Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 14, 2020
Links between video games and gambling run deeper than previously thought, study reveals
A new study suggests that a number of practices in video games, such as token wagering, real-money gaming, and social casino spending, are significantly linked to problem gambling.

No evidence that predator control will save mountain caribou, study says
Addressing potential threats from predators has not slowed the dramatic decline of mountain caribou in British Columbia and Alberta, according to a new study by scientists from the University of Alberta and two other western Canadian universities.

High-fat diet with antibiotic use linked to gut inflammation
UC Davis researchers have found that combining a Western-style high-fat diet with antibiotic use significantly increases the risk of developing pre- inflammatory bowel disease.

NREL research points to strategies for recycling of solar panels
Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have conducted the first global assessment into the most promising approaches to end-of-life management for solar photovoltaic (PV) modules.

Study finds hidden emotions in the sound of words
In the midst of the COVID-19 crisis, it's common to feel stress levels rise every time we hear the word ''virus.'' But new Cornell-led research reveals that the sound of the word itself was likely to raise your blood pressure - even before ''corona'' was added to it.

Unexpected associations found between drug response and cell changes in brain cancer
Therapies for treating glioblastoma brain cancer can be delivered with greater precision and existing drugs can be used in new ways.

Evolution after Chicxulub asteroid impact: Rapid response of life to end-cretaceous mass
The impact event that formed the Chicxulub crater (Yucatán Peninsula, México) caused the extinction of 75% of species on Earth 66 million years ago, including non-avian dinosaurs.

29,000 years of Aboriginal history
The known timeline of the Aboriginal occupation of South Australia's Riverland region has been vastly extended by new research led by Flinders University in collaboration with the River Murray and Mallee Aboriginal Corporation (RMMAC).

Tale of the tape: Sticky bits make better batteries
Rice University scientists use an industrial laser to turn adhesive tape into a component for safer, anode-free lithium metal batteries.

Hammer-on technique for atomic vibrations in a crystal
Vibrations of atoms in a crystal of the semiconductor gallium arsenide (GaAs) are impulsively shifted to a higher frequency by an optically excited electric current.

NHGRI researchers generate complete human X chromosome sequence
Researchers at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have produced the first end-to-end DNA sequence of a human chromosome.

New lithium battery charges faster, reduces risk of device explosions
Cell phone batteries often heat up and, at times, can burst into flames.

New, remote weight-loss method helped slash pounds
A new Northwestern Medicine remote weight-loss program, called Opt-IN, provides maximum weight loss for the lowest cost and with much less hassle than the gold-standard National Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), the most successful behavioral non-drug treatment currently available.

Study shows how our brains remain active during familiar, repetitive tasks
New research, based on earlier results in mice, suggests that our brains are never at rest, even when we are not learning anything about the world around us.

A study on maternal mortality in Mozambique detects a major diagnostic error in a high percentage of deaths
An analysis of a series of maternal deaths in Maputo's central hospital, in Mozambique, reveals a major diagnostic error in almost 40% of the deaths.

July/August 2020 Annals of Family Medicine tip sheet
Annals of Family Medicine is a peer-reviewed, indexed research journal that provides a cross-disciplinary forum for new, evidence-based information affecting the primary care disciplines.

Keeping innocent people out of jail using the science of perception
People wrongfully accused of a crime often wait years -- if ever -- to be exonerated.

What encourages--or impedes--primary care team collaboration through case management?
While multiple recent studies have provided evidence of the benefits of case management, primary care teams have struggled to implement and sustain its use in their clinical practices.

Palliative nursing's role during COVID-19 and beyond
As a rapid influx of patients overwhelmed health systems during the coronavirus pandemic, palliative nurses played dual roles supporting patients, patient families, and colleagues.

Transparent inorganic multicolour displays enabled by zinc-based electrochromic devices
Electrochromic displays have been the subject of extensive research as a promising colour display technology.

Molecularly thin interface between polymers -- for efficient CO2 capture membrane
Composite membranes for CO2 separation contain different functional layers in their structure (e.g. porous mechanical support, selective layer etc.).

