Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 11, 2020
Jealous feelings can act as a tool to strengthen friendships
Jealousy can be important for maintaining friendships, which are crucial to physical and emotional health.

Organocatalyst that controls radical reactions for complex and bulky compound synthesis
In catalytic reactions with organocatalysts, it is difficult to control radical reactions.

Primate voice boxes are evolving at rapid pace
Scientists have discovered that the larynx, or voice box, of primates is significantly larger relative to body size, has greater variation, and is under faster rates of evolution than in other mammals.

AI with 'imagination' could help doctors with diagnosis, particularly for complex case
Babylon has built Artificial Intelligence with 'imagination' that could soon help doctors with diagnosis, particularly for complex cases.

Study predicts millions of unsellable homes could upend market
Millions of American homes could become unsellable - or could be sold at significant losses to their senior-citizen owners - between now and 2040, according to new research from the University of Arizona.

Rates of dog bites in children up during COVID-19 pandemic
Greater rates of Colorado's children are going to the pediatric emergency department as a result of dog bites during the COVID-19 pandemic.

SDSU professor finds after-hours cannabis use has no impact on workplace performance
Dr. Jeremy Bernerth, management professor at San Diego State University and H.

Mathematical patterns developed by Alan Turing help researchers understand bird behavior
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have used mathematical modelling to understand why flocks of long-tailed tits segregate themselves into different parts of the landscape.

RCSI research finds air pollution in Ireland associated with strokes
Scientists have found that air pollution in the winter is associated with more hospitalisations for all strokes in Dublin.

Teens' social media use does not raise risk for depression: study
Contrary to popular wisdom, daily social media use is not a strong or consistent risk factor for depressive symptoms among adolescents, according to a new study by Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health researchers.

Plant-based meats improve some cardiovascular risk factors compared with red meat
Swapping out red meat for certain plant-based meat alternatives can improve some cardiovascular risk factors, according to a new study by researchers at Stanford Medicine.

Analysis pinpoints most important forests for biodiversity and conservation in Central Africa
A study by WCS and partners produced new analyses to pinpoint the most important forests for biodiversity conservation remaining in Central Africa.

NASA finds Mekkhala coming apart after landfall in Southeastern China
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of former Typhoon Mekkhala shortly after it made landfall in southeastern China.

The structural basis of Focal Adhesion Kinase activation on lipid membranes unravelled
* Patients with glioma - a very common type of tumour originating in the brain - see improvement in survival rates with combined treatment of radiotherapy plus temozolomide * Researchers found a novel mechanism on how tumours evade chemotherapy through genomic rearrangements of the MGMT DNA repair gene * This finding is potentially relevant for updating the methods used to monitor temozolomide efficacy.

Study shows inbreeding reduces cooperation in banded mongooses
Inbreeding can reduce cooperation in banded mongooses according to a recent study by researchers.

Mass General study shows physical distancing slowed growth of COVID-19 in US
New research shows government-ordered physical distancing mandates have slowed the spread of COVID-19, preventing approximately 600,000 cases within three weeks.

Lab-created molecule achieves positive results in the treatment of arthritis
Tested in mice with genetically induced arthritis, the substance decreased the area affected, reduced local swelling, and assuaged the pain associated with the inflammatory process.

K-12 virtual schooling, COIVD-19 and student success
This Viewpoint advises parents on how to assess virtual schooling options for their children for the fall semester during the COVID-19 pandemic.

UBCO researchers link advertising to uptick in youth vaping
UBC researchers are raising the alarm about the increase of vaping among teenagers and how e-cigarette marketing strategies target youth.

Combining genetic information with EMRs to pinpoint childhood epilepsies
A team of researchers further bridged the gap between genomic information and clinical outcome data by systematically linking genetic information with electronic medical records, focusing on how genetic neurological disorders in children develop over time.

Aging memories may not be 'worse, 'just 'different'
A study from the Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences in Arts & Sciences adds nuance to the idea that an aging memory is a poor one and finds a potential correlation between the way people process the boundaries of events and episodic memory.

