Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 17, 2020
Turmeric could have antiviral properties
Curcumin, a natural compound found in the spice turmeric, could help eliminate certain viruses, research has found.

N-doped carbon encapsulated transition metal catalysts to optimize performance of zinc-air batteries
In a report published in NANO, a team of researchers from Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, China have developed N-doped carbon encapsulated transition metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER) to optimize performance of zinc-air batteries.

MU advances chemotherapy-free treatment for cancer in animals and humans
Osteosarcoma, a common bone cancer in dogs, affects more than 10,000 dogs in the US each year.

Baleen whales have changed their distribution in the Western North Atlantic
Researchers using passive acoustic recordings of whale calls to track their movements have found that four of the six baleen whale species found in the western North Atlantic Ocean -- humpback, sei, fin and blue whales -- have changed their distribution patterns in the past decade.

Pressure suppresses carrier trapping in 2D halide perovskite
Here, we show a remarkable PL enhancement by 12 folds using pressure to modulate the structure of a recently developed 2D perovskite (HA)2(GA)Pb2I7 (HA = n?hexylammonium, GA = guanidinium).

Neural vulnerability in Huntington's disease tied to release of mitochondrial RNA
A uniquely comprehensive survey of gene expression by cell type in humans and mice revealed several deficits affecting the most vulnerable neurons in Huntigton's disease.

Isoflavones in soybean help protect pigs against viral infections
Pigs that eat soybean as a regular part of their diet may be better protected against viral pathogens, a new study from University of Illinois shows.

Fast and flexible computation of optical diffraction
The efficient calculation of diffraction is of significance for tracing electromagnetic field propagation and predicting the performance of optical systems.

Orderly arranged bead-chain ternary nanocomposites for supercapacitors
In a paper published in NANO, a group of researchers from Jiangsu University of Technology, China have developed novel Cu2O-Mn3O4-NiO ternary nanocomposites by electrostatic spinning technology, which improved the performance of supercapacitors electrode materials.

Clear strategies needed to reduce bushmeat hunting
Extensive wildlife trade not only threatens species worldwide but can also lead to the transmission of zoonotic diseases.

Antarctica more widely impacted by humans than previously thought
Using a data set of 2.7 million human activity records, the team showed just how extensive human use of Antarctica has been over the last 200 years

Lifetime discrimination and greater risk of high blood pressure in African Americans
Experiences of discrimination over a lifetime is associated with high blood pressure in African American adults, according to findings published this month in the journal Hypertension from researchers at the Urban Health Collaborative at Drexel University's Dornsife School of Public Health.

Cannabis shows potential for mitigating sickle cell disease pain
Cannabis appears to be a safe and potentially effective treatment for the chronic pain that afflicts people with sickle cell disease, according to a new clinical trial co-led by University of California, Irvine researcher Kalpna Gupta and Dr.

Paper: Mundane behavioral decisions, actions can be 'misremembered' as done
Mundane behaviors such as taking a daily medication can eventually create false memories of completing the task, said Dolores Albarracin, a professor of psychology and marketing at Illinois and the director of the Social Action Lab.

UNH scientists find faster way to count animal sperm using DNA
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have identified a quicker and less expensive way to count sperm in lobsters that could help scientists looking at any animal better understand mating, a key aspect of species survival.

Enhanced water repellent surfaces discovered in nature
Through the investigation of insect surfaces, Penn State researchers have detailed a previously unidentified nanostructure that can be used to engineer stronger, more resilient water repellent coatings.

Uplifting of Columbia River basalts opens window on how region was sculpted
Information drawn from analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of materials from exposed Columbia River basalts has provided insights about how magma from volcanic eruptions millions of years ago shaped the region and why those eruptions did not trigger a global extinction event.

K-State study first to show SARS-CoV-2 is not transmitted by mosquitoes
A new study by Kansas State University researchers is the first to confirm that SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, cannot be transmitted to people by mosquitoes.

Pesticides speed the spread of deadly waterborne pathogens
Widespread use of pesticides can speed the transmission of the debilitating disease schistosomiasis, while also upsetting the ecological balances in aquatic environments that prevent infections, finds a new study led by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley.

Perspective: T cell responses to COVID-19 are a crucial target for research
While early research on the adaptive immune response to COVID-19 primarily looked at antibodies, more information is now emerging on how T cells react to the SARS-CoV-2 virus - addressing a crucial knowledge gap, say Daniel Altmann and Rosemary Boyton in a new Perspective.

The secret to renewable solar fuels is an off-and-on again relationship
Copper that was once bound with oxygen is better at converting CO2 into renewable fuels than copper that was never bound to oxygen, according to Berkeley Lab and Caltech scientists.

Coordinated exit strategies crucial to avoid virus second-wave in Europe
Research by the University of Southampton shows European countries need to work together when lifting lockdown measures, to prevent COVID-19 cases rising again on the continent.

