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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 31, 2020


New hydrogels for T-cell growth to be used in cancer immunotherapy
A team with the participation of researchers from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) has designed new hydrogels that allow the culture of T-cells or T-lymphocytes, cells of the immune system that are used in cancer immunotherapy since they have the capacity to destroy tumor cells.
Discovery of an ancient dog species may teach us about human vocalization
In a study published in PNAS, researchers used conservation biology and genomics to discover that the New Guinea singing dog, thought to be extinct for 50 years, still thrives.
Study: Portable, point-of-care COVID-19 test could bypass the lab
As COVID-19 continues to spread, bottlenecks in supplies and laboratory personnel have led to long waiting times for results in some areas.
People with less body response to stress task had more PTSD signs after COVID-19 began
People who did not have a large heart rate response to a stress task surprised researchers later -- after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic -- when they showed more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder related to the crisis than others who also did the stress task and COVID-19 stress ratings.
New EU rules could make total diet replacement products unviable from 2022, study warns
From October 2022, the European Union (EU) will impose new nutritional requirements for total diet replacement (TDR) products which could make them unviable to produce and sell, according to new research being presented at The European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020), held online this year from 1-4 September.
Microgel immuno-acceptance method could improve pancreatic islet transplant success
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and University of Missouri have developed a new microgel drug delivery method that could extend the effectiveness of pancreatic islet transplantations -- from several years to possibly the entire lifespan of a recipient.
EMPEROR-Reduced meets primary endpoint in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Empagliflozin reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction.
Dodder uses the flowering signal of its host plant to flower
Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology have investigated how the parasitic dodder Cuscuta australis controls flower formation.
How antibiotics interact
Understanding bottleneck effects in the translation of bacterial proteins can lead to a more effective combination of antibiotics / study in 'Nature Communications'
Early rhythm control therapy improves outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation
Patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation benefit from early rhythm control therapy, according to results of the EAST-AFNET 4 trial presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020.
Can black hole fire up cold heart of the phoenix?
Radio astronomers have detected jets of hot gas blasted out by a black hole in the galaxy at the heart of the Phoenix Galaxy Cluster, located 5.9 billion light-years away in the constellation Phoenix.
Gout drug repurposed to fight heart disease
Colchicine reduces the risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary disease, according to results of the LoDoCo2 trial presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020.1 ''Over a decade, more than one in three heart patients will have another heart attack or stroke, or die from heart disease, despite taking preventive medication,'' said study author Dr.
Researchers develop dustbuster for the moon
A team led by the University of Colorado Boulder is pioneering a new solution to the problem of spring cleaning on the moon: Why not zap away the grime using a beam of electrons?
For people with high blood pressure, telemonitoring may cut heart attack, stroke rate by 50%
Adults with uncontrolled high blood pressure were about half as likely to have serious cardiovascular events in the five years after a pharmacist-led telemonitoring program compared to those receiving routine primary care.
Eating your vegetables is easier said than done
The landmark EAT-Lancet report on food in the Anthropocene sets ambitious targets.
Researchers develop molecule to store solar energy
Researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, have developed a molecule that absorbs energy from sunlight and stores it in chemical bonds.
SGLT2 inhibitors can slow progression of chronic kidney disease
The CREDENCE trial [3] provided evidence that the SGLT2 inhibitor Canagliflozin slows the progression of CKD in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and CKD with albuminuria.
Demonstrating the dynamics of electron-light interaction originating from first principle
Quantum-physical fundamentals can be studied particularly well by the interactions between electrons and photons.
Research shows how a diet change might help US veterans with Gulf War illness
A new study from American University shows the results from a dietary intervention in U.S. veterans suffering from Gulf War Illness, a neurological disorder in veterans who served in the Persian Gulf War from 1990 to 1991.
Common medicine used to treat gout found to prevent progression of coronary disease
A major clinical trial involving 5,500 patients in Australia and the Netherlands found heart attacks and the need for coronary stenting or bypass surgery reduced by 30% in patients taking low dose colchicine, an old and widely available drug commonly used to treat gout.
Study finds asymptomatic Chagas patients are at a high risk for cardiac disease
People living with Chagas disease without symptoms or signs of cardiac injury are at high risk of developing cardiomyopathy, a progressive heart disease, and the risk more than doubled among patients with acute infections, according to a new study from the University of Colorado School of Medicine at the Anschutz Medical Campus.
