Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 11, 2020
Shedding light on coral reefs
New research published in the journal Coral Reefs generates the largest characterization of coral reef spectral data to date.

COVID ventilator patients can have permanent nerve damage
Severely ill COVID-19 patients on ventilators are placed in a prone (face down) position because it's easier for them to breathe and reduces mortality.

Quantitatively understanding of angle-resolved polarized Raman scattering from black phosphorus
Birefringence and linear dichroism in anisotropic materials would break down the selection rule for angle-resolved polarized Raman (ARPR) intensity.

For diverse corporate board members, upward mobility stops with a seat at the table
A new study from the University of Delaware found that even when corporate boards include directors who are women and/or racial minorities, these diverse directors are significantly less likely to serve in positions of leadership.

Researchers identify role of protein in development of new hearing hair cells
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have conducted a study that has determined the role that a critical protein plays in the development of hair cells.

Lab-on-paper strip: Small, inexpensive platform for diagnosing tropical fevers
Dengue, zika, and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and cause tropical fevers with similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis complicated.

Relaxed through pregnancy
A group of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have been able to show that maternal psychological wellbeing during pregnancy has a positive effect on newborn infants.

Middle-aged individuals may be in a perpetual state of H3N2 flu virus susceptibility
Penn Medicine researchers have found that middle-aged individuals -- those born in the late 1960s and the 1970s -- may be in a perpetual state of H3N2 influenza virus susceptibility because their antibodies bind to H3N2 viruses but fail to prevent infections, according to a new study led by Scott Hensley, PhD, an associate professor of Microbiology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Researchers find cuttlebone's microstructure sits at a 'sweet spot'
Ling Li has a lesson in one of his mechanical engineering courses on how brittle materials like calcium carbonate behave under stress.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings in competitive college athletes after COVID-19
This study investigated the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in competitive college athletes who recovered from COVID-19 to detect myocardial inflammation that would identify high-risk athletes for return to competitive play.

More than 90% of protected areas are disconnected
Ongoing land clearing for agriculture, mining and urbanisation is isolating and disconnecting Earth's protected natural areas from each other, a new study shows.

Decreased MIR2911 absorption in human with SIDT1 polymorphism fails to inhibit SARS-CoV-2
In a new study in Cell Discovery, Liang Li and Chen-Yu Zhang's group at Nanjing University and two other groups report that SIDT1 polymorphism remarkably decreases HD-MIR2911 absorption in human.

Phone calls create stronger bonds than text-based communications
New research from The University of Texas at Austin suggests people too often opt to send email or text messages when a phone call is more likely to produce the feelings of connectedness they crave.

Holding up a mirror to a dark matter discrepancy
The universe's funhouse mirrors are revealing a difference between how dark matter behaves in theory and how it appears to act in reality.

Get diamonds, take temperature
Measuring the temperature of objects at a nanometer-scale has been a long challenge, especially in living biological samples, because of the lack of precise and reliable nanothermometers.

Understanding electron transport in graphene nanoribbons
New research published in EPJ Plus aims to better understand the electron transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and how they are affected by bonding with aromatics - a key step in designing technology such as chemosensors.

Depression risk detected by measuring heart rate changes
For the first time doctors have shown that measuring changes in 24-hour heart rate can reliably indicate whether or not someone is depressed.

Stem cell research delivers new points of attack against Parkinson's disease
The interdisciplinary research team, led by Prof. Rejko Krüger, of the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) of the University of Luxembourg, experimented on patient-based cell cultures in the laboratory.

Heated rivalries for pollinators among arctic plants
Insect pollination is as important to Arctic plants as it is to plants further south.

Drugging the undruggable: Yale finds treatment path for muscular dystrophy
Researchers at Yale have identified a possible treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a rare genetic disease for which there is currently no cure or treatment, by targeting an enzyme that had been considered ''undruggable.'' The finding appears in the Aug.

COIVD-19: A barometer for social justice in New York City
In an editorial for the American Journal of Public Health, faculty from the CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy (CUNY SPH) led by Dean Ayman El-Mohandes highlight the long-standing public health-related inequities among people of color in the United States--which have only been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic--and call upon New York City lawmakers to put forth policies to achieve a more equitable distribution of basic necessities such as employment, food, health care, housing, and education.

Are male genes from Mars, female genes from Venus?
In a new paper in the PERSPECTIVES section of the journal Science, Melissa Wilson reviews current research into patterns of sex differences in gene expression across the genome, and highlights sampling biases in the human populations included in such studies.

