Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 21, 2020
Scientists present pre- and postfusion cryo-em structures of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
Scientists report two new cryo-EM structures representing the pre- and postfusion conformations of the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, an essential viral component responsible for host cell entry and the spread of infection.

Recycling Japanese liquor leftovers as animal feed produces happier pigs and tastier pork
Tastier pork comes from pigs that eat the barley left over after making the Japanese liquor shochu.

How does ridesourcing substitute for public transit network?
Researchers at Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) used ridesourcing data from Chengdu, China to investigate the relationship between ridesourcing and public transit.

Skin cancer treatments could be used to treat other forms of the disease
The creation of a silica nanocapsule could allow treatments that use light to destroy cancerous or precancerous cells in the skin to also be used to treat other types of cancer.

Lego builds anaesthesia skills according to new study
Lego could be used as a practical tool to train doctors in anaesthetic skills according to new research that has shown a simple task using the building bricks can help improve technical skills - a finding that could improve medical training and patient safety.

Virginia Tech researchers discover that mouth bacterium may cause colon cancer to spread
Virginia Tech researchers have discovered that one of these common bacteria can leave the mouth and potentially cause existing cancer cells in other parts of the body to spread.

Lab-made virus mimics COVID-19 virus
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have created a virus in the lab that infects cells and interacts with antibodies just like the COVID-19 virus, but lacks the ability to cause severe disease.

OSU researchers part of international effort to save critically endangered seabird
The global population of the critically endangered Chinese crested tern has more than doubled thanks to a historic, decade-long collaboration among Oregon State University researchers and scientists and conservationists in China, Taiwan and Japan.

Ultra-small, parasitic bacteria found in groundwater, moose -- and you
In research first published as a pre-print in 2018, and now formally in the journal Cell Reports, scientists describe their findings that Saccharibacteria within a mammalian host are more diverse than ever anticipated.

Chinese, American scientists leading efforts on COVID-19
Despite the political tensions between the United States and China, scientists in the two countries are working together more than ever to study the COVID-19 virus, a new study suggests.

How the regulator is regulated -- Insight into immune-related protein holds therapeutic value
Various proteins expressed in cells of the immune system have shown to play an important role in various disorders, including cancer, allergy, and autoimmune disease.

Making comprehensive water resources modeling more accessible
A new large-scale, open source hydrological and water resources model developed at IIASA will support and enable different stakeholder groups and scientific communities to engage with a hydrological model and support their investigations.

Valley-Hall nanoscale lasers
Topological photonics allows the creation of new states of light.

Droplet biosensing method opens the door for faster identification of COVID-19
In Cheng and Zhou's method, all of the contents of a sampling droplet can be detected, and there is no extraction or other tedious procedures.

Cells communicate by doing the 'wave'
A research team at Kyoto University reports on a novel method of cell communication relying on 'mechano-chemical' signals to control cell movement.

Genetic testing could improve screening for osteoporosis
An international team of scientists has developed a novel genetic measure that could dramatically improve how doctors assess the risk of sustaining a fracture due to osteoporosis or fragility

Thermal manipulation of plasmons in atomically thin films
Nanoscale photothermal effects can induce substantial changes in the optical response experienced by the probing light, thus suggesting their applications in all-optical light modulation.

Rural firearm-suicides impacted by socioeconomic, environmental factors
In an attempt to address the escalating rate of self-inflicted firearm injury deaths in rural America, researchers are proposing interventions to reduce these suicides be community-based and include programs to reduce other diseases of despair, such as heart and liver diseases, diabetes and accidental opioid overdose.

While birds chirp, plasma shouldn't: New insight could advance fusion energy
Scientists at PPPL have furthered understanding of a barrier that can prevent doughnut-shaped fusion facilities known as tokamaks from operating at high efficiency by causing vital heat to be lost from them.

Identification of distinct loci for de novo DNA methylation by DNMT3A and DNMT3B during mammalian development
A research team working at The University of Tokyo and Kyoto University in Japan has announced that they have successfully identified specific target sites for the DNA methylases DNMT3A and DNMT3B .