Cell phone location used to estimate COVID-19 growth rates
Cell phone location data shows that in counties where activity declined at workplaces and increased at home, coronavirus infection rates were lower.
Study: Anonymized cell phone location data can help monitor COVID-19 growth rates
In a new study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, researchers from Mount Auburn Hospital and the University of Pennsylvania analyzed anonymous, county-level cell phone location data and incidence of COVID-19.
Scientists show how brain flexibility emerges in infants
Cognitive flexibility, which refers to the brain's ability to switch between mental processes in response to external stimuli and different task demands, seems to begin developing during the first two years of life, which is much earlier than previously thought.
Vast majority supports mandatory corona tests for returnees
Should people who come to Germany from risk areas be tested for the novel coronavirus?
Scientists unlock crops' power to resist floods
Foundational science has discovered the molecular structure of plant enzymes that could be manipulated to create flood-resistant crops, vital as weather events become more extreme due to global warming.
CU Anschutz researchers shed light on split-second decision making
A little understood region of the cerebellum plays a critical role in making split-second 'go-no go' decisions, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
Brain protein linked to seizures, abnormal social behaviors
A team led by a biomedical scientist at the University of California, Riverside has found a new mechanism responsible for the abnormal development of neuronal connections in the mouse brain that leads to seizures and abnormal social behaviors.
Consortium of Brazilian researchers completes sequencing of native stingless bee's genome
Frieseomelitta varia is a docile species of economic interest as a pollinator.
Improving FDA's COVID-19 vaccine authorization and approval process
On March 28, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercised its Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) authority to allow the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19, and on June 15, the agency revoked this authorization.
Guam study advances research of cycads as an ecotoxin
University of Guam research has revealed that younger cycad seeds pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed than more mature seeds, bringing the scientific community one step closer to understanding the origins of a neurodegenerative disease prevalent on Guam in World War II and closer to understanding related neurological disorders elsewhere.
Warning witnesses of the possibility of misinformation helps protect their memory accuracy
Warning about the threat of misinformation -- before or after an event -- significantly reduces the negative impact of misinformation on memory, according to research at Tufts University.
Study examines the heart risks and benefits of today's most popular fad diets
In a review of existing scientific studies on trendy ketogenic and intermittent fasting diets, researchers at National Jewish Health concluded these diets do seem to help people lose weight in the short-term, and modest evidence suggests they may contribute to cardiovascular health.
Asthma may not be a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19
A new research letter published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society examines whether asthma is a significant risk factor for developing COVID-19 that is severe enough to warrant hospitalization and intubation.
Trial clarifies which patients with acute pulmonary embolism can be managed at home
Patients with acute pulmonary embolism can be selected for home management using the sPESI score or the Hestia criteria, according to results of the HOME-PE trial presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020.1 Principal investigator Professor Pierre-Marie Roy of the University Hospital of Angers, France said: ''The pragmatic Hestia method was at least as safe as the sPESI score for triaging haemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism patients for outpatient care.''
Obesity -- the deadly disease that nobody dies of
New research presented at the European and International Conference on Obesity (ECO ICO 2020), held online this year (Sept.
Study finds insect shows promise as a good, sustainable food source
With global food on the rise, a study led by IUPUI scientists has found new evidence that the yellow mealworm shows promise as alternative source of nutritional protein.
Vaccine narrows racial disparities in pneumococcal disease
In a major public health success, the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV13, or Prevnar 13, in 2010 in the United States is associated with reduction in socioeconomic disparities and the near elimination of Black-white-based racial disparities for invasive pneumococcal disease.
True holographic movie is within grasp
Holographic movies, like the one R2D2 projected of Princess Leia in the Star Wars: A New Hope, have long been the province of science fiction, but for most of us, the extent of our experience with holograms may be the dime-sized stamps on our passports and credit cards.
Ultra-processed food consumption is associated with chromosomal changes linked to biological ageing
A new study has shed light on the link between the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and the shortening of telomeres; sections of chromosomes that can be used as a marker of biological age.
Data clearly show the more serious trajectory of COVID-19 disease in people with obesity
Data presented at one of the opening sessions at this year's European and International Congress on Obesity (ECOICO 2020) held online this year (1-4 September) will show the clear relationship between obesity and the severity of COVID-19 disease.
