Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 04, 2020
Tradeoff between the eyes and nose helps flies find their niche
The size of a fly's eyes and nose reflect both its behaviour during mating and its habitat preferences, according to a new study published today in eLife.

HIIT programs show benefits for those with Down syndrome
Incorporating high-intensity interval training, or HIIT, into exercise programs for individuals with Down syndrome may help achieve critical health outcomes in a more time-efficient manner, according to new researcher.

Cell diversity in the embryo
Epigenetic factors control the development of an organism.

Dolphin calf entangled in fishing line only lived two years following rescue
Researchers examined the outcome of an entangled bottlenose dolphin calf with monofilament fishing line wrapped tightly around its upper jaw.

NTU and A*STAR scientists develop new way to deliver more drugs through the skin
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) have showed that applying ''temporal pressure'' to the skin of mice can create a new way to deliver drugs.

Brace yourself for these results
Researchers studying the mystery of why some weightlifters' muscles grow much more quickly than others' have found new answers through a novel experiment in which subjects worked out one leg and immobilized the other.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): Becoming a mother despite having a rheumatic disease?
Women with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can have children despite their rheumatic disease.

What influences adolescents to share marijuana-related content on social media?
With social media use being as prevalent as ever, a new study from Washington State University's Edward R.

In a warming world, New England's trees are storing more carbon
The study reveals that the rate at which carbon is captured from the atmosphere at Harvard Forest nearly doubled between 1992 and 2015.

Ultrafast lasers probe elusive chemistry at the liquid-liquid interface
Real-time measurements captured by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory provide missing insight into chemical separations to recover cobalt, a critical raw material used to make batteries and magnets for modern technologies.

Changes in land evaporation shape the climate
An international team of Hungarian, American and Chinese scientists have demonstrated that an existing calibration-free version of the CR method that inherently tracks the aridity changes of the environment in each step of the calculations can better detect long-term trends in continental-scale land evaporation rates than a recently developed and globally calibrated one without such dynamic adjustments to aridity.

VLBA finds planet orbiting small, cool star
Precision measurements made with the VLBA have revealed that a small, cool star 35 light-years from Earth is orbited by a Saturn-sized planet once every 221 days.

Researchers say where you live could add years to your life
Could where you live dictate how long you live? New research at Syracuse University's Maxwell School, published today in the Milbank Quarterly, shows Americans who live in so-called blue states tend to live longer than those in red states, primarily due to state policies.

Photodynamic therapy can combat secondary infections in COVID-19 patients
Researchers at the Optics and Photonics Research Center, supported by FAPESP, advocate the technique as an additional treatment for patients with the disease.

Small trees offer hope for rainforests
Small trees that grow up in drought conditions could form the basis of more drought-resistant rainforests, new research suggests.

Angels in disguise: Angelfishes hybridize more than any other coral reef species
A new study highlights the remarkably high incidence of and tendency toward hybridisation in the angelfish family (even between divergent species), more so than in any other group of coral reef fishes.

Deep learning on cell signaling networks establishes AI for single-cell biology
Researchers at CeMM have developed knowledge-primed neural networks (KPNNs), a new method that combines the power of deep learning with the interpretability of biological network models.

Scientists suggest device to make breast MRI more effective
Magnetic resonance imaging is becoming increasingly popular as a method of diagnosing diseases.

Scientists discover new penguin colonies from space
A new study using satellite mapping technology reveals there are nearly 20% more emperor penguin colonies in Antarctica than was previously thought.

Large study confirms vitamin D does not reduce risk of depression in adults
In a study of 18,000+ participants, the risk of depression was not significantly different between those receiving vitamin D and those on placebo.

How to predict a typhoon
An international team of researchers has developed a model that analyzes nearly a quarter of Earth's surface and atmosphere in order to better predict the conditions that birth typhoons, as well as the conditions that lead to more severe storms.

Stars rich in phosphorus: Seeds of life in the universe
The journal Nature Communications today is publishing the discovery of a new type of stars, very rich in phosphorus, which could help to explain the origin of this chemical element in our Galaxy.