Freeze-framing the shape-shifting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the one our antibodies target, has two forms.

Study points to potential new approach to treating glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease
Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) have shown for the first time that when one optic nerve in the eye is damaged, as in glaucoma, the opposite optic nerve comes to the rescue by sharing its metabolic energy.

Spider monkey groups as collective computers
New research shows that spider monkeys use collective computation to figure out the best way to find food.

Chronic inflammation alters the evolution of cells in the colon, study finds
Researchers have compared diseased colon with healthy tissue to better understand how inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancers, at a molecular level.

'Lost' world's rediscovery is step towards finding habitable planets
The rediscovery of a lost planet could pave the way for the detection of a world within the habitable 'Goldilocks zone' in a distant solar system.

Parents of 1 in 2 unvaccinated US adolescents have no intention to initiate HPV vaccine
Study results documenting parental hesitancy to begin and complete their child's HPV vaccine series were published in The Lancet Public Health by researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Popular seafood species in sharp decline around the world
The first-ever global study of long-term trends in the population biomass of exploited marine fish and invertebrates for all coastal areas on the planet.

Cinnamon may improve blood sugar control in people with prediabetes
Cinnamon improves blood sugar control in people with prediabetes and could slow the progression to type 2 diabetes, according to a new study published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society.

Scientists observe learning processes online in the brain
Stimulating the fingertip rhythmically for a sustained period of time, markedly improves touch sensitivity of this finger.

COVID-19 shutdown led to increased solar power output
As the air cleared after lockdowns, solar installations in Delhi produced 8 percent more power, study shows.

Tropical Storm Douglas organizing in NASA infrared imagery
Tropical Depression 8E developed on July 20 and quickly organized into a tropical storm.

Study calls for review of rice and sugar in food subsidy programme
The nutritional benefit of rice and sugar distributed by a national food subsidy programme in India may be limited, says new research published today.

Weather-based decisions may reduce fungicide sprays on table beets
Use of a weather-based decision support system to schedule fungicides for the control of CLS in table beet reduces unnecessary expense to the grower and unnecessary exposure of a fungal population to single-site modes of action posing a high risk of resistance development.

Anti-Asian hate crime during the COVID-19 pandemic
Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the United States has seen a surge of Asian Americans reporting racially motivated hate crimes.

Synthetic dimensions enable a new way to construct higher-order topological insulators
Higher-order topological insulators (HOTIs) are a new phase of matter predicted in 2017, involving complicated high-dimensional structures which show signature physical effects called ''corner modes.'' Now, scientists have proposed a recipe to construct such HOTIs and observe corner modes for photons in simpler, lower-dimensional structures by harnessing an emerging concept called ''synthetic dimensions.'' This construction allows flexible tuning of the topological behavior and opens avenues for even more exotic phases of photons in very high dimensions.

Working on the frontier of nanoparticle research
The Computer-Aided Nano and Energy Lab (CANELa) at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering is advancing the field of nanoparticle research, modeling metal nanoclusters that are atomically precise in structure.

Microplastics in shrimp harmless to animal health and no effects on consumption quality
A study conducted by the UAB certifies that despite the presence of microplastics in deep-sea shrimp, the amounts detected do not cause any types of health problems.

Silver-plated gold nanostars detect early cancer biomarkers
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have engineered a method for simultaneously detecting the presence of multiple specific microRNAs in RNA extracted from tissue samples without the need for labeling or target amplification.

New material can generate hydrogen from salt and polluted water
Developed a new 2D material to produce hydrogen, which is the basis of alternative energy.

New study takes closer look at how environment affects daily life of sloths
Scientists studying brown-throated three-toed sloths, where predators are extinct and food is more accessible, have found that the animals adapt to have a primarily diurnal, or daytime, schedule.

UK's Modern Slavery Act challenging for universities -- new study
The UK's universities are struggling to live up to the spirit and ambition of the Modern Slavery Act, hampered by poor oversight of their supply chains, a lack of skills and resource in supply chain management, a focus on reducing costs, and lacklustre engagement from many in senior management, a new study from the University of Bath shows.