Trial supports first specific treatment for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Mavacamten improves heart function and symptoms in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, according to results of the EXPLORER-HCM trial presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020.
Scientists develop first drug-like compounds to inhibit elusive cancer-linked enzymes
Structural biology techniques helped researchers target the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain family for the first time; its malfunction is associated with several types of cancer.
To the choir: Forward-thinking faculty sharing innovations mostly among themselves
Surveys and network analyses of 192 STEM faculty at three universities revealed that frequent users of evidence-based instructional practices are far more likely to engage one another than colleagues less familiar with the practices.
Secret weapon to stop invasive honeysuckle: Satellites
The University of Cincinnati found that satellite imagery can identify nonnative and invasive Amur honeysuckle, an ornamental shrub introduced from Asia that has spread in forests across much of the United States.
Evening eating is associated with higher total calorie intake and lower diet quality
A study of nearly 1200 UK adults, being presented at this year's European and International Conference on Obesity (ECOICO 2020), held online this year (Sept.
Obesity prevalence varies widely among Latino populations, NYC study finds
A new study of obesity among the largest Latino populations living in New York City (NYC) finds that the prevalence of obesity varies widely--with Mexicans and Puerto Ricans much more likely to have obesity than Dominicans, Ecuadorians, and Colombians.
Body mass index is a more powerful risk factor for diabetes than genetics
Losing weight could prevent or even reverse diabetes, according to late breaking research presented today at ESC Congress 2020.
Astrophysics: A direct view of star/disk interactions
'Nature' publication: The GRAVITY instrument developed for the Very Large Telescope in Chile probes deep into the TW Hydrae system to shape our view of accretion processes in young stars similar to the young Sun
Sex cells have a sweet tooth, and they pass it on to the brain
Scientists discover that a small group of sex cells instruct a fundamental behavioural change in the female fruit fly - developing a sweet tooth.
College students access eating disorders therapy via phone app
Studying college women with eating disorders, a team led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Imaging an estrogen related enzyme may help to predict obesity, self-control issues
Findings to be published in PNAS from a positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging study of the amygdala reveals that low levels of the enzyme aromatase, which catalyzes estrogen biosynthesis, are associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) and lower self-control, as measured by a standard personality test.
Saving marine life: Novel method quantifies the effects of plastic on marine wildlife
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology together with their international collaborators developed a novel quantitative method to quantify the effects of plastic on marine animals.
Study provides insight on how to build a better flu vaccine
Repeated exposure to influenza viruses may undermine the effectiveness of the annual flu vaccine.
People love winning streaks by individuals -- teams, not so much
People enjoy witnessing extraordinary individuals - from athletes to CEOs - extend long runs of dominance in their fields, a new study suggests.
Stealing information from host plants: How the parasitic dodder plant flowers
Recently, researchers led by WU Jianqiang from the Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences uncovered the underlying mechanism for dodder flowering.
Swine flu vaccination in pregnant women did not increase risk of autism in offspring
Two recent studies were unable to rule out that H1N1 ('swine flu') vaccination ('Pandemrix') and seasonal influenza vaccination given to pregnant women might be associated with autism-spectrum disorder in the offspring.
Researchers discover a specific brain circuit damaged by social isolation during childhood
Study shows long-lasting effects and points the way to potential treatments.
Brainstem protein mediates exercise-based stress relief
Exercise fights off stress by increasing levels of the brain protein galanin, according to research in mice recently published in JNeurosci.
FSU researchers develop new X-ray detection technology
Florida State University researchers have developed a new material that could be used to make flexible X-ray detectors that are less harmful to the environment and cost less than existing technologies.
Wearable device could help EMTs, surgeons assess hemorrhage blood loss
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs), military medics, and emergency room physicians could one day be better able to treat victims of vehicular accidents, gunshot wounds, and battlefield injuries thanks to a new device under development that may more accurately assess the effects of blood loss due to hemorrhage.
Nanomaterials based strategies for treatment of hypoxic tumor
Hypoxic tumor microenvironment restricts efficiency of tumor therapies and leads to serious results of tumor recurrence and high mortality.
Serengeti leopard population densities healthy but vary seasonally, study finds
A study of camera-trap data from Serengeti National Park in Tanzania found that leopard population densities in the 3.7-million-acre park are similar to those in other protected areas but vary between wet and dry seasons.