River plants counter both flooding and drought to protect biodiversity
'Water plants are a nuisance in streams, blocking the flow.

Radiology practices struggle to survive amid COVID-19
Private radiology practices have been especially hard hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the steps they take to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on their practice will shape the future of radiology, according to a special report from the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) COVID-19 Task Force.

Increased psychological well-being after the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic
Expectations for our mental health during and after the corona lockdown were pessimistic, but thus far the situation has not turned out to be quite as bad as feared.

New insight into the origin of water on the earth
Scientists have found the interstellar organic matter could produce an abundant supply of water by heating, suggesting that organic matter could be the source of terrestrial water.

New technology promises to revolutionize nanomedicine
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and their colleagues from Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed a breakthrough technology to resolve a key problem that has prevented the introduction of novel drugs into clinical practice for decades.

Researchers realize nanoscale electrometry based on magnetic-field-resistant spin sensor
USTC researchers proposed a robust electrometric method utilizing continuous dynamic decoupling (CDD) technique, where the continuous driving fields provide a magnetic-field-resistant dressed frame.

Coordination helps avoid continental COVID-19 resurgence, European modeling study shows
Coordinated lockdown strategies among countries is key to preventing resurgent COVID-19 outbreaks in continental Europe, a new modeling study shows.

Predicting the biodiversity of rivers
Biodiversity and thus the state of river ecosystems can now be predicted by combining environmental DNA with hydrological methods, researchers from the University of Zurich and Eawag have found.

Study identifies missing piece needed for lower-cost, high-quality MRI
Researchers identify the missing piece needed to generate high-quality imaging using low-cost MRI scanners.

COVID-19: Viral shutdown of protein synthesis
Researchers from Munich and Ulm have determined how the pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the synthesis of proteins in infected cells and shown that it effectively disarms the body's innate immune system

Chemical thermometers take temperature to the nanometric scale
Scientists from the Coordination Chemistry Laboratory and Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems, both of the CNRS, recently developed molecular films that can measure the operating temperature of electronic components on a nanometric scale.

Kidney transplant, the cost of accounting for patients' preferences
Taking into account patients' preferences can help speed up the organ allocation process and improve the life quality of the recipients, as shown by a joint study conducted by Ca' Foscari University and the University of Padua

Women taking menopausal hormone therapy may be more resistant to urine infections
In the first analysis of its kind, US-based doctors have shown that women who take menopausal hormone therapy (MHT, also known as HRT) have a greater variety of beneficial bacteria in their urine, possibly creating conditions that discourage urinary infections.

Female surgeon scientists claim more than their share of research grants
While their ranks in academic surgery may be not be robust, women surgeons are holding their own when it comes to surgical research, securing a greater percentage of NIH grants than their numbers suggest.

Doctors motivated by both health, malpractice concerns when ordering additional tests
A UCLA-led study has found that dermatopathologists, who specialize in diagnosing skin diseases at the microscopic level, are motivated both by patient safety concerns and by malpractice fears -- often simultaneously -- when ordering multiple tests and obtaining second opinions, with a higher proportion of these doctors reporting patient safety as a concern.

Glaucoma study findings emphasise need for regular eye checks
People with early-stage glaucoma see the contrast of visible objects in a very similar way to people without the condition, a new study has shown.

Major study shows prostate cancer treatment has significant impact on quality of life
Findings from the first international prostate cancer quality of life study conducted by patients themselves reports that significant numbers of men treated for the disease are struggling with continence and sexual problems after treatment.

Reduction in commercial flights due to COVID-19 leading to less accurate weather forecasts
Weather forecasts have become less accurate during the COVID-19 pandemic due to the reduction in commercial flights, according to new research.

Pigs turn to humans as dogs do, unless they have a problem to solve
Researchers compared human-oriented communicative behaviours of young miniature pigs and dogs kept as companion animals.

A call to arms: Enlisting private land owners in conservation
In 1872 the United States created Yellowstone, the first National Park in the world.

Archaeologists use tooth enamel protein to show sex of human remains
A new method for estimating the biological sex of human remains based on reading protein sequences rather than DNA has been used to study an archaeological site in Northern California.

Researchers discover hybrid fungus involved in lung infections
This is the first time Aspergillus latus has been found in a hospital.

Separating gamma-ray bursts: Students make critical breakthrough
By applying a machine-learning algorithm, scientists at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have developed a method to classify all gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), rapid highly energetic explosions in distant galaxies, without needing to find an afterglow - by which GRBs are presently categorized.

Where is the water during a drought?
In low precipitation periods - where and how is the limited available water distributed and what possibilities are there for improving retention in the soil and the landscape?

CVIA has just published a new issue, Volume 4 Issue 4
Beijing, 10 July 2020: the journal Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) has just published a new issue, Volume 4 Issue 4.

