Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 18, 2020
NASA confirms development of record-breaking tropical storm Wilfred, ending hurricane list
The list of hurricane names is officially used up with the development of the 23rd tropical cyclone of the year.

Glyphosate residue in manure fertilizer decrease strawberry and meadow fescue growth
A new study finds that glyphosate residue from herbicides in manure fertilizer decrease the growth of strawberry and meadow fescue as well as runner production of strawberry.

New roles for clinicians in the age of artificial intelligence
New Roles for Clinicians in the Age of Artificial Intelligence https://doi.org/10.15212/bioi-2020-0014 Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal.

SUTD researchers develop simple method to 3D print milk products
Additive free, multimaterial 3D printing is achieved for milk-based products without temperature control

Most homemade masks are doing a great job, even when we sneeze, study finds
Studies indicate that homemade masks help combat the spread of viruses like COVID-19 when combined with frequent hand-washing and physical distancing.

Undersea earthquakes shake up climate science
Sound generated by seismic events on the seabed can be used to determine the temperature of Earth's warming oceans.

Biologists create new genetic systems to neutralize gene drives
Addressing concerns about gene drive releases in the wild, UC San Diego scientists and their colleagues have developed two new genetic systems that halt or eliminate gene drives after release.

Bolsonaro's Indigenous land mining policy a billion-dollar backfire
Research has found a proposal to regulate mining of Indigenous lands in Brazil's Amazon rainforest could affect more than 863,000 square kilometres of forest and harm the nation's economy.

Ancient human footprints in Saudi Arabia give glimpse of Arabian ecology 120000 years ago
Using high resolution paleoecological information obtained from fossilized footprints, a new study published in Science Advances presents ~120 thousand-year-old human and animal footprints from an ancient lake bed in northern Arabia.

NASA estimates powerful hurricane Teddy's extreme rainfall
Using a NASA satellite rainfall product that incorporates data from satellites and observations, NASA estimated Hurricane Teddy's rainfall rates.

Yale succeeds with a more inclusive approach to heart transplants
Doctors at Yale New Haven Hospital used a more aggressive selection process to more than quadruple the number of heart transplants performed there while maintaining positive patient outcomes, according to a new study.

Nano-microscope gives first direct observation of the magnetic properties of 2D materials
Widefield nitrogen-vacancy microscope solves problem of there being no way to tell exactly how strongly magnetic a 2D material was.

Aberrant electronic and structural alterations in pressure tuned perovskite NaOsO3
In summary, a comprehensive temperature-dependent electrical transport, Raman scattering, synchrotron XRD, and DFT study has been carried out to understand the effect of external pressure on perovskite NaOsO3.

Immunotherapy improves survival in advanced bladder cancer patients
An immunotherapy drug called 'avelumab' has been shown to significantly improve survival in patients with the most common type of bladder cancer, according to results from a phase III clinical trial led by Queen Mary University of London and Barts Cancer Centre, UK.

Raids and bloody rituals among ancient steppe nomads
Traces of violence on 1700 year old skeletons allow researchers to reconstruct warfare and sacrifices of nomads in Siberia.

After developing CRISPR test, UConn researchers validate clinical feasibility for COVID-19 testing
In March, researchers in the Department of Biomedical Engineering-- a shared department in the schools of Dental Medicine, Medicine, and Engineering--began to develop a new, low-cost, CRISPR-based diagnostic platform to detect infectious diseases, including HIV virus, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).

Evidence-based vocational rehab practices raise employment rates after spinal cord injury
Evidence-based practices that are raising post-injury employment rates include the individualized placement support model of supported employment, and vocational resource facilitation (VRF), according to Dr.

Unverricht-Lundborg disease is more common in Finland than elsewhere in the world
Based on reported cases, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, also known as progressive myoclonic epilepsy-1A, EPM1, is more common in Finland than anywhere else in the world, a new study finds.

Neil deGrasse Tyson speaks out on space, politics, and science outreach
The BioScience Talks podcast features discussions of topical issues related to the biological sciences.

Scientists predict economically important traits of crops
Researchers developed a new mathematical model to predict economic performance of crops.

New method identifies antibody-like proteins with diagnostic and therapeutic potential for SARS-CoV-2
Scientists have used a new high-speed, in vitro selection method to isolate 9 antibody-like proteins (ALPs) that bind to the SARS-CoV-2 virus - 4 of which also exhibited neutralizing activity - within 4 days, according to a new study.

A better informed society can prevent lead poisoning disasters
In a paper published Sept. 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, John R.

Private health insurers paid hospitals 247% of what medicare would
While recent hospital price transparency initiatives have increased information about procedure-level prices available to patients, employers who pay for most private insurance have little usable information about the prices negotiated on their behalf.

New design principles for spin-based quantum materials
Professor James Rondinelli's new design criteria for enhancing the spin lifetime of a class of quantum materials could support Internet of Things devices and other resource-intensive technologies.

Immune system may have another job -- combatting depression
An inflammatory autoimmune response within the central nervous system similar to one linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) has also been found in the spinal fluid of healthy people, according to a new Yale-led study comparing immune system cells in the spinal fluid of MS patients and healthy subjects.

Promising computer simulations for stellarator plasmas
The turbulence code GENE (Gyrokinetic Electromagnetic Numerical Experiment), developed at Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at Garching, Germany, has proven to be very useful for the theoretical description of turbulence in the plasma of tokamak-type fusion devices.

new alteration in the brain of people with Alzheimer's discovered
New research led by Spanish scientists suggest that the altered glycosylation could determine that the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is processed by the amyloidogenic (pathological) pathway, giving rise to the production of the beta-amyloid, a small protein with a tendency to cluster forming the amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.