Transparent, reflective objects now within grasp of robots
Kitchen robots are a popular vision of the future, but if a robot of today tries to grasp a kitchen staple such as a clear measuring cup or a shiny knife, it likely won't be able to.

What determines a warbler's colors?
A new study has narrowed down the region of the genome that drives the black color in throat and face of warblers by studying the hybrid offspring produced when two species mate.

For chimpanzees, salt and pepper hair not a marker of old age
Silver strands and graying hair is a sign of aging in humans, but things aren't so simple for our closest ape relatives--the chimpanzee.

Tech sector job interviews assess anxiety, not software skills
A new study finds that the technical interviews currently used in hiring for many software engineering positions test whether a job candidate has performance anxiety rather than whether the candidate is competent at coding.

Majority of US men want their doctors to ask about intimate partner violence
Nine out of 10 US men ages 18 to 35 support health care providers asking about intimate partner violence, according to new survey analysis.

LGBT-friendly medical practices improve STD/HIV screening rates for vulnerable populations
This report--describing the first national quality improvement collaborative focused on providing culturally affirming care for LGBT people--finds that making primary care practices more LGBT-friendly and inclusive may improve STD and HIV screening rates among this vulnerable population.

COVID-19 tip sheet: Story ideas from Johns Hopkins
For information from Johns Hopkins Medicine about the coronavirus pandemic, visit hopkinsmedicine.org/coronavirus.

About 94 per cent of wild bee and native plant species networks lost, York study finds
Climate change and an increase in disturbed bee habitats from expanding agriculture and development in northeastern North America over the last 30 years are likely responsible for a 94 per cent loss of plant-pollinator networks, York University researchers found.

The earliest cat on the Northern Silk Road
Dr. Irina Arzhantseva and Professor Heinrich Haerke from the Centre for Classical and Oriental Archaeology (IKVIA, Faculty of Humanities, HSE University) have been involved in the discovery of the earliest domestic cat yet found in northern Eurasia.

New measure of social determinants of health may improve cardiovascular health assessment
The authors of this study developed a single risk score derived from multiple social determinants of health that predicts county-level cardiovascular disease mortality.

International conference on social determinants of health identified change needs
In November 2019, clinicians, health administrators, educators and researchers from around the world gathered in Toronto to discuss how to best address social determinants of health from a primary care perspective.

Particulate plutonium released from the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns
Small amounts of plutonium (Pu) were released from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) reactors into the environment during the site's 2011 nuclear disaster.

Scientists found a way to identify diseases by blood serum
Researchers developed a new dynamic light scattering method to determine the sizes of circulating immune complexes in blood serum.

Long-term safety of radiotherapy in fewer doses for patients with early breast cancer
A lower total dose of radiotherapy delivered in fewer but larger doses is as safe in the long term as breast cancer radiotherapy courses giving multiple small doses, according to the final results of a 10-year study.

Invasive alien species may soon cause dramatic global biodiversity loss
An increase of 20 to 30 per cent of invasive non-native (alien) species would lead to dramatic future biodiversity loss worldwide.

Participants in CPC+ are diverse but not representative of all primary care practices
This study analyzes patterns of participation in the Comprehensive Primary Care Plus initiative which is the largest voluntary primary care payment and delivery reform model tested to date.

Ups and downs in COVID-19 data may be caused by data reporting practices
As data accumulates on COVID-19 cases and deaths, researchers have observed patterns of peaks and valleys that repeat on a near-weekly basis.

Thermonuclear blast sends supernova survivor star hurtling across the Milky Way
An exploding white dwarf star blasted itself out of its orbit with another star in a 'partial supernova' and is now hurtling across our galaxy, according to a new study from the University of Warwick.

Lung screening bus brings high-tech health care directly to patients
A mobile platform for lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) can be developed with limited financial risk and take powerful screening tests directly to patients, including underserved rural areas where rates of new lung cancer cases tend to be higher.

Designing better asteroid explorers
Recent NASA missions to asteroids have used robotic explorers to gather data about the early evolution of our Solar System, planet formation, and how life may have originated on Earth.

