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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | July 30, 2020


Investigational breast cancer vaccine plus immune therapy work well in tandem
A vaccine for HER2-positive breast cancers that is being tested in a clinical trial at Duke Cancer Institute is part of an effective, two-drug strategy for enlisting the immune system to fight tumors, according to a Duke-led study in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
Copper-catalyzed enantioselective trifluoromethylation of benzylic radicals developed
Scientists from the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed the first copper-catalyzed enantioselective trifluoromethylation of benzylic radicals via a copper-catalyzed radical relay strategy.
Major depressive episodes far more common than previously believed, new Yale study finds
The number of adults in the United States who suffer from major depressive episodes at some point in their life is far higher than previously believed, a new study by the Yale School of Public Health finds.
National Academies publishes guide to help public officials make sense of COVID-19 data
The National Academies has published a guide to help officials across the country interpret and understand different COVID-19 statistics and data sources as they make decisions about opening and closing schools, businesses and community facilities.
Remote islands: Stepping stones to understanding evolution
In a new study published in Evolution, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and collaborators from the University of the Ryukyus investigated evolutionary and ecological changes in ants in the South Pacific archipelago of Fiji to examine a controversial theory for how evolution occurs on islands.
Alzheimer's risk factors may be measurable in adolescents and young adults
Risk factors for Alzheimer's dementia may be apparent as early as our teens and 20s, according to new research reported at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference® (AAIC®) 2020.
Group-based smoking cessation help US inmates quit tobacco
Behavioral and nicotine replacement therapies offered together can help people who are incarcerated quit smoking, according to Rutgers researchers.
Headline news: Botox injections may lessen depression
By analyzing the FDA database of adverse drug effects, UC San Diego researchers discovered that people who received Botox injections -- not just in the forehead -- reported depression significantly less often than patients undergoing different treatments for the same conditions.
Helicopter parents should step back and watch, study recommends
As part of her PhD at Edith Cowan University in Western Australia, Mandy Richardson conducted the world's first data-driven study of parenting classes based on the Respectful Approach intervention.
Hengduan Mountain alpine flora history shown to be longest on Earth
Researchers from the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences showed that the alpine flora of the Hengduan Mountains has continuously existed far longer than any other flora on Earth.
Loss of adaptive immunity helps deep sea anglerfish fuse with their mates
The discovery of altered adaptive immunity in anglerfish helps explain how the creatures are able to temporarily or permanently fuse with their mates without experiencing immune rejection.
Presenting a SARS-CoV-2 mouse model to study viral responses and vaccine candidates
Researchers who generated a strain of SARS-CoV-2 that can infect mice used it to produce a new mouse model of infection that may help facilitate testing of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics.
Precision medicine identifies key recurring mutation in head and neck cancers
Researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center report that an investigational drug candidate called tipifarnib showed promise in treating key recurring mutation in head and neck cancers.
Looking up to the Joneses: Consequences of the perceptions of white wealth
In a pair of studies, social psychologists propose that widespread perceptions that white people are wealthy, and that Black people are poor, may shape the way people experience their own status.
How global responses to COVID-19 threaten global food security
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has forced nations worldwide to implement unprecedented social measures to stem the rapid spread of the virus.
Gut feelings can be good for us
New research has found that paying greater attention to internal bodily sensations can increase our appreciation of our own bodies.
Immune cell steroids help tumours suppress the immune system, offering new drug targets
Tumours found to evade the immune system by telling immune cells to produce immunosuppressive steroids.
Nanoreactor strategy generates superior supported bimetallic catalysts
Prof. WANG Guanghui and Prof. JIANG Heqing from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), in collaboration with Prof.
ALMA finds possible sign of neutron star in supernova 1987A
Based on ALMA observations and a theoretical follow-up study, scientists suggest that a neutron star might be hiding deep inside the remains of Supernova 1987A.
In defence mode: this is how Zika virus protects key parts of its genome
To fight viruses, cells can deploy defence enzymes that progressively destroy viral genome.
First gene knockout in a cephalopod is achieved at Marine Biological Laboratory
A team at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) has achieved the first gene knockout in a cephalopod using the squid Doryteuthis pealeii, an exceptionally important research organism in biology for nearly a century.
One-size does not fit all for post-disaster recovery, PSU study finds
A new Portland State University study that followed 400 households after the 2015 Nepal earthquakes provides insight into better understanding the factors that contribute to resilience and change in short-term rural natural disaster recovery.
Ancient mountain formation and monsoons helped create a modern biodiversity hotspot
In a new study in Science, researchers examined the plant life in the China's Hengduan Mountains, the Himalaya Mountains, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Researchers describe structure of SARS-CoV-2 proteins suitable for design of new drugs
Group of researchers at IOCB Prague determined and analyzed the precise structure of the Nsp16 and Nsp10 protein complex of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
Spin, spin, spin: researchers enhance electron spin longevity
The electron is an elementary particle, a building block on which other systems evolve.