Project Raphael brings improved health to disadvantaged populations
Project Raphael, a novel social incubator for improving health in disadvantaged regions, was developed by Bar-Ilan University to create academic-community partnerships that define and address the most pressing health needs in northern Israel.

Racial, socioeconomic disparities fuel increased infant mortality rates in California
While infant mortality rates (IMR) decreased overall from 2007 to 2015 in California, disparities in infant death rates have increased in some groups, including among obese mothers, those who smoke and African American women, according to a new study published in PLOS One.

Building the batteries of cells
A new study, led by Dr. Ruchika Anand and Prof.

Early neural activity associated with autism
Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, have found evidence of signature brain activity in infants that predicted ASD symptoms later at 18 months old.

Study points out opioid risks for patients transitioning to skilled nursing facilities
Hospital patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities often bring a high-dose painkiller prescription with them, suggesting more attention should be paid to opioid safety for those patients.

Investigating a thermal challenge for MOFs
New research led by an interdisciplinary team across six universities examines heat transfer in MOFs and the role it plays when MOFs are used for storing fuel.

Untapped potential for TikTok to convey COVID-19 guidance
Research published in DeGruyter's International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health suggests TikTok is rich with untapped educational potential.

Study points to health disparities among former NFL players
Among former NFL players, Black, Hawaiian, and athletes from other racial backgrounds report worse physical, mental health outcomes than white players.

First generation university students need more guidance navigating education system
Young people who are the first in their family to go to university are less likely to attend an elite institution and are more likely to drop out than those with graduate parents, according to new research led by the UCL Centre for Longitudinal Studies.

EULAR: Timely detection of axial spondyloarthritis
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is associated with chronic back pain. Although the first symptoms frequently occur at an early age, often many years pass until the correct diagnosis is made.

For bacteria, a small genome means some serious decluttering -- even in the ribosome
Researchers have studied the genomes of some 200 strains of bacteria to determine which proteins in the ribosome, part of the key cell machinery, can be safely lost and why.

What violin synchronization can teach us about better networking in complex times
A new study published in Nature Communications suggests by using a model of violin synchronization in a network of violin players, there are ways to drown out distractions and miscommunications that could be used as a model for human networks in society.

Home monitoring program improves survival between surgeries for babies with certain heart defects
Home monitoring programs for infants who have undergone the first of multiple surgeries to mend a single ventricle heart defect - called the 'interstage' period - have led to a 40% decrease in deaths.

NASA finds a wispy, wind-sheared Tropical Depression 06W
NASA's Terra satellite revealed that a wispy looking Tropical Depression 06W in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean was being battered by wind shear.

New prediction model can forecast personalized risk for COVID-19-related hospitalization
Cleveland Clinic researchers have developed and validated a risk prediction model (called a nomogram) that can help physicians predict which patients who have recently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are at greatest risk for hospitalization.

Classifying galaxies with artificial intelligence
Astronomers have applied artificial intelligence (AI) to ultra-wide field-of-view images of the distant Universe captured by the Subaru Telescope, and have achieved a very high accuracy for finding and classifying spiral galaxies in those images.

Bouncing, sticking, exploding viruses: Understanding the surface chemistry of SARS-CoV-2
Better understanding of the surface chemistry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is needed to reduce transmission and accelerate vaccine design.

Immunotherapy-resistant cancers eliminated in mouse study
In a mouse study, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Giant photothermoelectric effect in silicon nanoribbon photodetectors
The photoelectric conversion has essential applications in energy and information devices.

Using physics to improve root canal efficiency
In Physics of Fluids, scientists report calculations with a model of a conical-shaped root canal inside a tooth.

Atrial fibrillation less deadly than it used to be, but still cause for concern: BU study
A first-of-its-kind study by researchers from the Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) shows a decline in deaths related to atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat) over the last 45 years.

COVID-19 clinical trials lack diversity
Despite disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization and death among people of color, minority groups are significantly underrepresented in COVID-19 clinical trials.