Wireless aquatic robot could clean water and transport cells
Researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology developed a tiny plastic robot, made of responsive polymers, which moves under the influence of light and magnetism.

Gemini Observatory's quick reflexes capture fleeting flash
Rapid follow-up of the optical afterglow from one of the most distant confirmed short gamma-ray bursts (SGRB), thought to be the merger of two neutron stars, is casting new light on these enigmatic objects.

When a pandemic strikes, we still expect an ambulance
Edith Cowan University (ECU) PhD candidate and paramedic Cameron Anderson investigated community attitudes regarding the professional obligation of paramedics to respond during pandemics.

Report calls for government to 'level up' Stoke-on-Trent economy
Stoke-on-Trent faces an increased threat of poverty and destitution due to the COVID-19 crisis, a new report reveals.

The plight of the Kalahari San
San (Bushmen) communities in southern Africa continue to call upon their governments and international organizations to recognize their human rights and protect their welfare.

St18 is a negative regulator of VEGF
A research team led by Kenta Maruyama M.D., Ph.D. from National Institute for Physiological Sciences explored the role of St18 in the regulation of VEGF expression.

Loss of a co-twin linked to heightened psychiatric risk
The death of a twin, especially earlier in life, can increase the risk of their surviving twin being diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, finds a new study published today in eLife.

COVID-19 makes clear the need to address social determinants of health
University of Michigan public health experts Julia Wolfson and Cindy Leung argue that the COVID-19 pandemic has made glaringly apparent the structural conditions that underlie inequities in our nation's health.

Study: RNA repair shows promise in reversing mutations underlying a neurological disorder
Scientists successfully edited RNA in a living animal in such a way that the repaired RNA then corrected a mutation in a protein that gives rise to a debilitating neurological disorder in people known as Rett syndrome.

Scientists at USC and other institutions develop new method to improve police lineups
For the first time, scientists have developed a way to measure the reliability of an eyewitness trying to pick a culprit from a police lineup.

Quantum body scanner? What happens when vector vortex beams meet scattering media
As explained in their report, the team implemented a flexible platform to generate VVBs and Gaussian beams, and investigated their propagation through a medium that mimics the features of biological tissue.

Drones and artificial intelligence show promise for conservation of farmland bird nests
Every spring, a large number of ground-nests of farmland birds are accidentally destroyed by mechanical operations, such as ploughing and sowing.

Cyanobacteria from Lake Chad analyzed for toxins
Analysis of dried cyanobacterial cakes from Lake Chad show that they are rich in needed amino acids, but some exceed WHO standards for microcystin, a potent liver toxin.

Back to the future: new study could lead to bumper crops
Research led by scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) could lead to major improvements in crop production.

Avian speciation: Uniform vs. particolored plumage
Although carrion crows and hooded crows are almost indistinguishable genetically, they avoid mating with each other.

Underused part of the electromagnetic spectrum gets optics boost from metamaterial
Terahertz radiation, or T-rays, has barely been exploited compared to most of the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Universal COVID-19 testing following detection of new cases in 11 long-term care facilities
The outcomes of universal COVID-19 testing following the discovery of new cases in 11 long-term care facilities in the US are evaluated in this observational study.

Omega-3s provide no benefits against bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very preterm infants
Consumption of DHA supplements, an omega-3 fatty acid, by breastfeeding mothers is ineffective in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants born before the 29th week of pregnancy.

Improving animal research: New ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines released
The ARRIVE guidelines for the rigorous reporting of animal studies were published in 2010 by the UK-based science organisation, the NC3Rs.

Twisting magnetic fields for extreme plasma compression
A new spin on the magnetic compression of plasmas could improve materials science, nuclear fusion research, X-ray generation and laboratory astrophysics, research led by the University of Michigan suggests.

Robot jaws shows medicated chewing gum could be the future
Medicated chewing gum has been recognised as a new advanced drug delivery method but currently there is no gold standard for testing drug release from chewing gum in vitro.

Cardiac CT can double as osteoporosis test
Cardiac CT exams performed to assess heart health also provide an effective way to screen for osteoporosis, potentially speeding treatment to the previously undiagnosed, according to a new study.