Researchers create a roadmap to better multivalent batteries
Lithium-ion batteries power everything from mobile phones to laptop computers and electric vehicles, but demand is growing for less expensive and more readily available alternatives.

Psychology: The most personal device
Everyone who uses a smartphone unavoidably generates masses of digital data that are accessible to others, and these data provide clues to the user's personality.

Key technology for mass-production of lignin-bio-aviation fuels for reducing greenhouse gas
The team, led by Dr. Jeong-Myeong Ha of the Clean Energy Research Center at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), has developed a technology that can be used to mass-produce aviation-grade fuels from wood wastes.

New technology speeds up organic data transfer
An international research team, involving Newcastle University experts, developed visible light communication (VLC) setup capable of a data rate of 2.2?Mb/s by employing a new type of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

St Petersburg University scientists count all the tiny snails in the Arctic
St Petersburg University Scientists have summarised all the known information about Arctic snails that have dimensions less than five millimetres.

Close-up of SARS-CoV-2 protein shows how it interferes with host anti-viral immunity
A detailed study of a SARS-Cov-2 protein, Nsp1, with a central role in weakening the host anti-viral immune response shows that it effectively shuts down production ofproteins in the host.

Synapse-saving proteins discovered, opening possibilities in Alzheimer's, schizophrenia
Loss of synapses is a contributing factor to Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.

Supplements with potential to prevent Alzheimer's affect blood, but less so the brain
A small clinical trial from USC suggests that higher doses of omega-3 supplements may be needed in order to prevent or slow cognitive decline from Alzheimer's disease, because dramatic increases in blood levels of omega-3s are accompanied by far smaller increases within the brain.

Atomtronic device could probe boundary between quantum, everyday worlds
A new device that relies on flowing clouds of ultracold atoms promises potential tests of the intersection between the weirdness of the quantum world and the familiarity of the macroscopic world we experience every day.

USTC achieves million core parallel first-principles computing simulation on Sunway TaihuLight
USTC researchers have realized first-principles computing simulation of the large-scale solid system with tens of thousands of atoms and molecules based on DGDFT with the help of super large-scale millions of cores parallel computation on the supercomputer Sunway TaihuLight.

A chemical tailor-made suit for Alzheimer's drugs
Over 50 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer's disease and it is one of the greatest medical and social challenges of our time.

Scientists achieve major breakthrough in preserving integrity of sound waves
In a breakthrough experiment, physicist and engineers at the CUNY ASRC have shown that it is possible to limit the movement of sound to a single direction without interruption even when there are deformations along the pathway.

Climate-friendly Cooling Could Cut Years of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Save US$ Trillions: UN
Energy-efficient cooling with climate-friendly refrigerants could avoid up to 460 billion tonnes of greenhouse gas equivalent being added to the atmosphere through 2060 - roughly equal to eight years of global emissions at 2018 levels.

Research underscores importance of global surveillance of plant pathogens
First spotted in the United States in 2014, bacterial leaf streak of corn is an emerging disease of corn that has now spread to ten states, including the top three corn-producing states of Illinois, Iowa, and Nebraska.

New learning algorithm should significantly expand the possible applications of AI
The e-prop learning method developed at Graz University of Technology forms the basis for drastically more energy-efficient hardware implementations of Artificial Intelligence.

Does having Alzheimer's disease and dementia affect severity of delirium?
Recently, researchers published findings from the Better Assessment of Illness (BASIL) study, in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

Study reveals intricate details about Huntington's disease protein
The research focuses on axonal transport -- the way in which vital materials travel along pathways called axons inside nerve cells, or neurons.

Honeybees reveal environmental pollution in their surroundings
The University of Cordoba is collaborating on a new project by the University of Almeria to test APIStrip, a new tool for sampling environmental pollutants by means of bee colonies

The Lancet Global Health: Benefits of routine childhood vaccines far outweigh risks of additional COVID-19 transmission in Africa, modelling study suggests
The health benefits of maintaining routine childhood vaccination programmes in Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic far outweigh the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission that might be associated with clinic visits, according to a modelling study published in The Lancet Global Health journal.

Type 1 interferon deficiency: Biomarker of patients at risk of severe COVID
Which patients are more likely to develop a severe form of Covid-19?

Mysterious mechanism of graphene oxide formation explained
Natural graphite, used as the precursor for graphene oxide production, is a highly ordered crystalline inorganic material, which is believed to be formed by decay of organic matter.

Study shows how traumatic experiences can leave their mark on a person's eyes
New research by Welsh academics shows that a patient's pupils can reveal if they have suffered a traumatic experience in the past.

Decadal predictability of North Atlantic blocking and the NAO
Decadal predictions are important to study climate evolution on multi-annual to decadal timescales and may represent an unprecedented opportunity for decision-makers to calibrate plans and actions over a temporal horizon of a few years.
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