Storing energy in red bricks
Red bricks -- some of the world's cheapest and most familiar building materials -- can be converted into energy storage units that can be charged to hold electricity, like a battery, according to new research from Washington University in St.

Ultraviolet communication to transform Army networks
Of ever-increasing concern for operating a tactical communications network is the possibility that a sophisticated adversary may detect friendly transmissions.

MSG promotes significant sodium reduction and enjoyment of better-for-you foods, according to new study
A new study published in the Journal of Food Science suggests monosodium glutamate (MSG) can be used to significantly reduce sodium while also promoting the enjoyment of better-for-you foods like grains and vegetables.

Experimental COVID-19 vaccine prevents severe disease in mice
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have created a COVID-19 vaccine candidate from a replicating virus.

Malaria discovery could expedite antiviral treatment for COVID-19
New research into malaria suggests targeting enzymes from the human host, rather than from the pathogen itself, could offer effective treatment for a range of infectious diseases, including COVID-19.

Oil-soluble transition metal-based catalysts tested for in-situ oil upgrading
The results of the study showed that the good catalytic properties of the new transition metal catalysts, as well as their low cost and easy accessibility, make them a potential solution in the aquathermolysis reaction and heavy oil recovery.

SUTD researchers create heart cells from stem cells using 3D printing
SUTD researchers 3D printed a micro-scaled physical device to demonstrate a new level of control in the directed differentiation of stem cells, enhancing the production of cardiomyocytes.

Clemson doctoral candidate uses rockets to surf the Alaskan sky
Postdoc researcher Rafael Mesquita and a multi-institutional research team documented ''surfer waves'' in the upper atmosphere that create a pipeline of energy between layers in space.

Filtration efficiency of hospital face mask alternatives during COVID-19 pandemic
Researchers performed a series of FFE (fitted filtration efficiency) evaluations for a wide range of 29 respirators and face masks used by health care facilities, including expired N95 respirators, N95 respirators that have undergone sterilization, imported respirators approved by the U.S.

SARS-CoV-2 infection among health care workers in hospital
This study sought to establish the rate of COVID-19 among health care workers through widespread screening for SARS-CoV-2 exposure in a large community hospital.

Clot permeability linked to first-attempt success of aspiration thrombectomy
A multicenter study reports that clot perviousness, or permeability - the ability for contrast used during the initial imaging workup to seep through a clot, as estimated by CT imaging - is associated with ''first-pass success'' in large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes initially treated with an aspiration thrombectomy approach.

Harvard research identifies business travel as driver of economic growth
Research from Harvard Kennedy School's Growth Lab finds a direct link between a country's incoming business travel and the growth of new and existing industries.

1 in 6 maternity workers have had COVID-19, of whom 1 in 3 were completely asymptomatic
New research from two London hospital maternity units published in Anaesthesia (a journal of the Association of Anaesthetists) shows that 1 in 6 maternity workers tested positive for COVID-19 antibodies, showing they have had a previous infection.

Stack and twist: physicists accelerate the hunt for revolutionary new materials
Scientists at the University of Bath in the UK have taken an important step towards understanding the interaction between layers of atomically thin materials arranged in stacks.

Right under your nose: A more convenient way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease
Scientists from the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea, discover a new way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease by analyzing the levels of specific proteins in nasal discharge.

Evolutionary theory of economic decisions
When survival over generations is the end game, researchers say it makes sense to undervalue long shots that could be profitable and overestimate the likelihood of rare bad outcomes.

Brain-NET, a deep learning methodology, accurately predicts surgeon certification scores based on neuroimaging data
In a new article in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, researchers demonstrated how a deep learning framework they call ''Brain-NET'' can accurately predict a person's level of expertise in terms of their surgical motor skills, based solely on neuroimaging data.

NASA-NOAA satellite night-time animation shows intensification of hurricane Elida
A new animation of night-time imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite revealed how the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Elida transformed into a hurricane over a three-day period.