Dancing chemicals: Innovative catalytic reaction for low-cost synthesis of aromatic esters
Aromatic esters are a versatile group of compounds that are commonly used as feedstock in the chemical industry.

Scientists find new link between delirium and brain energy disruption
Scientists have discovered a new link between impaired brain energy metabolism and delirium -- a disorienting and distressing disorder particularly common in the elderly and one that is currently occurring in a large proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Ancient oyster shells provide historical insights
Scientists studying thousands of oyster shells along the Georgia coast, some as old as 4,500 years, have published new insights into how Native Americans sustained oyster harvests for thousands of years, observations that may lead to better management practices of oyster reefs today.

Oncotarget: The Golgi protein TMEM165 controls migration/invasion for carcinoma
The cover for issue 28 of Oncotarget features Figure 5, 'TMEM165 expression levels alters N-linked glycosylation,' by Murali, et al., and reported that the TMEM165 protein was not detected in non-malignant matched breast tissues and was detected in invasive ductal breast carcinoma tissues by mass spectrometry.

The Lancet: World population likely to shrink after mid-century, forecasting major shifts in global population and economic power
World's population likely to shrink after mid-century, forecasting major shifts in global population and economic power - new analysis, published in The Lancet forecasts global, regional, and national populations, mortality, fertility, and migration for 195 countries worldwide.

Towards prosperous public goods with freedom of choice
An experimental game reveals that having the freedom to choose preferred public goods greatly increases their value by motivating more, and better, provisioning.

Graduates of family medicine residencies are likely to enter and remain in family medicine
This study provides an overview of the characteristics of physicians who completed family medicine residency training from 1994 to 2017.

Moffitt researchers find dual inhibitor may be safer for CLL patients
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers want to learn more about how PI3K inhibitor therapy works with the body's immune system to determine if there are ways to predict or mitigate associated adverse effects.

More than one cognition: A call for change in the field of comparative psychology
In a paper published in the Journal of Intelligence, researchers argue that cognitive studies in comparative psychology often wrongly take an anthropocentric approach, resulting in an over-valuation of human-like abilities and the assumption that cognitive skills cluster in animals as they do in humans.

"Knock codes" for smartphone security are easily predicted, researchers say
Smartphone owners who unlock their devices with knock codes aren't as safe as they think, according to new research.

Supercomputer reveals atmospheric impact of gigantic planetary collisions
The giant impacts that dominate late stages of planet formation have a wide range of consequences for young planets and their atmospheres, according to new research.

COVID-19 pandemic could be learning opportunity for middle-grade students
Educators could use the COVID-19 outbreak to help middle-schoolers better understand the world, according to new research from faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Scientists achieve first complete assembly of human X chromosome
Although the current human reference genome is the most accurate and complete vertebrate genome ever produced, there are still gaps in the DNA sequence, even after two decades of improvements.

Oncotarget: Tumor markers for carcinoma identified by imaging mass spectrometry
Volume 11, Issue 28 of Oncotarget features 'Lipid and protein tumor markers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma identified by imaging mass spectrometry' by Schmidt et, al. which reported that the authors used MALDI imaging mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry to seek tumor-specific expression of proteins and lipids in HNSCC samples.

Umbilical cord blood successfully treats rare genetic disorders in largest study to date
Infusing umbilical cord blood - a readily available source of stem cells - safely and effectively treated 44 children born with various non-cancerous genetic disorders, including sickle cell, thalassemia, Hunter syndrome, Krabbe disease, MLD, and an array of immune deficiencies.

COVID-19 and the heart: Searching for the location of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor
Nearly 20% of COVID-19-associated deaths are from cardiac complications, yet the mechanisms from which these complications arise have remained a topic of debate in the cardiology community.

Gut bacteria protect against mosquito-borne viral illness
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.

NASA infrared view finds small areas of strength in new depression 6E
NASA's Aqua satellite used infrared light to identify the strongest storms and coldest cloud top temperatures in Tropical Depression 6E.