'Price of life' lowest in UK during COVID-19 pandemic, study finds
The price the UK government was prepared to pay to save lives during the COVID-19 pandemic was far lower than in many other developed nations, a study has revealed.

New molecule reverses Alzheimer's-like memory decline
A drug candidate developed by Salk researchers, and previously shown to slow aging in brain cells, successfully reversed memory loss in a mouse model of inherited Alzheimer's disease.

European Heart Journal: Cell infusions benefit heart patients
Three years after the ALLSTAR clinical trial ended prematurely, the study's data shows that treatments of cardiosphere-derived cells -- the same cells used as an experimental therapy tested in COVID-19 patients -- demonstrated unexpected promise in heart attack survivors.

New study shows how infrared lasers destroy harmful protein aggregates in Alzheimer's
The agglomeration of proteins into structures called amyloid plaques is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's.

Fitness watches generate useful information, but increase patient anxiety
How does measuring our sleep, exercise and heart rates using various apps and fitness watches affect us?

UCI researchers publish new guide for viral tracers in neural circuit mapping
Researchers from the newly-established Center for Neural Circuit Mapping at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine evaluate the properties of anterograde and retrograde viral tracers, comparing their strengths and limitations for use in neural circuit mapping.

A 40-year journey leads to a new truffle species
Forty years after Dan Luoma found an unsual truffle collection, scientists confirmed it is a new species and named it after Luoma. 

Monarchs raised in captivity may be worse at migrating than wild monarchs raised outdoors
New research provides clearer picture of the migration behavior of commercially and wild-derived monarchs and the effects of indoor rearing on ability to fly south.

Green energy and better crops: Tinted solar panels could boost farm incomes
Researchers have demonstrated the use of tinted, semi-transparent solar panels to generate electricity and produce nutritionally-superior crops simultaneously, bringing the prospect of higher incomes for farmers and maximising use of agricultural land.

A targeted treatment for emphysema?
Emphysema is a progressive, debilitating lung disease in which the lung's breathing sacs, or alveoli, enlarge, get thinner, and eventually are destroyed as the cells die off.

BU study: A quarter of arthritis cases linked to excess weight
A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study shows that weight loss between early adulthood and midlife lowers arthritis risk, and found no evidence of any persistent risk of arthritis for people who were heavier earlier in life and then lost weight.

Surface clean-up technology won't solve ocean plastic problem
Clean-up devices that collect waste from the ocean surface won't solve the plastic pollution problem, a new study shows.

Better at binding SARS-CoV-2: A variant of the human receptor for the virus as a powerful decoy
By exploring variants of a soluble version of the receptor that SARS-CoV-2 uses to binds human cells - which are being considered as therapeutic candidates that neutralize COVID-19 infection by acting as a decoy - researchers identified one that binds the virus's spike protein tightly enough to compete with spike binding by monoclonal antibodies.

Identified gene mutations impact on the severity of a type of hematologic cancer
Researchers from Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute participate in an international study that confirms for the first time that mutation of the two TP53 gene's copies is associated with a worse prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes, a group of blood cancers a more frequent in elderly population.

Assembly within the tumor center
Number of macrophages in tumor tissue enables prognosis of lung tumor progression.

Reducing the adverse impact of water loss in cells
A University of Houston College of Medicine researcher has found how a protein inside the body reduces the adverse effects of hypertonicity, an imbalance of water and solutes inside cells, which leads to cell death.

Increased global mortality linked to arsenic exposure in rice-based diets
Rice is the most widely consumed staple food source for a large part of the world's population.

Droplet spread from humans doesn't always follow airflow
If aerosol transmission of COVID-19 is confirmed to be significant, we will need to reconsider guidelines on social distancing, ventilation systems and shared spaces.