Does high blood sugar worsen COVID-19 outcomes?
Preliminary observations of COVID-19 patients with diabetes inspired an algorithm for glucose monitoring that's suspected to help combat the virus' serious complications.

Researchers explore pollen fertilization mechanisms
A study showing how pollen tubes grow into flowers to reach the ovule paves the way for the improvement of food crop varieties as well as a deeper understanding of the growth of fungi and neurons.

UCF researchers utilize Human-on-a-Chip® approach to model ALS pathology
A new study published today demonstrates that a technology developed at the University of Central Florida could serve as a more reliable clinically-based model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a better screening tool for novel therapies than currently use preclinical models.

Citizens prefer teachers and administrators to take the hit during economic crisis
With schools around the world looking into various cost-cutting measures in the midst of the COVID-10 pandemic, new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York reveals that citizens prefer teachers and administrative staff to be at the frontline of school spending cuts during times of economic crisis.

New approach for calculating radiation dosimetry allows for individualized therapy
Researchers have developed a simplified process that could enhance personalization of cancer therapy based on a single nuclear medicine scan.

Digital content on track to equal half Earth's mass by 2245
As we use resources to power massive computer farms and process digital information, our technological progress is redistributing Earth's matter from physical atoms to digital information.

Long-term risks of joint implants
Using highly complex analytical techniques, a group of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin were able to observe in detail how different metals are released from joint implants and accumulate in the surrounding bone tissue.

COMBAT study preliminary results show response of 32% in treatment of pancreatic tumors
Working with an international team of researchers, HonorHealth Research Institute and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope, were instrumental in one of the first clinical trials showing how pancreatic cancer patients can benefit from immunotherapy, according to a four-year study published in a premier scientific journal, Nature Medicine.

Masks, PPE materials should be hydrophilic
Since the COVID-19 virus spreads through respiratory droplets, researchers set out to explore how droplets deposited on face masks or frequently touched surfaces dry.

Research finds TSA may have missed thousands of firearms at checkpoints in 2016-2018
CATONSVILLE, MD, August 11, 2020 - The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has reported that it found 4,432 firearms in carry-on baggage at airport security checkpoints in 2019, and more than 20,000 firearms since 2014.

COVID-19: Herd immunity in Sweden fails to materialize
Sweden's policy of allowing the controlled spread of Covid-19 viral infection among the population has so far failed to deliver the country's previously stated goal of herd immunity.

Enzyme discovered in the gut could lead to new disease biomarker
Enzymes used by bacteria to break down mucus in the gut could provide a useful biomarker for intestinal diseases, according to new research published in Nature Communications.

Changes in use of high-dose biotin supplements among US adults
Nationally representative survey data were used to examine changes over nearly two decades in daily use of high-dose biotin supplements, which are marketed as stimulating growth of hair and nails.

Causes of higher risk of stress fractures in female runners
A pair of new studies identify overlooked physiological factors and lack of knowledge around wellness as contributors to risk of stress fracture in women who run.

Protein uses two antiviral strategies to ward off infections
To protect humans against infection, a protein called MARCH8 tags the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) for destruction while it merely holds HIV hostage, a new study in eLife shows.

Surrey academics develop a new method to determine the origin of stardust in meteorites
Scientists have made a key discovery thanks to stardust found in meteorites, shedding light on the origin of crucial chemical elements.

Rare glassy metal discovered during quest to improve battery performance
Materials scientists studying recharging fundamentals made an astonishing discovery that could open the door to better batteries, faster catalysts and other materials science leaps.

New guidelines for managing mucositis now available
New guidelines are now available to provide healthcare professionals with better tools to manage mucositis, a common and often debilitating complication of cancer therapy.

Multifocal contact lenses slow myopia progression in children
Children wearing multifocal contact lenses had slower progression of their myopia, according to results from a clinical trial funded by the National Eye Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health.

Operational considerations on academy guidance for K-12 school reentry
Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics on K-12 school reentry are discussed in this Viewpoint.