The five phases of pandemic care for primary care
The authors present a roadmap for necessary primary care practice transformations to care for patients and communities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Antibiotic allergy reporting may lead to resistance, higher costs, decreased safety
Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed medications, but in determining the most appropriate prescription for a patient, doctors and pharmacists often rely on inaccurate records of the patient's antibiotic allergies.

Scientists ID gene responsible for deadly glioblastoma
The discovery of the oncogene responsible for glioblastoma could be the brain cancer's Achilles' heel, one researcher says.

Machine learning accurately predicts who's who in the health care workforce
Until recently, economists, policy makers and workforce experts have relied on outdated and inaccurate snapshots of the US physician workforce, making it especially difficult to predict the need and availability of health care services across the country.

Experts' high-flying study reveals secrets of soaring birds
New research has revealed when it comes to flying the largest of birds don't rely on flapping to move around.

Molecular "tails" are secret ingredient for gene activation
Researchers in the lab of Caltech's Paul Sternberg discover how diverse forms of life are able to use the same cellular machinery for DNA transcription.

Perovskite solar cells developed by NTU Singapore scientists record highest power conversion
A team of researchers at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has created a perovskite solar mini module that has recorded the highest power conversion efficiency of any perovskite-based device larger than 10 cm2.

Autism researchers map brain circuitry of social preference
A new study reveals how two key neural circuits dictate the choice between social approach and avoidance.

Nanoelectronics learn the same way as the human brain
Activities in the field of artificial intelligence, like teaching robots to walk, demand ever more powerful, yet at the same time more economical computer chips.

New french prescribing rules result in decreased prescribing of certain sleep drugs
In France, the implementation of new prescribing rules for the sedative-hypnotic drug zolpidem led to an important and immediate decrease in use.

A Raspberry Pi-based virtual reality system for small animals
The Raspberry Pi Virtual Reality system (PiVR) is a versatile tool for presenting virtual reality environments to small, freely moving animals (such as flies and fish larvae), according to a study published July 14, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by David Tadres and Matthieu Louis of the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Age of sexual debut among young gay-identified sexual minority men
Young gay sexual minority men - especially Black and Latino youth - have their first sexual experiences at younger ages, emphasizing a need for comprehensive and inclusive sex education, according to Rutgers researchers.

Customizable smart window technology could improve energy efficiency of buildings
Scientists combined solar cell technology with a novel optimization approach to develop a smart window prototype that maximizes design across a wide range of criteria.

Robert Graham Center: First steps towards gender parity in academic authorship
Researchers affiliated with the Robert Graham Center for Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care conducted a descriptive bibliometric analysis to determine the gender ratio of scholarly authorship on publications by its researchers between 2008 and 2018.

Maunakea Observatories' quick reflexes capture fleeting flash
Astronomers have discovered the second-most distant short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) ever detected using two Maunakea Observatories in Hawaii.

Global methane emissions soar to record high
The pandemic has tugged carbon emissions down, temporarily. But levels of the powerful heat-trapping gas methane continue to climb, dragging the world further away from a path that skirts the worst effects of global warming.

Space to grow, or grow in space -- how vertical farms could be ready to take-off
Vertical farms with their soil-free, computer-controlled environments may sound like sci-fi.

New hope for kidney revival for transplant
Cell therapy delivered directly to the kidney can revive a 'marginal' organ, improving function and could offer new hope for providing more kidneys for transplant.

COVID-19: Cuba offers UK salutary lesson in 'shoe-leather' epidemiology
Cuba's successful containment of COVID-19 through door-to-door screening of every home in the country, shows how 'shoe-leather' epidemiology could have averted the dramatic failure of the UK's response to the pandemic.

Predation by Caspian terns on young steelhead means fewer return as adults
Caspian terns feeding on young fish have a significant impact on runs of steelhead in the Columbia River, new research suggests.

Converting female mosquitoes to non-biting males with implications for mosquito control
''Nix has great potential for developing mosquito control strategies to reduce vector populations through female-to-male sex conversion, or to aid in the Sterile Insect Technique, which requires releasing only nonbiting males,'' said James Biedler, a research scientist in the Tu lab.