Crown-of-thorns enhance their growth by switching diets early
When juvenile crown-of-thorns starfish switch their diets from coralline algae to corals early after settlement, they exhibit enhanced growth rates for longer and will ultimately get much bigger.

Invasive lionfish may be a selective predator
The invasive lionfish has become a growing threat to the ecological balance of Atlantic waters.

Mount Sinai researcher identifies single gene biomarker to differentiate between atopic dermatitis
Mount Sinai researchers have pinpointed a single gene biomarker, nitride oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) that can distinguish atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis with 100 percent accuracy using adhesive tape strips, a non-invasive alternative to skin biopsy.

Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in 10 US sites
This study estimates how common SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are in convenience samples from 10 geographic sites in the United States.

Coronavirus antibodies fall dramatically in first 3 months after mild cases of COVID-19
A study by UCLA researchers shows that in people with mild cases of COVID-19, antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 -- the virus that causes the disease -- drop sharply over the first three months after infection, decreasing by roughly half every 73 days.

Non-invasive blood test can detect cancer four years before conventional diagnosis methods
An international team of researchers has developed a non-invasive blood test that can detect whether an individual has one of five common types of cancers, four years before the condition can be diagnosed with conventional methods.

Nitric oxide may slow progression of COVID-19
Researchers at the George Washington University and Albert Einstein College of Medicine published a review in the journal Nitric Oxide suggesting that nitric oxide treatment can be pivotal in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.

WashU-developed holograms help physicians during cardiac procedure
A holographic display developed by WashU researchers improves physician accuracy when performing a procedure to treat irregular heartbeat.

Influenza virus-induced oxidized DNA activates inflammasomes
In this study, a research group at The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo (IMSUT) observed nucleus- and mitochondria-derived double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in extracellular web-like structures in the cytoplasm and extracellular space around influenza virus-infected macrophages.

How viruses and bacteria balance each other in the gut microbiome
A tiny arms race between bacteria and the viruses that attack them inside the gut could eventually offer a new way to treat out-of-balance microbiomes.

Everything you ever wanted to know about leech sex but were afraid to ask
New research, published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, sheds light on the effects the synthetic estrogens commonly found in birth control pills have on leeches.

Study strengthens calls to clear cancer diagnosis backlog
Delays to cancer referral through reduced use of the urgent GP referral pathway during the coronavirus pandemic could result in more than a thousand additional deaths in England, a new study reports.

Global warming boosts heat-related cardiovascular hospitalizations, study finds
The impact of high temperatures on hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases has increased over the past two decades in Queensland, Australia, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Shanshan Li and Yuming Guo of Monash University, Australia, and colleagues.

Genes and cardiovascular health both affect dementia risk: BU study
A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) and School of Medicine (BUSM) study finds that genes and cardiovascular health can both raise or lower risk of dementia.

Lithium ion battery waste used in biodiesel production from discarded vegetable oil
Brazilian researchers demonstrated a new chemical approach for producing biodiesel from domestic cooking oil waste by using hydroxide lithium mixed with either sodium hydroxides or potassium hydroxides as catalysts.

Markerless motion capture technology could help skeleton athletes' training
Researchers from CAMERA at the University of Bath have developed the first non-invasive way of measuring athletes' push start performance.

US military improved mortality since World War II, but there have been alarming exceptions
Although wound survivability has increased over the last 80 years, the U.S. military's medical corps suffered some periods of backsliding during conflicts, recent analysis shows

Researchers develop a portable blood ammonia detector
This device offers a significantly faster and easier method for detecting ammonia levels in blood, which can reach dangerous levels in people with certain diseases and genetic conditions.

Temporal aiming with temporal metamaterials
Achieving a controllable manipulation of electromagnetic waves is important in many applications.

A survey on optical memory and optical RAM technologies
The ability to store with light and built promising optical memories has been an intriguing research topic for more than two decades.