Stronger bones thanks to heat and microbiota
Osteoporosis is characterised by a deterioration of the bones and an increased risk of fractures.

Site of male sexual desire uncovered in brain
The locus of male sexual desire has been uncovered in specific regions of brain tissue where a key gene named aromatase is present, reports a new study in mice.

MAX binding with the variant Rs72780850 in RNA helicase DDX1 for susceptibility to neuroblastoma
The researchers adopted the functional polymorphism research strategy to screen out the functional polymorphisms associated with neuroblastoma in Chinese population and elucidate its mechanism, providing data on children susceptible to neuroblastoma in China.

Worldwide loss of phosphorus due to soil erosion quantified for the first time
Phosphorus is essential for agriculture, yet this important plant nutrient is increasingly being lost from soils around the world.

Harvard team uses laser to cool polyatomic molecule
Harvard researchers describe using a novel method combining cryogenic technology and direct laser light to cool the nonlinear polyatomic molecule calcium monomethoxide (CaOCH3) to just above absolute zero.

NASA satellite finds an elongated Tropical Storm Rene caused by wind shear
Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite showed an elongated Tropical Storm Rene being battered by wind shear in the Central Atlantic Ocean.

Global warming threatens soil phosphorus, says a soil scientist from RUDN University
A soil scientist from RUDN University found out that the resources of organic phosphorus in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau could be depleted because of global warming.

A phonon laser - coherent vibrations from a self-breathing resonator
Lasing - the emission of a collimated light beam of light with a well-defined wavelength (color) and phase - results from a self-organization process, in which a collection of emission centers synchronizes itself to produce identical light particles (photons).

Assessment of mental health of Chinese primary school students before, after school closing, opening during COVID-19 pandemic
Psychological symptoms, nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among children and adolescents were investigated in this observational study before the COVID-19 outbreak started (early November 2019) and two weeks after school reopening (mid-May 2020) in an area of China with low risk of COVID-19.

NASA satellite finds a wedge-shaped Tropical Storm Paulette
Wind shear was affecting both Tropical Storm Paulette and Rene in the Atlantic Ocean on Sept.

Taste buds may play role in fostering obesity in offspring
Cornell food scientists show in animal studies that a mother's high-fat diet may lead to more sweet-taste receptors and a greater attraction to unhealthy food in their offspring - resulting in poor feeding behavior, obesity in adulthood.

Halving the risk of infection following surgery
New analysis by the University of Leeds and the University of Bern of more than 14,000 operations has found that using alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) halves the risk of infection in certain types of surgery when compared to the more commonly used povidone-iodine (PVI).

Novel discovery challenges a current kidney cancer paradigm
Newly published research has reversed our understanding of an aspect of kidney tumor growth.

Feeding off fusion or the immortalization of tumor cells
Despite all recent progress, cancer remains one of the deadliest human diseases.

First assessment of naturalized, invasive and potentially invasive plan
CABI scientists have led the first assessment of naturalised, invasive and potentially invasive plant species present in Laikipia County, Kenya, which hosts the highest populations of endangered large mammals in the country.

Brazilians start to unravel the mystery of North American insect bioluminescent systems
Researchers isolated molecules present in the larvae of a blue light-emitting fungus gnat that inhabits the Appalachians.

Healthy diet and exercise during pregnancy could lead to healthier children, study finds
New research shows improving the lifestyle of women with obesity during pregnancy could mean long-term cardiovascular benefits for their children.

Ammonium triggers formation of lateral roots
Despite the importance of changes in root architecture to exploit local nutrient patches, mechanisms integrating external nutrient signals into the root developmental program remain poorly understood.

How does chronic stress induce bone loss?
Researchers from the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators have found that bone mineral density in patients with anxiety or depression is lower than in ordinary people.

Researchers discover gene that could decrease likelihood of developing alcoholic cirrhosis
Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine are learning more about how a person's genes play a role in the possibility they'll suffer from alcoholic cirrhosis with the discovery of a gene that could make the disease less likely.

Ancient earthquake may have caused destruction of Canaanite palace at Tel Kabri
A team of Israeli and American researchers has uncovered new evidence that an earthquake may have caused the destruction and abandonment of a flourishing Canaanite palatial site about 3,700 years ago.

New molecule to repair and restore brain and spinal cord function
A molecule created by researchers can restore lost connections in the spinal cord and brain of mice with neurological disorders including cerebellar ataxia, Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury.

To recreate ancient recipes, check out the vestiges of clay pots
UC Berkeley archaeologists have discovered that unglazed ceramic cookware can retain the residue of not just the last supper cooked, but earlier meals as well, opening a window onto gastronomic practices possibly going back millennia.