Study suggests embryos could be susceptible to coronavirus
Genes that are thought to play a role in how the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects our cells have been found to be active in embryos as early as during the second week of pregnancy, say scientists at the University of Cambridge and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

Surprisingly dense exoplanet challenges planet formation theories
New detailed observations with NSF's NOIRLab facilities reveal a young exoplanet, orbiting a young star in the Hyades cluster, that is unusually dense for its size and age.

Lockdown study reports surge in health anxieties
Coronavirus and the imposition of lockdown this year 'significantly raised' mental health challenges, particularly so for the most vulnerable groups, including those shielding, according to the first study to look at people's coping styles in face of the pandemic.

Nanostructures modeled on moth eyes effective for anti-icing
Researchers have been working for decades on improving the anti-icing performance of functional surfaces and work published in AIP Advances investigates a unique nanostructure, modeled on moth eyes, that has anti-icing properties.

Superior TNOx/HRGO hybrid anode for lithium-ion batteries
In a paper published in NANO, a team of researchers from Chengdu Development Center of Science and Technology have significantly enhanced the performance of titanium niobium oxides for lithium-ion batteries.

A normal DNA repair process can become a major source of mutations in cancer
The mechanism unveiled triggers a mutation fog, causing hundreds of mutations in each tumor, which spread through the genome of lung, head-and-neck and breast cancers.

African American BMi associated with severe COVID-19 and ICU admission
Body mass index (BMI) is associated with the development of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and admission to intensive care units (ICU) in African Americans, according to a single center, retrospective cross-sectional study published online in Obesity, the flagship journal of The Obesity Society.

Studies shed new light on how biodiversity influences plant decay
Scientists have provided new insights on the relationship between plant diversity in forests and the diversity of organisms involved in their decay, such as bacteria and fungi.

How thoughts could one day control electronic prostheses, wirelessly
The current generation of neural implants record enormous amounts of neural activity, then transmit these brain signals through wires to a computer.

Machine learning methods provide new insights into organic-inorganic interfaces
Simulations at Graz University of Technology refute earlier theories on long-range charge transfer between organic and inorganic materials.

Researchers develop new mouse model for SARS-CoV-2
Researchers at Yale University School of Medicine have developed a new mouse model to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease and to accelerate testing of novel treatments and vaccines against the novel coronavirus.

A research team of the CNIO and the HKUST identifies how some gliomas develop chemoresistance
* Patients with glioma - a very common type of tumour originating in the brain - see improvement in survival rates with combined treatment of radiotherapy plus temozolomide * Researchers found a novel mechanism on how tumours evade chemotherapy through genomic rearrangements of the MGMT DNA repair gene * This finding is potentially relevant for updating the methods used to monitor temozolomide efficacy.

Consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on manuscript submissions by women
JAMA Surgery Editor Melina Kibbe, M.D., writes in this editorial: ''The implications of these data demonstrating that fewer women are submitting manuscripts to JAMA Surgery during the pandemic are potentially far reaching.

Recovering data: NIST's neural network model finds small objects in dense images
In efforts to automatically capture important data from scientific papers, computer scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a method that can accurately detect small, geometric objects such as triangles within dense, low-quality plots contained in image data.

Uncovering drivers of pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in people unexposed to the virus
Recent research has reported that T cell responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 can occur in people that were unexposed to the virus, and now scientists directly show that these responses derive in part from T cell memory against ''common cold'' coronaviruses.

Health care worker burnout during COVID-19 pandemic
How common burnout was among frontline health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan was evaluated in this observational study, which also examined the factors associated with it.

AI may offer a better way to ID drug-resistant superbugs
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have shown that different strains of the same bacterial pathogen can be distinguished by a machine learning analysis of their growth dynamics alone, which can then also accurately predict other traits such as resistance to antibiotics.

Experts issue back-to-school guidelines for pediatric solid organ transplant recipients
As school districts look ahead to a very different school year, pediatric infectious disease experts from across the United States convened to outline back-to-school safety guidelines for solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients.

Radboudumc research leads to simplified dosage of HIV medicine for children
Children living with HIV can benefit from an adapted, simpler combination therapy.