Photon-based processing units enable more complex machine learning
Machine learning performed by neural networks is a popular approach to developing artificial intelligence, as researchers aim to replicate brain functionalities for a variety of applications.

The immune system facilitates alcohol addiction
The activation of the immune system could eventually perpetuate some of the deleterious effects of alcohol, like addiction.

Can social unrest, riot dynamics be modeled?
Episodes of social unrest rippled throughout Chile in 2019. Researchers specializing in economics, mathematics and physics in Chile and the U.K. banded together to explore the surprising social dynamics people were experiencing.

Levothyroxine doesn't improve cardiac function for heart attack patients
Tens of thousands of patients with underactive thyroid are being prescribed Levothyroxine after a heart attack - but the results a of a double-blind randomised clinical trial has shown that it offers no benefits to their heart function.

New insights into anxiety
Tension while waiting for test results, the fear of not making it, the feeling of being under pressure.

Shortening of average serial interval over time indicates isolation effectively limits COVID-19 transmission
A new analysis of SARS-CoV-2 transmission data in China shows that faster identification and isolation of infected, symptomatic individuals contributed to the shortening of the average serial interval - or the period between the onset of symptoms in successive cases - over time, as fewer opportunities occurred for viral transmission from one infector to more individuals.

O Christmas Tree: DNA shows WA's largest parasitic plant adapts to climate
A closer look at DNA from south-western Australia's native Nuytsia floribunda, known as the WA Christmas Tree, has found that temperature, rather than rainfall, impacts the tree's resilience and reproductive success.

What factors influence the likelihood of fracking-related seismicity in Oklahoma?
The depth of a hydraulic fracturing well in Oklahoma, among other factors, increases the probability that fracking will lead to earthquake activity, according to a new report in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.

"Winter is coming": The influence of seasonality on pathogen emergence
Seasonal fluctuations drive the dynamics of many infectious diseases. For instance, the flu spreads more readily in winter.

New detection method turns silicon cameras into mid-infrared detectors
Although mid-infrared (MIR) imaging produces images with chemically selective information, the practical implementation of the technique is hampered by the low pixel count and noise performance of current MIR cameras.

New cosmic magnetic field structures discovered in galaxy NGC 4217
Spiral galaxies such as our Milky Way can have sprawling magnetic fields.

Women's burden increases in COVID-19 era
The triple burden endured by women -- in productive, reproductive and community roles -- has been exposed and intensified due to COVID-19-enforced lockdown and quarantine restrictions.

NASA finds wind shear and cooler waters winding down Tropical Depression 7E
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and provided forecasters with a visible image of the waning Tropical Depression 7E.

Children with type 1 diabetes may have a less desirable gut bacteria composition
Children with type 1 diabetes have a less desirable gut microbiome composition which may play a role in the development of the disease, according to new research published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Topological photonics in fractal lattices
Photonic topological insulators are currently a subject of great interest because of the features: insulating bulk and topological edge states.

Magnetic field of a spiral galaxy
A new image from the VLA dramatically reveals the extended magnetic field of a spiral galaxy seen edge-on from Earth.

Stepping-down asthma medication may reduce costs without worsening health out
International guidelines for asthma treatment recommend clinicians find the minimum effective dose that can control symptoms, yet asthma patients are increasingly prescribed high doses of medication.

The Lancet Psychiatry: Study estimates impact of COVID-19 pandemic on UK mental health after first month of lockdown
Mental health declined substantially after the first month of COVID-19 lockdown, a survey of UK households published today in The Lancet Psychiatry journal suggests.

CSU study links physical stress on the job with brain and memory decline in older age
A new study out of Colorado State University has found that physical stress in one's job may be associated with faster brain aging and poorer memory.

Researchers identify subject-specific component to perceptual learning ability
Ph.D. candidate YANG Jia and her colleagues, under the guidance of Prof.

Twitter data reveals global communication network
Twitter mentions show distinct community structure patterns resulting from communication preferences of individuals affected by physical distance between users and commonalities, such as shared language and history.