Researchers develop rapid test for ovarian cancer detection
Researchers at the University of Turku, Finland, have developed a test for ovarian cancer detection with a sensitivity 4.5 times higher than that of the conventional laboratory test.

Dipanjan Pan demonstrates new method to produce gold nanoparticles in cancer cells
Researchers published a seminal study in Nature Communications that demonstrates for the first time a method of biosynthesizing plasmonic gold nanoparticles within cancer cells, without the need for conventional bench-top lab methods.

Computational modelling explains why blues and greens are brightest colous in nature
Researchers have shown why intense, pure red colours in nature are mainly produced by pigments, instead of the structural colour that produces bright blue and green hues.

Trout don't follow the weather forecast
University of Cincinnati visiting assistant professor of biology Michael Booth studied the migration patterns of steelhead, a subpopulation of rainbow trout that migrates to the Pacific Ocean, where the growing fish hunt and feed until they return to their natal freshwater streams to spawn.

Poor home hygiene contributing to antibiotic resistance, warn global hygiene experts
It is estimated that rates of resistance to commonly-used antibiotics could exceed 40-60% in some countries by 2030.

Pandemic spawns 'infodemic' in scientific literature
The science community has responded to the COVID-19 pandemic with such a flurry of research studies that it is hard for anyone to digest them all, underscoring a long-standing need to make scientific publication more accessible, transparent and accountable, two artificial intelligence experts assert in a data science journal.

Study highlights 'systematic opposition' to regulation in tackling NCDs from food industry
Research highlights sustained efforts from the food and drinks industry to oppose public health measures aimed to tackling heart disease, cancer and diabetes.

Factors associated with suicide risk after leaving military service
This observational study investigated demographic and military service characteristics associated with suicide risk among US veterans after the transition from active military service to civilian life.

Winds of change move western smoke into the Pacific
NOAA/NASA's Suomi NPP satellite captured these series of images (made into an animated GIF) showing the winds changing direction on Sep.

Changes in premature deaths from drug poisonings, suicide, alcohol-induced causes in US
Researchers compared changes from 2000 to 2017 in premature deaths in the US due to drug poisonings, suicide and alcohol-induced causes by geographic areas and demographic characteristics.

Veterinary college team IDs gene that drives ovarian cancer
scientists at the College of Veterinary Medicine have collaborated on a study that pinpoints which specific genes drive - or delay - high-grade serious ovarian carcinoma.

Climate change recasts the insect communities of the Arctic
Through a unique research collaboration, researchers at the University of Helsinki have exposed major changes taking place in the insect communities of the Arctic.

Novel virus-based colorimetric sensor can show true colors of airborne threats
In an exciting new study, scientists at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology in Korea use genetically engineered viruses to fabricate highly efficient colorimetric sensors, which indicate the presence of specific harmful substances through intuitive color changes.

How plants ensure regular seed spacing
An international team of researchers led by biologists from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has examined how seed formation is coordinated with fruit growth.

Massive-scale genomic study reveals wheat diversity for crop improvement
Researchers have genetically characterized almost 80,000 samples of wheat from public germplasm banks, ''a massive-scale genotyping and diversity analysis'' of the two types of wheat grown globally -- bread and pasta wheat -- and of 27 known wild species.

Is the "Mozart Effect" real? New analysis indicates that music can help epilepsy
A new comprehensive analysis on the effect of Mozart's music on epilepsy has confirmed that listening to his piano music can reduce the frequency of epilepsy attacks.

New immunotherapy to beat cancer
Sophie Lucas (University of Louvain de Duve Institute) and her team succeeded in neutralising a molecule that blocks the immune system against cancer.

Antibody test developed for COVID-19 that is sensitive, specific and scalable
An antibody test for the virus that causes COVID-19 is more accurate and can handle a much larger number of donor samples at lower overall cost than standard antibody tests currently in use.

Inherited genetic variant influences response to leukemia treatment for some children
St. Jude researchers showed that an inherited variant of the GATA3 gene is tied to minimal residual disease levels and response to therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Carbon-rich exoplanets may be made of diamonds
In a new study published recently in The Planetary Science Journal, a team of researchers from Arizona State University and the University of Chicago have determined that some carbon-rich exoplanets, given the right circumstances, could be made of diamonds and silica.

US democratic indicators plummet amid racial justice protests and pandemic
The health of democracy in the United States has reached its lowest point since an academic watchdog group of political scientists began tracking its performance in 2017.
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.