Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 10, 2020
Global COVID-19 registry finds strokes associated with COVID-19 are more severe, have worse outcomes and higher mortality
Patients with COVID-19 who have an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) experience more severe strokes, have worse functional outcomes and are more likely to die of stroke than AIS patients who do not have COVID-19.

Single-cell RNA sequencing outlines the immune landscape of severe COVID-19
A new single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of more than 59,000 cells from three different patient cohorts provides a detailed look at patients' immune responses to severe cases of COVID-19.

Scientists may have found one path to a longer life
Mifepristone appears to extend lifespan in evolutionarily divergent species Drosophila and C. elegans in ways that suggest it may do so in humans, as well.

Sobering reminder about liver disease
Alcohol's popularity and its central place in socialising in Australia obscures the dangers of excessive drinking and possible liver disease, Flinders University experts warn.

Experts, advocates publish guidance for research on HIV, co-infections in pregnancy
Changing practices in the HIV/co-infections research community so that women, providers, and policy makers can make evidence-informed decisions around the use of medications during pregnancy is the goal of the new report, Ending the Evidence Gap for Pregnant Women around HIV and Co-infections: A Call to Action, issued today by the Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS: Seeking Equitable Study (PHASES) Working Group - an international and interdisciplinary team of 26 experts.

Couldn't socially distance? Blame your working memory
Whether you decided to engage in social distancing in the early stages of COVID-19 depended on how much information your working memory could hold.

Theft law needs reform to reduce the risk of judgements which lack 'common sense'
Theft law needs reform so the crime is based on consent not dishonesty - reducing the risk of judgements which lack 'common sense' -- a new study warns.

Genetic differences between global American Crocodile populations identified in DNA analysis
A genetic analysis of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) has re-established our understanding of its population structure, aiding its conservation.

T-ray camera speed boosted a hundred times over
Scientists are a step closer to developing a fast and cost effective camera that utilises terahertz radiation, potentially opening the opportunity for them to be used in non-invasive security and medical screening.

Orbital engineering of quantum confinement in high-Al-content AlGaN quantum well
Recently, professor Kang's group focus on the limitation of quantum confine band offset model, the hole states delocalization in high-Al-content AlGaN quantum well are understood in terms of orbital intercoupling.

Study pinpoints brain cells that trigger sugar cravings and consumption
New research published in Cell Metabolism has identified for the first time the specific brain cells that control how much sugar you eat and how much you crave sweet tasting food.

Black phosphorus-based van der Waals heterostructures for mid-infrared light-emission applications
Optically- and electrically- driven mid-infrared (MIR) light-emitting devices are realized in a simple but novel van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure, constructed from thin-film black phosphorus (BP) and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC).

New study warns of misinformation about opt-out organ donation
A new study has warned of the power of a type of behaviour dubbed the 'lone wolf' effect which could result in people 'opting out' of supporting organ donation.

Largest study of prostate cancer genomics in Black Americans ids targets for therapies
Black men in the United States are known to suffer disproportionately from prostate cancer, but few studies have investigated whether genetic differences in prostate tumors could have anything to do with these health disparities.

Optical shaping of polarization anisotropy in a laterally-coupled-quantum-dot dimer
Coupled-quantum-dot (CQD) structures are considered to be an important building block in the development of scalable quantum devices.

Alaskan volcano linked to mysterious period with extreme climate in ancient Rome
The cold, famine and unrest in ancient Rome and Egypt after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE has long been shrouded in mystery.

Montana State research on plant chemistry published in Global Change Biology
Jack Brookshire's work examines the climate and ecological causes of increased plant productivity in the Northern Great Plains.

Study highlights multiple health risks among a people living longer with HIV
A suite of articles in The Journal of Infectious Diseases contains the first swath of important data from the world's largest study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in people with HIV.

Study links abnormally high blood sugar with higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients not previously diagnosed with diabetes
New research from Wuhan, China shows that, in patients with COVID-19 but without a previous diagnosis of diabetes, abnormally high blood sugar is associated with more than double the risk of death and also an increased risk of severe complications.

Extraordinary regeneration of neurons in zebrafish
Biologists from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish.