Starve the cancer
Fighting cancer often means employing a suite of techniques to target the tumor and prevent it from growing and spreading to other parts of the body.

Asteroid shower on the Earth-Moon system 800 million years ago revealed by lunar craters
A research team led by Osaka University investigated the formation ages of lunar craters to demonstrate that asteroids of 100 km in diameter were disrupted 800 Ma and that at least (4-5)×1016 kg of meteoroids, approximately 30-60 times more than the Chicxulub impact, must have plunged into the Earth-Moon system.

Brain network mechanism causing spatial memory impairment revealed
Patients with Alzheimer's disease frequently suffer from spatial memory loss, such as no recognition of where they are, and forgetting where they put their belongings.

Autopsies reveal surprising cardiac changes in COVID-19 patients
A series of autopsies conducted by LSU Health New Orleans pathologists shows the damage to the hearts of COVID-19 patients is not the expected typical inflammation of the heart muscle associated with myocarditis, but rather a unique pattern of cell death in scattered individual heart muscle cells.

Front-line physicians stressed and anxious at work and home
Amid the COVID-19 chaos in many hospitals, emergency medicine physicians in seven cities around the country experienced rising levels of anxiety and emotional exhaustion, regardless of the intensity of the local surge, according to a new analysis led by UC San Francisco.

The Venus 'ring of fire'
ETH researchers used computer simulations to classify the current activity of corona structures on the surface of Venus.

STEM not for women?
A study by Natalia Maloshonok and Irina Shcheglova, research fellows of the HSE University, examines how and why gender stereotypes can disempower female students, leading to poor academic performance and high dropout rates.

Skin stem cells shuffle sugars as they age
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have shown by in vitro experimentation that changes of glycans in mouse epidermal stem cells may serve as a biomarker of aging.

Physicists find ways to control gamma radiation
Researchers from Kazan Federal University, Texas A&M University and Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences) found ways to direct high frequency gamma radiation by means of acoustics.

New drug discoveries are closely linked to the quality of lab procedures
High-quality lab procedures are even more crucial to identifying effective drugs than previously thought, new research from the University of Bath has revealed.

Leukemia drug shows the potential to treat aggressive pediatric brain câncer
When tested in vitro, arsenic trioxide killed tumor cells and prevented the formation of new colonies.

Spinal stimulators repurposed to restore touch in lost limb
Devices commonly implanted for chronic pain could expand patient access to prosthetic arms that ''feel.''

How to get good at disagreeing
Do you hesitate to speak up when you disagree with the rest of the group?

Combining handwashing, mask-wearing and social distancing best in preventing COVID-19
Both self-imposed prevention measures such as hand-washing, mask-wearing and social distancing, as well as government-imposed social distancing can help mitigate and delay a COVID-19 epidemic, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Alexandra Teslya of University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands and colleagues.

Scientists publish findings from 1st statewide COVID-19 random sample study in US
The results of the first statewide random sample study in the United States to measure the spread of COVID-19 indicated a general population prevalence of about 2.8 percent in Indiana.

Comprehensive description of the human tissue virome in healthy individuals
This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the human virome in a variety of tissues in healthy individuals through meta-transcriptomic analysis.

How should hospitals ask patients for donations?
A new study looks for the first time at patients' views of hospital fundraising, including legally allowable practices that encourage physicians to work with their hospital's fundraising professionals.

Researchers develop new tools to rapidly test activity of anti-coronavirus antibodies
Researchers at The Rockefeller University in New York have developed new tools to rapidly test the ability of antibodies to neutralize SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.

Russian scientists identified energy storage mechanism of sodium-ion battery anode
Scientists unveiled pseudocapacitive behavior of hard carbon anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIB), a new promising class of electrochemical power sources.

Genetic variant may explain why some women don't need pain relief during childbirth
Women who do not need pain relief during childbirth may be carriers of a key genetic variant that acts a natural epidural, say scientists at the University of Cambridge.