Oscillatory optics: Nonlinear, multi-mode waveguide for flip-flopping (yet stable) azimuthons
The team determined specific requirements for a weak nonlinearity: (1) both the linear and nonlinear induced index changes are small compared to the ambient refractive index, and (2) the induced nonlinear index change is much smaller than the linear one.

NASA finds Jangmi now an Extra-Tropical Storm
NASA's Aqua satellite obtained a visible image of Tropical Storm Jangmi after it transitioned into an extra-tropical storm.

Fear of stricter regulations spurs gun sales after mass shootings, new analysis suggests
In a new study appearing August 11 in the journal Patterns, investigators used data science to study why gun sales tend to go up after a mass shooting.

ECMO for patients with COVID-19, severe respiratory failure
We present our experience in using single-access, dual-stage venovenous ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), with an emphasis on early extubation of patients while they received ECMO support.

'Insect apocalypse' may not be happening in US
Scientists have been warning about an 'insect apocalypse' in recent years, noting sharp declines in specific areas -- particularly in Europe.

Scientists found genes that help cancer cells to penetrate the brain
An international team of scientists, including a researcher from Sechenov University, reviewed scientific articles on proteins (and genes encoding them) that help cancer cells enter the brain.

Researchers find clues to SARS-CoV-2 infection, why it impacts patients differently
Previously, scientists have determined that entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells occurs through a receptor on the cell surface, known as ACE2.

Young nearsighted kids benefit from bifocal contact lenses, study shows
Bifocal contact lenses aren't just for aging eyes anymore. In nearsighted kids as young as 7 years old, multifocal contact lenses with a heavy dose of added reading power can dramatically slow further progression of myopia, new research has found.

Australian Indigenous banana cultivation found to go back over 2,000 years
Archaeologists at The Australian National University have found the earliest evidence of Indigenous communities cultivating bananas in Australia.

Why does COVID-19 impact only some organs, not others?
In severe cases of COVID-19, damage can spread beyond the lungs and into other organs, such as the heart, liver, kidney and parts of the neurological system.

NASA's planet Hunter completes its primary mission
NASA's TESS has completed its primary mission, imaging about 75% of the starry sky during a two-year-long survey.

Study: Machine learning can predict market behavior
Machine learning can assess the effectiveness of mathematical tools used to predict the movements of financial markets, according to new Cornell research based on the largest dataset ever used in this area.

X-rays indicate that water can behave like a liquid crystal
Scientists at Stockholm University have discovered that water can exhibit a similar behavior like a liquid crystal when illuminated with laser light.

Molecules in urine allow doctors to monitor skin cancer
What if you could simply provide a urine sample rather than undergo a painful surgical procedure to find out if your cancer was responding to treatment?

Study ties gun purchases to fear of firearm regulations, kicks off major research
A new study finds that the decision to purchase a gun after mass shootings is driven by fear of stricter regulations on gun purchase and ownership more than by a desire to protect oneself.

Nanocrystals from recycled wood waste make carbon-fiber composites tougher
In a new study, Texas A&M University researchers have used a natural plant product, called cellulose nanocrystals, to pin and coat carbon nanotubes uniformly onto the carbon-fiber composites.

Stanford study reveals immune-system paralysis in severe COVID-19 cases
A Stanford study shows that in severely ill COVID-19 patients, 'first-responder' immune cells, which should react immediately to signs of viral or bacterial presence in the body, instead respond sluggishly.

Recipe for success -- interaction proteomics become a household item
A research team from University of Helsinki introduces a new optimised and integrated interaction proteomics protocol that combines two state-of-the art methods to allow rapid identification of protein-protein interactions and more.

Upcycling plastic waste toward sustainable energy storage
UC Riverside engineering professors Mihri and Cengiz Ozkan and their students have been working for years on creating improved energy storage materials from sustainable sources, such as glass bottles, beach sand, Silly Putty, and portabella mushrooms.