Novel Dual CAR T cell immunotherapy holds promise for targeting the HIV reservoir
A recent study describes a new Dual CAR T cell immunotherapy that can help fight HIV infection.
Pesticide-free crop protection yields up to US$ 20 billion/year benefits in Asia-Pacific
Scientists have estimated for the first time how nature-based solutions for agricultural pest control deliver US$ 14.6 to US$ 19.5 billion annually across 23 countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
Study finds missing link in the evolutionary history of carbon-fixing protein Rubisco
A team led by researchers at UC Davis has discovered a missing link in the evolution of photosynthesis and carbon fixation.
How weather affects crawfish harvests
To help inform farmers, researchers at Louisiana State University are the first to quantify how rainfall and temperature affect crawfish harvest yields.
Biocompatible TeSex nano-alloys for PT/PA/CT/PET imaging-guided NIR-II-photothermal therapy
Photothermal nanotheranostics, especially in the NIR-II region, exhibits a great potential in precision and personalized medicine, owing to high tissue penetration of NIR-II light.
Hots dogs, chicken wings and city living helped wetland wood storks thrive
Using the Wood Stork, researchers compared city storks with natural wetland storks to gauge their success in urban environments based on their diet and food opportunities.
Sea level rise from ice sheets track worst-case climate change scenario
Ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica whose melting rates are rapidly increasing have raised the global sea level by 1.8cm since the 1990s, and are matching the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's worst-case climate warming scenarios.
Allergic reaction: How the immune system identifies nickel
The metal nickel is one of the most common triggers of allergic contact dermatitis in humans.
Fungi in gut linked to higher Alzheimer's risk can be reduced through ketogenic diet
Specific fungi in the gut associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease and found in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be altered in a beneficial manner by eating a modified Mediterranean diet, researchers at Wake Forest School of Medicine have found.
Antibody blockade effective in treatment of severe COVID-19
A hyperinflammatory response following infection or trauma can cause the life-threatening condition cytokine release syndrome (CRS).
Following African elephant trails to approach conservation differently
Elephant trails may lead the way to better conservation approaches.
NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite shows two views of California's smoky skies
NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite captured two images that tell the story about the smoke coming off the fires in California.
Prior health insurance coverage disruptions linked to issues with healthcare access
A new American Cancer Society study finds health insurance coverage disruptions in the prior year led to issues with healthcare access and affordability for currently insured cancer survivors.
Implant choice more important than surgeon skill for hip replacement success
A study analysing over 650,000 hip replacement patients across England and Wales over 14 years sought to investigate why one hospital has consistently been identified as having better than expected outcomes compared to other settings.
Genetic mutations may be linked to infertility, early menopause
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Intelligent software tackles plant cell jigsaw puzzle
German researchers, including scientists from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg (EMBL), developed a machine learning-based algorithm to study the morphogenesis of plants at a cellular level.
Manganese single-atom catalyst boosts performance of electrochemical CO2 Reduction
A research team led by Prof. ZHANG Suojiang from the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences prepared a manganese (Mn) single-atom catalyst (SAC) with Mn-N3 site supported by graphitic C3N4, which exhibited efficient performance of CO2 electroreduction.
USTC researchers design continuous-scanning sky brightness monitor in 2.5- to 5-μm band
Researches from USTC proposed a continuous-scanning near-infrared sky brightness monitor (CNISBM).
Strokes in babies are surprisingly common; here's how the body rushes to the rescue
New research is shedding light on the development of the brain's immune defenses - and how those defenses respond to strokes that strike one in 4,000 babies in the first month of life.
Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods doubles post-op delirium risk for older adults
Where you live can increase your risk for experiencing delirium after surgery.
Uncovering the hidden life of 'dead' coral reefs
'Dead' coral rubble can support more animals than live coral, according to University of Queensland researchers trialling a high-tech sampling method.
Angina drug fails to improve outcomes after successful revascularisation
Trimetazidine administered after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not improve outcomes in patients with chronic or acute coronary syndromes, according to results of the ATPCI trial presented in a Hot Line session today at ESC Congress 2020.
Humans' construction 'footprint' on ocean quantified for first time
In a world-first, the extent of human development in oceans has been mapped.
How's the transit weather?
U researchers found a correlation between words used in media coverage related to weather or air quality, and transit ridership.
