Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 21, 2020
Gaps in early surveillance of coronavirus led to record-breaking US trajectory
Research from the University of Notre Dame provides insight into how limited testing and gaps in surveillance during the initial phase of the epidemic resulted in so many cases going undetected. 

Women surgeons earn their cut of NIH funding -- and then some
Women are underrepresented in academic surgery, but women surgeons are earning a disproportionate share of research grants from the National Institutes of Health, a new study has found.

Concussions can cause long-term sleep problems
A new study shows that people who have had concussions sometimes develop long-term after effects, including sleep disturbances.

NASA nighttime imagery finds Tropical Storm Laura developing  
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a nighttime view of Tropical Depression 13 early on Aug.

Key molecule responsible for poor prognosis of breast cancer identified
Hokkaido University scientists have shown that Interleukin-34 is a prognostic marker and drug target for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

Psychological disease avoidance linked to preventative behavior, study finds
More than other factors, strong feelings of germ aversion and pathogen disgust are significantly associated with concern about COVID-19 and preventative behavior, according to findings from UConn School of Nursing researchers published in the journal PLOS ONE.

Loop, resonate, and accelerate!
Neuroscientists demonstrate how to improve communication between different regions of the brain

Molecule secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes anticancer drug resistance
Joint research at Kumamoto University in Japan discovered a new mechanism for anticancer drug resistance in gastric cancer.

NASA nighttime image shows a weaker Genevieve moving away from mexico
Nighttime imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite found the center of now Tropical Storm Genevieve moving along the coast of the Baja California, Mexico peninsula and further away from land.

Scientists sink teeth into identifying several new bacteria that cause dental caries
The microbial ecosystem of our body plays a vital role in its upkeep.

A new method for in vivo plant cell imaging with SNAP-tag proteins
A new method for visualizing in vivo protein dynamics in plant cells has been developed by Nagoya University scientists, offering an important step forward in plant cell fluorescent imaging.

Reproducing the pathophysiology of polycystic kidney disease from human iPS cells
A joint research project has successfully reproduced the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) from human iPS cells in vitro.

Skat and poker: More luck than skill?
Chess requires playing ability and strategic thinking; in roulette, chance determines victory or defeat, gain or loss.

Tiny engineered therapeutic delivery system safely solves genetic problems in mice
Inserting genetic material into the body to treat diseases caused by gene mutations can work, scientists say - but getting those materials to the right place safely is tricky.

Understanding how birds respond to extreme weather can inform conservation efforts
How do different bird species respond to extreme weather events that occur for different amounts of time, ranging from weekly events like heat waves to seasonal events like drought?

A powder method for the high-efficacy measurement of electro-optic coefficients
A high-efficacy powder method, combining calculations and measurements on powder second harmonic generation (SHG) effect, infrared reflectance spectrum (IRRS), and Raman spectrum, is put forward for the evaluation and exploration of novel electro-optic crystals.

Microfluidic chip technology enables rapid multiplex diagnosis of plant viral diseases
Toyohashi University of Technology has applied a microfluidic chip technology to develop a multiplex genetic diagnostic device for the early detection and prevention of crop diseases.

Developing precise medicines for triple negative breast cancer
Taking advantage of a cancer cell's altered metabolism that drives its runaway growth, Princess Margaret researchers are zeroing in on these molecular changes to help them develop more precise drug targets for one of the most deadly breast cancers.

From biopaste to bioplastic
Forest scientists develop innovative wood-based materials for 3D printing.

Smart responsive lasing signals for high-security optical encryption
Very recently, Professor Yong Sheng Zhao's group in the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences propose a strategy to achieve multiple responsive lasing emission states for high-security optical encryption by modulating the competition between radiative rate of donor and the rate of energy transfer in FRET microlasers, which is published in National Science Review.

'Selfies' could be used to detect heart disease
Sending a ''selfie'' to the doctor could be a cheap and simple way of detecting heart disease, according to the authors of a new study published in the European Heart Journal.

COVID-19 pooling test method from Ben-Gurion U. IDs asymptomatic carriers
P-BEST can be configured on the basis of the carrier rate.

A new molecular guardian of intestinal stem cells
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) investigated how intestinal stem cells are controlled at the molecular level to remain stem cells or to develop into one of various intestinal cells.

Hubble snaps close-up of celebrity comet NEOWISE
The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped the closest images yet of the sky's latest visitor to make headlines, comet NEOWISE, after it passed by the Sun.

Modeling contact tracing strategies for COVID-19
The potential for contract tracing to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the context of reduced physical distancing under different assumptions for case detection, tracing and quarantine efficacy is examined in this mathematical modeling study.