Why hydration is so important when hiking in the heat of summer
A recent study showed that compared to moderate weather conditions, hikers' performance during hot weather was impaired, resulting in slower hiking speeds and prolonged exposure to the elements, thus increasing their risk of heat-related illness.

Kiwis stockpile paracetamol, the basis of most calls to National Poisons Centre
While paracetamol was the most common substance of enquiry for calls to the National Poisons Centre in 2018, new research reveals most New Zealanders have large quantities of the painkiller stockpiled in their homes.

A biologist and a historian are looking for art to trace fruit and vegetable evolution
Plant geneticists seeking to understand the history of plant-based foods can decode the genomes of ancient crops from well-preserved samples.

Mismatched caregiver-infant interactions during feeding could boost babies' risk of later obesity
A new integrative review examined evidence related to infants' self-regulation of behavior and emotion, and how that relates to interactions when they are fed by their caregivers, including how those interactions may derail infants' ability to regulate their intake of food.

Butterfly wings inspiring next-gen technological innovations
The global energy shortages, environmental degradation and deteriorating healthcare are causing devastating effects to human life.

Factors maximize impact of yoga, physical therapy on back pain in underserved population
New research shows that people with chronic low back pain (cLBP) have better results from yoga and physical therapy compared to reading evidence-based self-help materials.

New study shows SARS-CoV-2 viral load peaks in the early stages of disease
In a retrospective study, investigators from New York University Langone Health found that the quantity of SARS-CoV-2 (viral load) collected from patients in the emergency department is significantly higher in patients with fewer or milder symptoms who did not require hospitalization--the opposite of what might be expected.

How to map brain connections using DNA barcodes
Detailed wiring diagrams--connectomes--for the brain are critical for understanding brain development, function, and disease.

COVID-19 may attack patients' central nervous system
''There may be more central nervous system penetration of the virus than we think based on the prevalence of olfaction-associated depressed mood and anxiety and this really opens up doors for future investigations to look at how the virus may interact with the central nervous system,'' explains Ahmad Sedaghat, MD, PhD.

Pesticide mixtures a bigger problem than previously thought
New research led by The University of Queensland has provided the first comprehensive analysis of pesticide mixtures in creeks and rivers discharging to the Great Barrier Reef.

Short gamma ray burst leaves most-distant optical afterglow ever detected
New research shows that neutron stars in a 'teenage' universe could merge relatively quickly.

A new path for electron optics in solid-state systems
In combined theoretical and experimental work, physicists at ETH Zurich introduce and demonstrate a novel mechanism for electron optics in two-dimensional solid-state systems.

Correlations identified between insurance coverage and states' voting patterns
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University reviewed national data from the U.S.

Researchers cast doubt on earlier COVID-19 origins study citing dogs as possible hosts
A study published earlier this year claiming the coronavirus may have jumped from dogs to humans is scientifically flawed, offering no direct evidence to support its conclusions, according to a collaborative group of international researchers, including scientists at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

Vision scientists discover why people literally don't see eye to eye
We humans may not always see eye to eye on politics, religion, sports and other matters of debate.

Experimental COVID-19 vaccine safe, generates immune response
An investigational vaccine, mRNA-1273, designed to protect against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was generally well tolerated and prompted neutralizing antibody activity in healthy adults, according to interim results published today in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Researchers found a link between genes and preeclampsia
Researchers have showed that HLA-G gene regulates male-to-female ratio at birth.

Rapid genome sequencing and screening help hospital manage COVID-19 outbreaks
Cambridge researchers have shown how rapid genome sequencing of virus samples and enhanced testing of hospital staff can help to identify clusters of healthcare-associated COVID-19 infections.

Messages sent by osteoblasts to osteoclasts are enclosed in an extracellular vesicle
Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts are necessary for fracture repair. While osteoblasts are known to control the formation and activity of osteoclasts, the inter-cellular signaling involved in this process is not fully understood.

New androgen receptor structure suggests prostate cancer treatment options
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine reveal for the first time the complete 3-D structure of the active, full-length androgen receptor-coactivator complex as it interacts with DNA.
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