Stunning space butterfly captured by ESO telescope
Resembling a butterfly with its symmetrical structure, beautiful colours, and intricate patterns, this striking bubble of gas -- known as NGC 2899 -- appears to float and flutter across the sky in this new picture from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT).
Coastal cities leave up to 75% of seafloor exposed to harmful light pollution
New research is the first in the world to quantify the extent to which biologically important artificial light is prevalent on the seafloor and could, in turn, be having a detrimental effect on marine species.
Experts make weak recommendation for remdesivir in severe COVID-19
In The BMJ today, a panel of international experts make a weak recommendation for the use of remdesivir in patients with severe covid-19, and strongly support continued enrolment of patients into ongoing clinical trials of remdesivir.
Risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission during flexible laryngoscopy
Researchers review evidence on the risks of aerosolization and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients to health care workers during endoscopy of the upper aerodigestive tract.
Gut microbiome translates stress into sickle cell crises
A new study shows how chronic psychological stress leads to painful vessel-clogging episodes--the most common complication of sickle-cell disease (SCD) and a frequent cause of hospitalizations.
New risk tool developed for cardiac arrest patients
Experts have developed a risk score to predict cardiac arrest patient outcomes.
NASA finds Post-Tropical Low Douglas crossing a line   
The strong wind shear that weakened Douglas to a tropical storm early on July 29 has further weakened it to a post-tropical low-pressure area.
Re-engineering antibodies for COVID-19
Catholic University of America researcher uses 'in silico' analysis to fast-track passive immunity
Most women treated in New York City for gynecologic cancers
Women receiving standard treatment in New York City for ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancers are not at increased risk of being hospitalized for or dying from COVID-19 due to their cancer, a new study shows.
Pooling strategy in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic: A solution for mass population screening of SARS-CoV-2
In a report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, published by Elsevier, researchers at Augusta University and PerkinElmer Genomics describe a cheaper, rapid, and accurate pooling strategy for the RT-PCR-based detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples.
Despite decline, distribution of air pollution highlights socioeconomic disparities
While the level of fine particulate air pollution has declined considerably over the last several decades, a new study finds that its distribution has remained largely unchanged.
Are cover crops negatively impacting row crops?
Research investigates if chemicals released by cover crops may be the cause for yield reductions
Plastics, pathogens and baby formula: What's in your shellfish?
The first landmark study using next-generation technology to comprehensively examine contaminants in oysters in Myanmar reveals alarming findings: the widespread presence of human bacterial pathogens and human-derived microdebris materials, including plastics, kerosene, paint, talc and milk supplement powders.
NIH researchers discover new set of channels connecting malaria parasite and blood cells
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions have discovered another set of pore-like holes, or channels, traversing the membrane-bound sac that encloses the deadliest malaria parasite as it infects red blood cells.
Young kids could spread COVID-19 as much as older children and adults
A study from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago discovered that children younger than 5 years with mild to moderate COVID-19 have much higher levels of genetic material for the virus in the nose compared to older children and adults.
Forty percent of dementia cases could be prevented or delayed by targeting 12 risk factors throughout life
Forty percent of dementia cases could be prevented or delayed by targeting 12 risk factors throughout life, experts say.
Age-related differences in nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 levels in patients with COVID-19
Age-related differences in nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 levels in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were investigated in this observational study.
Tip sheet for joint statistical meetings Aug. 2 - 6, 2020
New research from Virtual Joint Statistical Meetings 2020 includes applications to COVID-19, sports, forensic science, AI, social media emoticons, climate change, stock market, criminal justice, undocumented immigrants, algorithmic fairness, US census, precision medicine, opioid crisis, and more.
Challenging a central dogma of chemistry
Steve Granick, Director of the IBS Center for Soft and Living Matter and Dr.
American Cancer Society updates guideline for cervical cancer screening
An updated cervical cancer screening guideline from the American Cancer Society reflects the rapidly changing landscape of cervical cancer prevention in the United States, calling for less and more simplified screening.
Obesity linked to social ties in older women, more so than in men
Women who lack social ties have a greater likelihood of being obese, according to new UBC research published today in PLOS One.
Faster LEDs for wireless communications from invisible light
Researchers have solved a major problem for optical wireless communications - the process by which light carries information between cell phones and other devices.
Outcomes in radiotherapy-treated patients with cancer during COVID-19
The delivery of radiotherapy in 209 patients with cancer during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, is evaluated in this case series.
Cell antennas lacking in Fragile X syndrome, study finds
Researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio found fewer structures called primary cilia in the brains of mice born with Fragile X syndrome.