Urine sediment test results, diagnoses vary significantly across nephrologists
A new study shows that nephrologists do not always agree on their interpretation of images from urine sediment tests, which are frequently ordered to evaluate a variety of kidney diseases.

Energy transition away from coal in China will yield benefits
China is the world's largest producer and consumer of coal.

Effect of remdesivir vs standard care on clinical status of patients with moderate COVID-19
This open-label randomized trial compares the effect of remdesivir (5 or 10 days) compared with standard care on clinical status 11 days after treatment initiation among patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized with moderate pneumonia.

Mass General researchers create bioluminescent tag to detect DNA break repair
A new bioluminescent reporter that tracks DNA double stranded break (DSB) repair in cells has been developed by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Academia Sinica in Taiwan.

Simple test could improve public attitudes to autism
Psychologists from Bath and Essex suggest existing ways of testing public attitudes towards autism are not fit for purpose.

Mount Sinai study finds COVID patients were most commonly readmitted to hospital for respiratory complications
Study describes characteristics of patients with COVID-19 who returned to the ER or required readmission to the hospital within 14 days of being discharged

Revealed: How billions in EU farming subsidies are being misspent
A unique study has analyzed in detail how EU agricultural subsidies flow down to the local level.

Unbalanced microtubule networks launch establishment of neuronal polarity
Prof. MENG Wenxiang's group from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently reported a new mechanism by which microtubule networks instruct neuronal polarity.

Why obeying orders can make us do terrible things
War atrocities are sometimes committed by 'normal' people obeying orders.

Epidemiology of COVID-19 among incarcerated individuals, staff in Massachusetts jails, prisons
COVID-19 among incarcerated individuals and staff in Massachusetts jails and prisons is described in this observational study, which assesses the association of COVID-19 case rates with decarceration and testing rates.

Genomic analysis reveals many animal species may be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection
Analysis of ACE2, the main receptor that SARS-CoV-2 uses to bind and enter cells, across 410 vertebrate species reveals that many are potentially susceptible to infection by the novel coronavirus.

Spinning black hole powers jet by magnetic flux
A new letter has been found in the mysterious alphabet of black holes.

Detailed map of natural killer cells in COVID-19 patients expands understanding of innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2
A new study of 27 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has provided a detailed map of natural killer (NK) cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, revealing that specific characteristics of NK cell activation associate with different levels of disease severity.

"All-in-one" strategy for metalla[3]catenanes, borromean rings and ring-in-ring complex
Recently, Ye Lu, Dong Liu, Yue-Jian Lin, Zhen-Hua Li and Guo-Xin Jin from Fudan University (Shanghai, China) made exciting progress and developed self-assembly of metalla[3]catenanes, Borromean rings and ring-in-ring complex using a simple π-donor unit.

Large tin monosulfide crystal opens pathway for next generation solar cells
A team at Tohoku University has succeeded in growing large single crystals of tin monosulfide, a material used in next generation solar cells.

Research links Southeast Asia megadrought to drying in Africa
Physical evidence found in caves in Laos connects the end of the Green Sahara, when once heavily vegetated Northern Africa became a hyper-arid landscape, and a previously unknown megadrought that crippled Southeast Asia 4,000 to 5,000 years ago.

Ozone across northern hemisphere increased over past 20 years
In a first-ever study using ozone data from commercial aircraft, CIRES researchers found that levels of the pollutant in the lowest part of Earth's atmosphere have increased across the Northern Hemisphere over the past 20 years.

The age of the Earth's inner core revised
By creating conditions akin to the center of the Earth inside a laboratory chamber, researchers have improved the estimate of the age of our planet's solid inner core, putting it at 1 billion to 1.3 billion years old.

A gatekeeper against insulin resistance in the brain
The brain plays a major role in controlling our blood glucose levels.

Unveiling rogue planets with NASA's Roman Space Telescope
New simulations show that NASA's Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will be able to reveal myriad rogue planets - freely floating bodies that drift through our galaxy untethered to a star.

New insights into lung tissue in COVID-19 disease
Physicists at the University of Göttingen, together with pathologists and lung specialists at the Medical University of Hannover, have developed a three-dimensional imaging technique that enables high resolution and three-dimensional representation of damaged lung tissue following severe Covid-19.

Rogue planets could outnumber the stars
An upcoming NASA mission could find that there are more rogue planets - planets that float in space without orbiting a sun - than there are stars in the Milky Way, a new study theorizes.

Finding clues to a successful immune response in the T cells of COVID-19 patients
Now, Roan and her team have catalogued the T cells of people who have recovered from mild cases of COVID-19.