Texas A&M researchers developing first oral anthrax vaccine for livestock, wildlife
There may soon be a new weapon in the centuries-old battle against anthrax in wildlife thanks to groundbreaking work at the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences.

Physicists cast doubt on neutrino theory
University of Cincinnati physicists, as part of an international research team, are raising doubts about the existence of an exotic subatomic particle that failed to show up in twin experiments.

Researchers show mathematically how to best reopen your business after lockdown
Model shows that Covid-19 can stay under control inside your company only if social distancing, PPE, and other measures are implemented for employees not working from home.

Increased breast cancer risk in obesity linked to fat cell chemicals
Obesity increases the release of tumour-promoting molecules from fat tissue and is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, according to a study published in Endocrine-Related Cancer.

Vaping linked to COVID-19 risk in teens and young adults, Stanford-led study finds
Vaping is linked to a substantially increased risk of COVID-19 among teenagers and young adults, according to a new study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

CNIO and CNIC find clues to clarify why cohesine has a role in cancer and cardiac development
In 1998, Spanish researcher Ana Losada, currently at CNIO, identified cohesin in vertebrates, a protein essential for chromosome segregation in dividing cells.

How airplanes counteract St. Elmo's Fire during thunderstorms
An MIT study finds windy conditions can weaken St. Elmo's fire, the phenomenon when electrically conductive structures spontaneously emit a flash of blue light, when it's generated by aircraft and other ungrounded objects.

New species of dinosaur discovered on Isle of Wight
A new study by Palaeontologists at the University of Southampton suggests four bones recently found on the Isle of Wight belong to new species of theropod dinosaur, the group that includes Tyrannosaurus rex and modern-day birds.

Modelling parasitic worm metabolism suggests strategy for developing new drugs against infection
Scientists have revealed a way to eradicate parasitic worms by stopping them from using alternative metabolism pathways provided by bacteria that live within them, according to new findings published today in eLife.

Collaboration is key to rebuilding coral reefs
The most successful and cost-effective ways to restore coral reefs have been identified by an international group of scientists, after analyzing restoration projects in Latin America.

Stanford experts recommend strict, costly approaches for reopening schools
The American Academy of Pediatrics recently highlighted the importance of students' returning to the classroom in its COVID-19 return-to-school guidance.

Scientists replace malfunctioning 'vacuum cleaner' cells linked to neurological disorders
Malfunctioning microglia are associated with a range of neurological diseases.

Cricket umpires fumble on T20 calls
Cricket umpires struggle to please everyone at the best of time but the different formats of the game make it even harder for them, especially when it comes to LBW decisions.

Car passengers can reduce pollution risk by closing windows and changing route
Drivers and passengers can inhale significantly lower levels of air pollution by setting their vehicle's ventilation systems more effectively and taking a 'cleaner' route to their destination, a new study reveals.

Climate change projected to increase seasonal East African rainfall
According to research led by The University of Texas at Austin, seasonal rainfall is expected to rise significantly in East Africa over the next few decades in response to increased greenhouse gases.

Researchers create mask filtration effectiveness hierarchy
Infection prevention experts at the UNC Medical Center set out to gather evidence on the fitted filtration efficiency of dozens of different types of masks and mask modifications, including masks sterilized for reuse, expired masks, novel masks sourced from domestic and overseas sources, and homemade masks.

Excess weight among pregnant women may interfere with child's developing brain
Obesity in expectant mothers may hinder the development of the babies' brains as early as the second trimester, a new study finds.

Gluten in wheat: What has changed during 120 years of breeding?
In recent years, the number of people affected by coeliac disease, wheat allergy or gluten or wheat sensitivity has risen sharply.

Research exposes new vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2
Using nanometer-level simulations, the researchers discovered a positively charged site (known as the polybasic cleavage site) located 10 nanometers from the actual binding site on the spike protein.

Network of sounds: New research reveals the magic secret of human networks
A group of Israeli researchers recruited 16 violinists to study the behavior of a human network and find out what sets it apart from other networks, such as animals, computers and other objects.
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