Investment, health policy changes are key for new Alzheimer's treatments
Two new USC reports describe a challenging obstacle course for patients to access Alzheimer's disease treatments once they become available.
TU Graz researchers synthesize nanoparticles tailored for special applications
''Core-shell'' clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.
'Drawn-on-skin' electronics offer breakthrough in wearable monitors
Researchers have reported a new form of electronics known as 'drawn-on-skin electronics,' allowing multifunctional sensors and circuits to be drawn on the skin with an ink pen.
LSU health pathologists publish first report on likely MIS involving the heart
A team of LSU Health New Orleans pathologists published what is believed to be the first case report on pathologic findings of vasculitis of the small vessels of the heart, which likely represents multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS).
Coastal flooding set to get more frequent, threatening coastal life and global GDP
Coastal flooding across the world is set to rise by around 50 per cent due to climate change in the next 80 years, endangering millions more people and trillions of US dollars more of coastal infrastructure, new research shows.
The Lancet: 40% of dementia cases could be prevented or delayed by targeting 12 risk factors throughout life
Modifying 12 risk factors over the lifecourse could delay or prevent 40% of dementia cases, according to an update to The Lancet Commission on dementia prevention, intervention, and care, which is being presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC 2020).
FSU engineering researchers harness wind data to help meet energy needs in Florida
A new study from the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering shows how upcoming technological advances could make wind energy a hot commodity in the Sunshine State.
A centerpiece of EBRAINS' human brain atlas is presented in 'Science'
'Julich-Brain' is the name of the first 3D-atlas of the human brain that reflects the variability of the brain's structure with microscopic resolution.
Transcranial stimulation to prevent fear memories from returning
A research group at the University of Bologna developed a new non-invasive experimental protocol to alter the memory of learned fear experiences, thus paving the way for treatments to overcome traumatic events
Rapid test for the determination of antibodies against Sars-Cov-2
To determine immunity to Sars-Cov-2 and the effectiveness of potential vaccines, the amount of neutralising antibodies in the blood of recovered or vaccinated individuals must be determined.
Academic achievement is influenced by how pupils 'do' gender at school
Pupils' achievements at school are often shaped by the way that they 'act out' specific gender roles, according to a new study which warns against over-generalising the gender gap in education.
Study highlights mental health risks facing healthcare workers during pandemic
A new study finds healthcare workers in the United States are struggling with a suite of mental-health challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The enemy within: Safeguarding against the spread of intracellular bacteria
Melbourne researchers have revealed the multiple, intertwined cell death systems that prevent the spread of the 'intracellular' bacterium Salmonella, an important cause of typhoid fever which kills more than 100,000 people annually.
Researchers find increase in comorbidities among hospitalized patients with heart failure
Melissa Caughey, PhD, instructor in the UNC/NC State Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, is the senior author of a recently published study that shows an increase in comorbidities and mortality risk among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated HFpEF and HFrEF.
Study suggests new approach to improve radiation therapy resistance in glioblastoma
Laboratory research paves the way for a clinical trial to see if an FDA-approved drug used to prevent organ transplant rejection can work against glioblastoma, an aggressive type of brain tumor.
Laughter acts as a stress buffer -- and even smiling helps
People who laugh frequently in their everyday lives may be better equipped to deal with stressful events - although this does not seem to apply to the intensity of laughter.
Immune functions traded in for reproductive success
Researchers at the MPI of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg, Germany, and the University of Washington in Seattle, USA, for the first time, investigate the phenomenon of sexual parasitism in deep-sea anglerfish.
Two for the price of one
Kyoto University researchers develop a safer and more efficient way to produce dicarboxylic acid.
New study confirms extensive gas leaks in the North Sea
At abandoned oil & gas wells in the North Sea, considerable quantities of the potent greenhouse gas methane escape uncontrolled into the water.
Quantum chip fabrication paves way for scalable processors
An Army-funded project marks a turning point in the field of scalable quantum processors, producing the largest quantum chip of its type using diamond-based qubits and quantum photonics.
North Atlantic climate far more predictable following major scientific breakthrough
North Atlantic atmospheric pressure patterns, the key driving force behind winter weather in Europe and eastern North America, are highly predictable, enabling advanced warning of whether winters in the coming decade are likely to be stormy, warm and wet or calm, cold and dry.
Implementation of social distancing policies correlates with significant reduction in SARS-CoV-2 transmission
According to researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, the implementation of social distancing policies corresponded with significant reductions in transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and reduced community mobility, both in the U.S. and globally, providing evidence that social distancing is a useful tool in preventing further spread of COVID-19.
Researchers discover stem cells in optic nerve that preserve vision
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have for the first time identified stem cells in the region of the optic nerve, which transmits signals from the eye to the brain.