Genomic analysis predicts survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy over radiotherapy alone in low-grade gliomas in NRG Oncology clinical trial
A practice-changing study, NRG Oncology clinical trial NRG-RTOG 9802, has demonstrated, for the first time, a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy over radiotherapy alone in certain subgroups of patients with high-risk, low-grade glioma (WHO classification: LGG, grade II), a type of brain tumor that originates from glial cells.
DAPA-CKD trial meets primary endpoint in patients with chronic kidney disease
Dapagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure, death from cardiovascular causes or heart failure hospitalisation and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients with or without type 2 diabetes.
Warmer, acidifying ocean brings extinction for reef-building corals, renewal for relatives
A new study, published Aug. 31 in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, finds that reef-building corals emerged only when ocean conditions supported the construction of these creatures' stony skeletons, whereas diverse softer corals and sea anemones flourished at other times.
New theory hints at more efficient way to develop quantum algorithms
A new theory could bring a way to make quantum algorithm development less of an accidental process, say Purdue University scientists.
Study highlights keys to helping dads be there for kids when they don't have custody
A recent study highlights several factors that play key roles in determining the extent to which fathers who don't have custody are involved in their children's lives - specifically in cases where the children are in ''kinship care.''
EBMT trial shows improvements in treatment of Severe Aplastic Anaemia
The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), Europe's collaborative peer network of professionals working in the field of stem cell transplantation and cellular therapy, announced today the results of the phase III RACE trial during EBMTs virtual 46th Annual Meeting.
Nerve cells with energy saving program
Thanks to a metabolic adjustment, the cells can remain functional despite damage to the mitochondria.
People with increased risk of Alzheimer's have deficits in navigating
Alzheimer's patients develop severe symptoms of spatial disorientation as the disease progresses and are unable to find even the simplest ways.
PARALLAX meets one primary endpoint in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
Sacubitril/valsartan reduces NT-proBNP, a biomarker predictive of long-term clinical outcomes in heart failure, but does not improve functional capacity compared to individualised background therapy in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Individual dolphin calls used to estimate population size and movement in the wild
An international team of scientists has succeeded in using the signature whistles of individual bottlenose dolphins off the coast of Namibia to estimate the size of the population and track their movement.
Team's flexible micro LEDs may reshape future of wearable technology
University of Texas at Dallas researchers and their international colleagues have developed a method to create micro LEDs that can be folded, twisted, cut and stuck to different surfaces.
Large study finds no link between blood pressure medication and cancer
There is no evidence that blood pressure lowering drugs increase the risk of cancer, according to the most extensive study conducted on the topic.
Unique antibody profile sets gluten sensitivity apart from celiac disease
People with gluten sensitivity have an antibody profile that differs from that of people with celiac disease, which could help doctors diagnose gluten sensitivity.
Architecture of the heart different between women and men and with age
Differences in the shape and texture of men and women's hearts could potentially explain why their risk of heart disease differs, according to research funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF).
Aluminium in antiperspirants
Consumers can take up aluminium compounds from various sources, including antiperspirants containing aluminium.
NASA finds Typhoon Maysak moving near Okinawa, Japan
Typhoon Maysak continued to move through the Northwestern Pacific and was closing in on Japan's Okinawa Island when NASA's Terra satellite obtained a visible image of the storm.
Study reveals best anti-clotting strategy after heart valve intervention
The POPular TAVI trial has challenged current guideline recommendations on antiplatelet treatment after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients not taking oral anticoagulation.
Is being generous the next beauty trend?
Research from Indiana University found that more attractive people are more likely to be givers, and givers are rated as more attractive.
New evidence for quantum fluctuations near a quantum critical point in a superconductor
A study has found evidence for quantum fluctuations near a quantum critical point in a superconductor.
Being a selfish jerk doesn't get you ahead, research finds
Two studies provide empirical evidence to settle the question of whether being aggressively Machiavellian helps people get ahead.
Once infected, twice infected
A key to surviving in the wild is fighting off infection -- and not just once.
Citizen scientists bring surprising insights into cowslip mating system
Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism promoting pollen transfer between plant individuals.
CU scientists create batteries that could make it easier to explore Mars
Electrifying research by Clemson University scientists could lead to the creation of lighter, faster-charging batteries suitable for powering a spacesuit, or even a Mars rover.

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