More than meets the eye
New findings reframe the traditional view of face blindness as a disorder arising strictly from deficits in visual perception of facial features.

Liquid crystals create easy-to-read, color-changing sensors
Scientists atĀ Pritzker Molecular EngineeringĀ have developed a way to stretch and strain liquid crystals to generate different colors.

Is what I see, what I imagine? Study finds neural overlap between vision and imagination
In Current Biology, Medical University of South Carolina researchers report the results of a study using artificial intelligence and human brain studies to compare brain areas involved in mental imagery and vision.

New biomarker for dementia diagnosis
Medical researchers in the UK and Australia have identified a new marker which could support the search for novel preventative and therapeutic treatments for dementia.

Basel study: Why lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine do not work on COVID-19
Lopinavir is a drug against HIV, hydroxychloroquine is used to treat malaria and rheumatism.

Polarization of Br2 molecule in vanadium oxide cluster cavity and new alkane bromination
A hemispherical vanadium oxide cluster has a cavity that can accommodate a bromine molecule.

Like humans, beluga whales form social networks beyond family ties
A groundbreaking study is the first to analyze the relationship between group behaviors, group type, group dynamics, and kinship of beluga whales in 10 locations across the Arctic.

Study: Medicaid expansion meant better health for the most vulnerable low-income adults
The most vulnerable residents of the nation's 10th most populous state say their health improved significantly after they enrolled in Michigan's expanded Medicaid program, a new study finds.

Study shows that aerosol box used to protect healthcare workers during COVID
A new study shows that certain aerosol boxes of a similar type to those that have been manufactured and used in hospitals in the UK and around the world in order to protect healthcare workers from COVID-19 can actually increase exposure to airborne particles that carry the virus, and thus casts doubt on their usefulness.

Construction: How to turn 36 seconds into USD 5.4 billion
A team of researchers from Aarhus University have, for the first time ever, linked 40 years of productivity data from the construction industry with the actual work done.

Age-related features of facial anatomy for increase safety during plastic surgery
Researchers from the Center for Diagnostics and Telemedicine together with colleagues from Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, University of Munich and Sechenov University used computed tomography to analyze the individual anatomy of the nasolabial triangle.

COVID-19 can be transmitted in the womb, reports pediatric infectious disease journal
A baby girl in Texas -- born prematurely to a mother with COVID-19 -- is the strongest evidence to date that intrauterine (in the womb) transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can occur, reports The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, the official journal of The European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases.

NASA infrared data shows Cristina strengthening
NASA's Aqua satellite revealed better organization and colder cloud top temperatures in Tropical Storm Cristina, indications that the storm was strengthening.

Pandemic inspires framework for enhanced care in nursing homes
As of May 2020, nursing home residents account for a staggering one-third of the more than 80,000 deaths due to COVID-19 in the U.S.

Liquid metal synthesis for better piezoelectrics: Atomically-thin tin-monosulfide
An RMIT-UNSW collaboration applies liquid-metal synthesis to piezoelectrics, advancing future flexible, wearable electronics, and biosensors drawing their power from the body's movements.

Invention: "Nanocage" tool untangles (molecular) spaghetti
A team of scientists at the University of Vermont have invented a new tool--they call it a ''nanocage''--that can catch and straighten out molecule-sized tangles of polymers --whether made of protein or plastic.

An early morning whey protein snack increases morning blood sugar level in healthy people
Consuming protein at night increases blood sugar level in the morning for healthy people, according to new research presented this week at The Physiological Society's virtual early career conference called Future Physiology 2020.

Gender bias in evaluating surgical residency faculty members may be decreasing
In the male-dominated field of surgery, female faculty of training programs tend to receive lower scores than male faculty on their teaching evaluations, which are important for career advancement, past research has found.

A balancing act between immunity and longevity
Changes in the immune system can promote healthy ageing

How Venus flytraps snap
Venus flytraps catch spiders and insects by snapping their trap leaves.

Collective behavior research reveals secrets of successful football teams
Collective behaviour researchers have applied a new tool for analysing the movement of football players that goes beyond looking at individual athletes to capturing how the team operates as a whole.

BU researchers: 'Gun culture 3.0' is missing link to understand US gun culture
A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study published in the Nature journal Humanities & Social Sciences Communications, shows that gun ownership means very different things in different parts of the United States.