Life in the shallows becomes a trap for baby sharks
Baby reef sharks tolerate living in the sometimes-extreme environments of their nurseries -- but these habitats face an uncertain future which may leave newborn sharks 'trapped'.

Artificial cells produce parts of viruses for safe studies
Scientists searching for better diagnostic tests, drugs or vaccines against a virus must all begin by deciphering the structure of that virus.

No single sign or symptom is sufficient to rule in or rule out community-acquired pneumonia
While the history and physical examination is important, only a few key signs and symptoms significantly change the underlying likelihood of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Using lung X-rays to diagnose COVID-19
This system uses deep learning to train a neural network model that can distinguish between healthy patients, pneumonia patients and COVID-19 patients.

Mutated cells need to be near each other to kickstart cancer
Scientists have revealed a key factor that influences whether malignant cells will grow to form a tumour, in a new study published today in eLife.

Fusion protein holds promise for treating pulmonary arterial hypertension
In a paper published in Science Translational Medicine, researchers illuminate the underlying biological pathways that may lead to vessel destruction in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Race and ethnicity did not affect outcomes for new moms with COVID-19, finds study
Hispanic mothers had higher rates of COVID-19 than other groups of women, but ethnicity had no effect on outcomes among women with COVID-19 who delivered at two hospitals in northern Manhattan.

Studies suggest a fasting diet could boost breast cancer therapy
A USC-led team of scientists has found that a fasting-mimicking diet combined with hormone therapy has the potential to help treat breast cancer, according to newly published animal studies and small clinical trials in humans.

How adding green tea extract to prepared foods may reduce the risk for norovirus
Infusing prepared foods with an edible coating that contains green tea extract may lower consumers' chances of catching the highly contagious norovirus by eating contaminated food, new research suggests.

Living with a problem gambler?
With the lure of online gambling high during COVID-19 lockdowns - and some gambling venues now reopening - partners and families of problem gamblers may be the first to see a problem emerging.

Smile: Atomic imaging finds root of tooth decay
A collaboration between researchers from Cornell University, Northwestern University and University of Virginia combined complementary imaging techniques to explore the atomic structure of human enamel, exposing tiny chemical flaws in the fundamental building blocks of our teeth.

Post-surgical bleeding associated with more deaths when compared to blood clots after surgery
Post-surgical bleeding is associated with more deaths than blood clots from surgery, according to a Vanderbilt University Medical Center study published in the journal Anesthesia & Analgesia.

New study shows advantages of ellipsys system in creating reliable dialysis access
A new study shows significant benefits of the Ellipsys® Vascular Access System in easily and safely creating durable vascular access for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who require hemodialysis.

81 million Americans lacking space or bathrooms to follow COVID quarantine recommendations
New research shows that 25 million dwellings housing 81 million Americans -- more than one in five homes -- lack adequate space or plumbing to comply with recommendations that a person exposed to COVID-19 maintain physical separation from household members.

Mindfulness training helps men manage anger
Before treatment, 85% of the men in the study beat, kicked or shook their girlfriend.

Study reveals composition of 'gel-like' substance discovered by Chang'e-4 rover on moon's far side
A research team led by Prof. DI Kaichang from the Aerospace Information Research Institute (AIR) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators analyzed the substance discovered by Chang'e-4 rover on Moon's far side in detail and revealed its composition.

Site-directed mutagenesis in wheat via haploid induction by maize
Site-directed mutagenesis facilitates the experimental validation of gene function and can speed up plant breeding by producing new biodiversity or by reproducing previously known gene variants in other than their original genetic backgrounds.

Racial discrimination may adversely impact cognition in African Americans
Experiences of racism are associated with lower subjective cognitive function (SCF) among African-American women.

World's smallest imaging device has heart disease in focus
A team of researchers led by the University of Adelaide and University of Stuttgart has used 3D micro-printing to develop the world's smallest, flexible scope for looking inside blood vessels.

Researchers ID new target in drive to improve immunotherapy for cancer
UCLA researchers have identified a potential new combination therapy to treat advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the most common type of head and neck cancer.
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