Stay or leave? A tale of two virus strategies revealed by math
By modeling experimentally measured characteristics of cells infected with hepatitis C in the lab, researchers in Japan found that one virus strain was roughly three times more likely to use copied genetic code to create new viruses compared to another, which instead tended to keep more copies inside an infected cell to accelerate replication.
Your brain parasite isn't making you sick -- here's why
The new discovery could have important implications for brain infections, neurodegenerative diseases and autoimmune disorders.
Single-shot COVID-19 vaccine protects non-human primates
A leading COVID-19 vaccine candidate, developed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, creates the groundwork for a newly launched COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial.
New understanding of CRISPR-Cas9 tool could improve gene editing
Of the CRISPR-Cas9 tools created to date, base editors have gotten lots of attention because of their seemingly simple editing: they neatly replace one nucleic acid with another, in many cases all that should be needed to fix a genetic disease.
Compounds show promise in search for tuberculosis antibiotics
Compounds tested for their potential as antibiotics have demonstrated promising activity against one of the deadliest infectious diseases - tuberculosis (TB).
Hearing loss linked to neurocognitive deficits in childhood cancer survivors
Research shows that severe hearing loss in childhood cancer survivors is associated with neurocognitive deficits independent of type of therapy.
Changes in opioid use after hip, knee replacement
Researchers looked at changes in opioid prescribing rates and level of pain control in patients who had hip or knee replacement in the U.S. from 2014 to 2017.
Argonne-led team finds special engines and fuels could cut air emissions and water use
Advanced fuels and new engine designs could reduce emissions and water use over the next 30 years, according for a new study led by Argonne scientists.
CHOP researchers identify lab profiles that differentiate MIS-C from COVID-19 in children
Researchers from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) report important data that differentiate MIS-C from severe COVID-19 in children and suggest that MIS-C is a post-infectious syndrome related to COVID-19 but distinct from Kawasaki disease.
Inflammation induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction studied in organoids
For this study, the 3D brain organoid was used to model the effects of oxygen deprivation and inflammation on blood brain barrier function to better understand what is happening in a human brain during an ischemic stroke.
Researchers discover a new and unique class of carbohydrate receptors
An international team of researchers led by Aarhus University are the first to determine the crystal structure of an exopolysaccharide receptor.
Economic and food supply chain disruptions endanger global food security
COVID-19 has led to a global economic slowdown that is affecting all four pillars of food security - availability, access, utilization, and stability.
Using protons to tune interlayer forces in van-der-Waals materials
A Chinese-Australian collaboration has demonstrated for the first time that interlayer coupling in a van der Waals (vdW) material can be largely modulated by a protonic gate, 'injecting' protons into the device.
NASA-NOAA satellite tracks Isaias' development, movement, soaking potential
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided visible imagery of the development and movement of Tropical Storm Isaias is it moved into the eastern Caribbean Sea.
Partnerships with bankrupt companies could be double-edged sword for investors
New research from the Indiana University Kelley School of Business found that when a company is in bankruptcy, its advertising and research and development investments can cut both ways.
AJR study associates coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with large vessel occlusion strokes
COVID-19 is associated with large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke but not small vessel occlusion stroke.
Increasing Arctic freshwater is driven by climate change
New, first-of-its-kind research from the University of Colorado Boulder shows that climate change is driving increasing amounts of freshwater in the Arctic Ocean.
Climate change: Coastal flooding could threaten up to 20% of global GDP
Coastal flooding events could threaten assets worth up to 20% of the global GDP by 2100, a study in Scientific Reports suggests.
Origami microbots: Centuries-old artform guides cutting-edge advances in tiny machines
Origami principles can unlock the potential of the smallest robots, enhancing speed, agility and control in machines no more than a centimeter in size.
New method lets scientists peer deeper into ocean
Researchers have advanced a new way to see into the ocean's depths, establishing an approach to detect algae and measure key properties using light.
Tierra del Fuego: marine ecosystems from 6,000 to 5000 years ago
Global warming will modify the distribution and abundance of fish worldwide, with effects on the structure and dynamics of food networks.
Physician practices with more female doctors have smallest gender pay gaps
A study shows female physicians have more equitable income when they work in practices with more doctors who are women.
Cell competition in the thymus is crucial in a healthy organism
The study published in Cell Reports demonstrates that the development of T lymphocytes lays on the coordination of signals followed by cells in order to ensure the maintenance of a healthy organism.
Older Americans receive cancer screenings past recommended age
Older Americans may be receiving cancer screenings not recommended by the U.S.
A new, physics-based model predicts imminent large solar flares
Severe space weather could be forecast with greater accuracy and reliability than ever before, according to a new study, which presents a physics-based method for predicting imminent large solar flares.

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