Understanding the love-hate relationship of halide perovskites with the sun
Perovskiet solar cells are at the center of much recent solar research.

TGen identifies immune effects of drug in aggressive ovarian cancer striking young women
A drug known as SP-2577 could help enable the body's own immune system to attack ovarian cancer, according to a study led by TGen.

Is gender equality achievable in the Russian family?
Distribution of rights and obligations in the family, opportunities and responsibilities in performing the main family functions is one of the most controversial, but at the same time one of the most important issues in the modern context.

NASA tracks tropical storm fay's development and strongest side
NASA used satellite data to create an animation of Fay's development and progression over the past few days, showing how the storm organized into a tropical storm.

Nano-radiomics unveils treatment effect on tumor microenvironment
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital have developed a novel noninvasive approach called nano-radiomics that analyzes imaging data to assess changes in the tumor microenvironment that are not detected with conventional imaging methods.

Discovery of a novel drug candidate to develop effective treatments for brain disorders
Researchers at IIT-Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia discovered a novel chemical compound, which has the potential to became a new drug for the treatment of core symptoms of brain disorders like Down syndrome and autism.

Day in, day out: Targeting the daily magnesium "rhythm" can optimize crop yield
Many processes of photosynthesis, including the intake of magnesium, follow a pattern of variation over 24 hours.

Microscopy technique reveals nanoscale detail of coatings as they dry
Thin film coatings do more than add color to walls.

Viral dark matter exposed: Metagenome database detects phage-derived antibacterial enzyme
In a pioneer study published in Cell Host & Microbe - Researchers at Osaka City University and The Institute for Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, reported intestinal bacterial and viral metagenome information from the fecal samples of 101 healthy Japanese individuals.

Satellite data show severity of drought summers in 2018 and 2019
Measurements by the GRACE-FO satellite mission show a decline in water storage in Central Europe by up to 94 percent compared with seasonal fluctuations.

Study finds fatty acid that kills cancer cells
Researchers have demonstrated that a fatty acid called dihomogamma-linolenic acid, or DGLA, can induce ferroptosis, an iron-dependent type of cell death, in an animal model and in human cancer cells.

Commentary in Pediatrics: Children don't transmit Covid-19, schools should reopen in fall
Based on one new and three recent studies, the authors of this commentary in Pediatrics conclude that children rarely transmit Covid-19, either among themselves or to adults.

Fat cell hormone boosts potential of stem cell therapy
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in the treatment of conditions ranging from liver cirrhosis to retinal damage, but results can be variable.

Health disparities published in new volume
Leading health disparities experts hope health institutions will take advantage of a new cancer health equity research volume recently released that curates the latest developments in how researchers can best address health disparities so all patients receive good quality care.

Columbia physicians give first comprehensive review of COVID-19's effects outside the lung
Based on their experience treating COVID-19, Columbia physicians have assembled critical information about the coronavirus's effects on organs outside the lungs.

Mom and baby share 'good bacteria' through breast milk
A new study by researchers at the University of British Columbia and the University of Manitoba has found that bacteria are shared and possibly transferred from a mother's milk to her infant's gut, and that breastfeeding directly at the breast best supports this process.

New research shows that laser spectral linewidth is classical-physics phenomenon
New ground-breaking research from the University of Surrey could change the way scientists understand and describe lasers - establishing a new relationship between classical and quantum physics.

Farmers' climate change conundrum: Low yields or revenue instability
Climate change will leave some farmers with a difficult conundrum, according to a new study by researchers from Cornell University and Washington State University: Either risk more revenue volatility, or live with a more predictable decrease in crop yields.

Arctic Ocean changes driven by sub-Arctic seas
New research explores how lower-latitude oceans drive complex changes in the Arctic Ocean, pushing the region into a new reality distinct from the 20th-century norm.

Fast-spreading mutation helps common flu subtype escape immune response
Strains of a common subtype of influenza virus, H3N2, have almost universally acquired a mutation that effectively blocks antibodies from binding to a key viral protein.

Robust high-performance data storage through magnetic anisotropy
A technologically relevant material for HAMR data memories are thin films of iron-platinum nanograins.
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