Improved modelling of nuclear structure in francium aids searches for new physics
Thanks to researchers from The University of Queensland, we now know with much greater certainty the nuclear magnetic moments of francium atoms.

NASA infrared imagery shows Hagupit nearing landfall in China
NASA's Aqua satellite provided a look at Typhoon Hagupit as it was nearing landfall in southeastern China.

Tracking and forecasting outbreak risk of dengue, Zika and other Aedes-transmitted diseases
New system infuses 'R0' models with climate information to help public health agencies forecast places and times when environmental conditions might enhance transmission of dengue, Zika and other Aedes-borne diseases

Blood-thinner with no bleeding side-effects is here
In a study led by EPFL, scientists have developed a synthetic blood-thinner that, unlike all others, doesn't cause bleeding side-effects.

Iron study combats anaemia with cutting-edge computer simulation
A new iron intervention study has determined which of the world's low-and-middle income countries would benefit from using iron-containing micronutrient powders to tackle childhood anaemia.

Dear Dr... how our email style reveals much about our personalities
An open letter from pscyhologists suggests how we communicate online, including via email and social media, reveals much about our personality and character types.

Implantable transmitter provides wireless option for biomedical devices
A Purdue University team developed a fully implantable radio-frequency transmitter chip for wireless sensor nodes and biomedical devices

Photoperiod and temperature prove secondary growth resumption in northern hemisphere conifers
Ecologists from the South China Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have identified multiple exogenous factors that can affect the onset of wood formation and quantified the key drivers for secondary growth resumption in Northern Hemisphere conifers.

Identification of a new mechanism in the immune system provides knowledge about diseases
A recently identified mechanism in the immune system reveals a previously unknown protein that could provide an opening to a better understanding of infections and autoimmune diseases.

Altered lipid metabolism following childbirth predicts later diabetes risk
Scientists have found that disruptions to the metabolism of lipids occur after childbirth in women with gestational diabetes who go on to develop type 2 diabetes.

NASA's Aqua satellite shows two views of the apple fire
NASA's Aqua satellite took images of the Apple Fire as it continued to spread north across the head of the Mill Creek Canyon, and east into the San Gorgonio Wilderness near San Bernardino, Calif. on Aug.

Penis microbiota predicts if a man's female partner will develop bacterial vaginosis
Penile microbiome composition can vary; however, the presence of some bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria correlates with bacterial vaginosis onset in their female partners.

Between shark and ray: The evolutionary advantage of the sea angels
Angel sharks are sharks, but with their peculiarly flat body they rather resemble rays.

Grooming behavior between dairy cows reveals complex social network
Like humans, cattle are social creatures with complex relationships that change as group dynamics evolve.

The problem with microwaving tea
Through convection, as the liquid toward the bottom of a container warms up, it becomes less dense and moves to the top, allowing a cooler section of the liquid to contact the heating source.

Can sleep protect us from forgetting old memories?
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that sleep may help people to learn continuously through their lifetime by encoding new memories and protecting old ones.

Finding toxic carcinogenic metals faster in foods and water
Finding out if the food and water we consume are safe from toxic and carcinogenic metals can now be much faster and simpler.

Study suggests optimal social networks of no more than 150 people
New rules of engagement on the battlefield will require a deep understanding of networks and how they operate according to new Army research.

Dozens of pesticides linked with mammary gland tumors in animal studies
In an analysis of how regulators review pesticides for their potential to cause cancer, researchers at Silent Spring Institute identified more than two dozen registered pesticides that were linked with mammary gland tumors in animal studies.

Ancient mountains recorded in Antarctic sandstones reveal potential links to global events
A new analysis of sandstones from Antarctica indicates there may be important links between the generation of mountain belts and major transitions in Earth's atmosphere and oceans.

Artificial intelligence-enhanced ECGs may speed heart failure diagnosis and treatment
Electrocardiogram results evaluated with an artificial intelligence-enhanced formula may be able to detect decreased heart function more accurately and quickly than standard blood tests in patients being evaluated in the emergency room for shortness of breath.

Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2
A new study led by scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) shows that memory helper T cells that recognize common cold coronaviruses also recognize matching sites on SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

The wrong track: How papillomaviruses trick the immune system
Specific antibodies protect us against viral infections - or do they not?

Malaria: Parasite resistance to artemisinin derivatives now affecting Africa
Resistance to artemisinin, the main component of the current antimalarial treatments recommended by WHO, is already widespread in South-East Asia, but it had not previously been described in Africa.

Mount Sinai researchers discover treatment option for rare genetic disorder
Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine used a novel genetic sequencing technology to identify the genetic cause of--and a treatment for--a previously unknown severe auto inflam-matory syndrome affecting an 18-year-old girl since infancy.

Break it down: A new way to address common computing problem
A new algorithm developed in the lab of Jr-Shin Li at the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St.

Greater connectedness in remote areas: A Ka-band transceiver for satellite communications
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Socionext Inc. have developed a novel transceiver for enabling seamless communication between earth ground platforms and satellites in the low, middle, and geostationary earth orbits.

Key brain region was 'recycled' as humans developed the ability to read
An MIT study offers evidence that the brain's inferotemporal cortex, which is specialized to perform object recognition, has been repurposed for a key component of reading called orthographic processing -- the ability to recognize written letters and words.

FSU geologists publish new findings on carbonate melts in Earth's mantle
Geologists from Florida State University's Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science have discovered how carbon-rich molten rock in the Earth's upper mantle might affect the movement of seismic waves.

NASA's cloudsat takes a slice from tropical storm Isaias 
NASA's CloudSat passed over Tropical Storm Isaias as it was strengthening back into a hurricane on Aug.

Decoy receptor neutralizes coronavirus in cell cultures
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, scientists and health care providers are seeking ways to keep the coronavirus from infecting tissues once they're exposed.

Sulfur-containing polymer generates high refractive index and transparency?
Researchers reported a novel technology enhancing the high transparency of refractive polymer film via a one-step vapor deposition process.

Better outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients administered interleukin-6 inhibitors early
New research from Boston Medical Center found that patients experiencing severe COVID-19 symptoms had improved outcomes when administered an Interleukin-6 (IL6ri) inhibitor, sarilumab or tocilizumab, given to mediate severe systemic inflammatory responses.

Severe vitamin D deficiencies in UK South Asian population puts their health at risk
20 percent of the middle-aged UK South Asian population may have a very severe vitamin D deficiency, a new study in the British Journal of Nutrition reports.

Maldives records highest level of micro plastics on the planet
The amount of micro plastic pollution in waters around the Maldives, a global tourist hotspot known for its beautiful coastline, is amongst the highest in the world and has the potential to severely impact marine life in shallow reefs and threaten the livelihoods of island communities.

Study reveals impact of powerful CEOs and money laundering on bank performance
Banks with powerful CEOs and smaller boards are more likely to take risks and be susceptible to money laundering.

Number of US patients with newly identified cancers before, during COVID-19 pandemic
Changes in the number of patients with newly identified cancer before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States are examined in this observational study.

Four-compartment modeling can help determine best COVID-19 control strategy
Researchers in China identified four key population categories useful in guiding COVID-19 public health policies aimed at minimizing the spread of the disease and reducing fatalities.

More carbon in the ocean can lead to smaller fish
As humans continue to send large quantities of carbon into the atmosphere, much of that carbon is absorbed by the ocean, and UConn researchers have found high CO2 concentrations in water can make fish grow smaller.

"Grown-ups don't always get it right, you know"
When 11 year old Oscar told his mum, Dr Emma Maynard that ''grown-ups don't always get it right, you know'' the statement struck a chord with the Senior Lecturer in Education at the University of Portsmouth.

Epidemic model shows how COVID-19 could spread through firefighting camps
To support fire agencies as they continue their mission-critical work, a team that includes Colorado State University experts has developed an epidemiological modeling exercise for the USDA Forest Service and other fire managers that demonstrates potential risks and various scenarios COVID-19 could pose for the fire management community.