Nasal vaccine against COVID-19 prevents infection in mice
Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have developed a vaccine that targets the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can be given in one dose via the nose and is effective in preventing infection in mice susceptible to the novel coronavirus.

One more hit from rare Earth: Efficient coherent spin manipulation by the electric field
Researchers used rare earth ions to efficiently couple the electric and magnetic behaviors of material.

In times of ecological uncertainty, brood parasites hedge their bets
Some birds lay their eggs in the nests of other bird species and let the host parents raise their young.

UCF researchers generate attosecond light from industrial laser
University of Central Florida researchers are making the cutting-edge field of attosecond science more accessible to researchers from all disciplines.

Scientists discover a social cue of safety
Are you in danger? Looking at how others behave is one of the ways social animals, such as humans, find the answer.

New research on Post-fracture Care Coordination Programs highlighted at WCO-IOF-ESCEO
After the first fragility fracture, there is a high risk of subsequent fractures, with the risk highest in the following two years.

Long-acting, injectable drug could strengthen efforts to prevent, treat HIV
Scientists have developed an injectable drug that blocks HIV from entering cells.

Hubble snaps close-up of comet NEOWISE
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured the closest images yet of the sky's latest visitor to make the headlines, comet C/2020 F3 NEOWISE, after it passed by the Sun.

Early NK cell-mediated immune response may contribute to severe COVID-19
Researchers may have come one step closer toward understanding how the immune system contributes to severe COVID-19.

Researchers link end of Green Sahara with SE Asia megadrought
In a new study published by Nature Communications, an interdisciplinary team of researchers link the end of the Green Sahara with a previously unknown megadrought which caused mass population shifts in Southeast Asia during the mid-Holocene period.

Researchers validate rapid tests to detect dengue, Zika, yellow fever and other viruses
The method identifies and distinguishes between flaviviruses that cause many diseases in humans and animals in Brazil.

Arctic ocean moorings shed light on winter sea ice loss
The eastern Arctic Ocean's winter ice grew less than half as much as normal during the past decade, due to the growing influence of heat from the ocean's interior, researchers have found.

Research team develops the first physics-based method for predicting large solar flares
A research team recently succeeded in developing the first physics-based model that can accurately predict imminent large solar flares, which can cause severe space weather disturbances affecting Earth.

Why babies not always remember what they have learned
If and how babies recall what they have learned depends on their mood: what they've learned when feeling calm is inaccessible when they're acitive and vice versa.

Nutrients make coral bleaching worse
Nutrients can aggravate the already negative effects of climate change on corals to trigger mass coral bleaching.

Discovering the mechanism of brain vascular pathfinding during development
A research team led by Dr. DU Jiulin of the Institute of Neuroscience, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, has revealed that Ca2+ activities mediated by mechanosensitive Piezo1 channels regulate the pathfinding of growing brain vessels in larval zebrafish.

NASA's Suomi NPP satellite highlights California wildfires at night
Striking images of the California wildfires are seen in these nighttime satellite images taken by the NOAA-NASA Suomi NPP satellite on Aug.

What kind of animal transports the seeds of the world's smallest fruit-bearing plants?
Plants in the Balanophora genus have very small fruits and very little is known about their seed dispersal strategy.

A four-state magnetic tunnel junction for novel spintronics applications
Researchers have introduced a new type of MTJ with four resistance states, and successfully demonstrated switching between the states with spin currents.

Electron movements in liquid measured in super-slow motion
Electrons are able to move within molecules, for example when they are excited from outside or in the course of a chemical reaction.

Sea-level rise linked to higher water tables along California coast
Researchers modeled the effects of rising sea levels along the California coast.

Group of international scientists align on a definition for 'synbiotic'
To address the scientific ambiguity around synbiotics, a group of 11 leading international scientists formed a panel to create a consensus definition and to clarify the evidence required to show synbiotics are safe and effective.

NASA's Terra satellite analyzes Caribbean's Tropical Depression 14
NASA's Terra satellite gathered infrared data on Tropical Depression 14 as it moves through the Caribbean Sea.

Argonne scientists use artificial intelligence to strengthen power grid resiliency
A new artificial neural network model, created by Argonne scientists, handles both static and dynamic features of a power system with a relatively high degree of accuracy.

Meet hedge fund managers of avian world
New research from Washington University in St. Louis finds that brood parasites living in more variable and unpredictable habitats tend to parasitize -- or squat and drop their eggs in -- the nests of a greater variety and number of hosts.

Children with cognitive delays are more likely to have CT scan to diagnose appendicitis
Computed tomography (CT) is used at a higher rate than ultrasound in children with developmental and cognitive impairments to diagnose appendicitis, even though CT scans increase radiation risk in smaller bodies.
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