How do bacteria build up natural products?
The active agents of many drugs are natural products, so called because often only microorganisms are able to produce the complex structures.

To let neurons talk, immune cells clear paths through brain's 'scaffolding'
To make new memories, our brain cells first must find one another.

Yellow pond-lily prefers cyclic flowers to spiral ones
Biologists from Lomonosov Moscow State University and HSE University have studied the patterns of flower development in yellow water-lily (Nuphar lutea).

Community science birding data does not yet capture global bird trends
Ornithologists at the University of Utah say that community science bird data shows different trends in bird populations than professional bird surveys do, especially in developing countries.

Asthma does not seem to increase the severity of COVID-19
Asthma does not appear to increase the risk for a person contracting COVID-19 or influence its severity, according to a team of Rutgers researchers.

Nitrogen pollution policies around the world lag behind scientific knowledge
National and regional policies aimed at addressing pollution fueled by nitrogen lag behind scientific knowledge of the problem.

When metal flows like liquid glass: a technology for producing superplastic wire is proposed
Currently, low-alloy aluminium is widely used in electrical engineering and machine building.

Compounds halt SARS-CoV-2 replication by targeting key viral enzyme
University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Morsani College of Medicine scientists recently worked with colleagues at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy to identify several existing compounds that block replication of the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) within human cells grown in the laboratory.

Increased risk of injury in contact sports after prolonged training restrictions
Athletes who play contact sports are being particularly hard-hit by the prolonged restrictions imposed on games and training, according to a new study.

Cell 'membrane on a chip' could speed up screening of drug candidates for COVID-19
Researchers have developed a human cell 'membrane on a chip' that allows continuous monitoring of how drugs and infectious agents interact with our cells, and may soon be used to test potential drug candidates for COVID-19.

New research reveals privacy risks of home security cameras
An international study has used data from a major home Internet Protocol (IP) security camera provider to evaluate potential privacy risks for users.

'Pregnancy test for water' delivers fast, easy results on water quality
A new platform technology can assess water safety and quality with just a single drop and a few minutes.

Physics -- Bubbling and burping droplets of DNA
Liquid droplets formed from DNA display a peculiar response to enzymes.

High-order synthetic dimensions in waveguide photonic lattices
In the recent work, scientists from Max-Born-Institute have shown that a multitude of high-dimensional synthetic lattices naturally emerge in (abstract) photon-number space when a multiport photonic lattice is excited by N indistinguishable photons.

Regenerating the body from within using biomaterials
Successful tissue regeneration can have major benefits in healing injuries or replacing portions of diseased or damaged tissue But the effectiveness of the body's own system for repairing such damage can vary greatly.

New insights into van der Waals materials found
Layered van der Waals materials are of high interest for electronic and photonic applications, according to researchers at Penn State and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in California, who provide new insights into the interactions of layered materials with laser and electron beams.

New high proton conductors with inherently oxygen deficient layers open sustainable future
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), discover a new family of high proton-conducting materials -- 'the hexagonal perovskite-related oxides' -- and shed light on the underlying mechanisms responsible for their conductivity.
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