How animation speed affects consumers' perception of product size
Consumers estimate the size of a product to be smaller when the product is animated to move faster in video ads.

Study reveals greater excitability in social brain regions of autistic men compared to women
New insight on differences in the brains of men and women with autism has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.

New study: The quiet Sun is much more active than we thought
For a long time, researchers have believed that there is not much of interest going on in the Sun during the passive period, therefore not worth studying.

Home health care worker experiences in New York during COVID-19 pandemic
Experiences of home health care workers caring for older adults and for patients with chronic illnesses in New York during the COVID-19 pandemic are described in this analysis.

Scientists propose a novel method for controlling fusion reactions
Researchers at the DOE's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have developed a pulsed method for stabilizing magnetic islands that can cause disruptions in fusion plasmas.

New obesity guideline: Address root causes as foundation of obesity management
besity management should focus on outcomes that patients consider to be important, not weight loss alone, and include a holistic approach that addresses the root causes of obesity, according to a new clinical practice guideline published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) http://www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.191707.

Study validates Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) scale for stroke triage
A new study presented today at the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery's (SNIS) 17th Annual Meeting serves as the first prospective validation of the Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) scale in accurately identifying a severe clot stroke called a Large Vessel Occlusion (LVO) by U.S.-based EMS personnel in a pre-hospital setting.

New research: Treatment advancements help reduce mortality from unruptured brain aneurysms
Mortality rates after treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms have substantially decreased in the past decade, according to new findings presented today at the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery's (SNIS) 17th Annual Meeting.

How the seafloor of the Antarctic Ocean is changing - and the climate is following suit
Experts have reconstructed the depth of the Southern Ocean at key phases in the last 34 million years of the Antarctic's climate history

Easy to overdose on paracetamol if you're selenium deficient, says research
A lack of the mineral selenium in the diet puts people at risk of paracetamol overdose, even when the painkiller is taken at levels claimed to be safe on the packaging, according to collaborative research emerging from the University of Bath and Southwest University in China.

Blood test could diagnose baby brain damage just hours after birth
An early blood test could detect which babies deprived of oxygen at birth are at risk of serious neurodisabilities like cerebral palsy and epilepsy.

NASA providing data on Tropical Storm Isaias as it blankets eastern seaboard
Tropical Storm Isaias made landfall late on Aug. 3 and by today, Aug.

Consumers don't fully trust smart home technologies
Smart home technologies are marketed to enhance your home and make life easier.

Scientists accelerate progress in preventing drug resistance in lung and pancreas cancers
Scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah report today the development of new models to study molecular characteristics of tumors of the lung and pancreas that are driven by mutations in a gene named NTRK1.

Study: Enzyme could prove effective in treating tumors and inflammatory diseases in lung
Findings from a research study led by scientists at Henry Ford suggest an enzyme could play an important role in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases in the airway.

Developing new smart soft materials
The research team directed by H. Shimomoto and E. Ihara in Ehime University synthesized pH-responsive dendronized polymers by C1 polymerization of dendron-containing diazoacetates, and demonstrated a unique pH-responsive behavior of the resulting polymers.

Researchers create artificial organelles to control cellular behavior
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have demonstrated a method for controlling the phase separation of an emerging class of proteins to create artificial membrane-less organelles within human cells.

Tool could improve success in translating drugs from animal studies to humans
A new computational tool developed by researchers from Purdue University and MIT could help better determine which drugs should move from animal testing to humans.

Methanol synthesis: Insights into the structure of an enigmatic catalyst
To render the production process more efficient, it would be helpful to know more about the copper/zinc oxide/aluminium oxide catalyst deployed in methanol production.

Story tips: Pandemic impact, root studies, neutrons confirm, lab on a crystal & modeling fusion
ORNL Story Tips: Pandemic impact, root studies, neutrons confirm, lab on a crystal and modeling fusion.
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