Shape matters for light-activated nanocatalysts
Points matter when designing nanoparticles that drive important chemical reactions using the power of light, according research from Rice University's Laboratory for Nanophotonics.

NASA's aqua satellite helps confirm subtropical storm alpha
Subtropical Storm Alpha has formed near the coast of Portugal, becoming the first named storm using the Greek Alphabet list, now that the annual list of names is exhausted.

Buffalo-based study aims to connect the dots on food access
A new University at Buffalo study based in Western New York is the first that simultaneously examined the preferences of community members and compared those with the community-based programs and resources available to identify the most viable strategies for addressing disparities in healthy food consumption.

Evolutionary paths: Scientists have found new patterns in protein evolution
Russian scientists studied the trends in the evolution of amino acid sequences of proteins in vertebrates and insects.

Mosquito-borne viruses linked to stroke
A deadly combination of two mosquito-borne viruses may be a trigger for stroke, new University of Liverpool research published in the The Lancet Neurology has found.

Engineers produce a fisheye lens that's completely flat
Engineers at MIT and the University of Massachusetts at Lowell have designed a wide-angle lens that is completely flat.

Defying a 150-year-old rule for phase behavior
Today, researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology and University Paris-Saclay are defying a classical theory from American physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, with proof of a five-phase equilibrium, something that many scholars considered impossible.

Actively speaking two languages protects against cognitive impairment
A study has shown that Alzheimer's patients with a higher degree of bilingualism receive a later diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

Mapping the 1.6 billion people who live near forests
Global maps of places where people and forests coexist show that an estimated 1.6 billion people live within 5 kilometers of a forest.

Indian monsoon can be predicted better after volcanic eruptions
Large volcanic eruptions can help to forecast the monsoon over India - the seasonal rainfall that is key for the country's agriculture and thus for feeding one billion people.

Size and sleep: New research reveals why little things sleep longer
Using data from humans and other mammals, a team of scientists including researchers from the Santa Fe Institute has developed one of the first quantitative models that explains why sleep times across species and during development decrease as brains get bigger.

How researchers look at the bird brain in action
How do birds make decisions and which brain regions are particularly active when they solve tasks?

Mapping the decision-making pathways in the brain
Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a new area of the brain that could be involved in cost-benefit decision-making.

CU researchers call for national ethics guidelines when student health surveys uncover suicide-risk
In a report published today in the highly influential American Journal of Bioethics, the researchers describe a student health survey team that discovered a Colorado school with extremely high rates of suicide risk, and a lack of ethical guidance on whether or how to intervene.

Rochester researchers document an optical fiber beyond compare
A new anti-resonant hollow core optical fiber produces a thousand times less ''noise'' interfering with signals it transmits compared to the single-mode fibers now widely used.

Development of high-sensitivity, wide-IF band heterodyne receiver in THz frequency range
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has developed a unique superconducting hot electron bolometer mixer (HEBM) using magnetic materials.

Researchers discover a novel family of toxins used in bacterial competition
Toxic protein inhibits cell wall synthesis in rival bacteria. Discovery helps explain how pathogens cause imbalances in established microbial communities and could pave the way to the development of novel anti-microbial compounds.

Like humans, chimpanzees can suffer for life if orphaned before adulthood
A new study from the Tai Chimpanzee Project in Ivory Coast and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, shows that orphaned male chimpanzees are less competitive and have fewer offspring of their own than those who continue to live with their mothers.

Gene therapy corrects the cardiac effects of Friedreich's ataxia
Gene therapy was successfully used to overcome the cardiac effects of Freidreich's ataxia (FA) in a mouse model of the disease

VLBA makes first direct distance measurement to magnetar
Using the VLBA, astronomers have made the first direct geometric measurement of the distance to a magnetar.

Knowledge gained, questions remain on severe COVID-19 infections
Authors of this editorial review the evidence for the management of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may apply to patients with severe COVID-19, what has been learned about treatment of these patients, and the gaps in knowledge that remain.

Ten minutes of massage or rest will help your body fight stress
Study shows that short, easy-to-apply relaxation techniques can activate the body's regenerative system for fighting stress--offering new perspective on how we can treat stress-related disease

Increasing the effectiveness of cancer treatments: Anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy
Researh teams of Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) have uncovered how to increase the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy.

New way to halt leukemia relapse shown promising in mice
Drugs tackling chronic myelogenous leukemia have completely transformed prognoses of patients over the last couple of decades, with most cases going into remission.

Predicting the future of liver-safe drugs
Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) working with an international team have developed a Polygenic Risk Score using previous genomic studies that may help predict drug-induced liver injury.

Who stole the light?
Free electron X-ray lasers deliver intense ultrashort pulses of x-rays, which can be used to image nanometer-scale objects in a single shot.

Human genetics: A look in the mirror
Genome Biology and Evolution's latest virtual issue highlights recent research published in the journal within the field of human genetics.

Increasing the effectiveness of immunotherapy against skin cancer
Researchers at the University of Bern have discovered a mechanism in the body's own immune system which is responsible for the maturation and activation of immune cells.

More than a billion school meals not served during pandemic: Study
A new study estimates that more than 1.15 billion breakfasts and lunches for low-income children were not served in school as a result of school closures between March 9 and May 1.

NASA-NOAA satellite sees tropical depression 22 strengthening in gulf of Mexico
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided an infrared image of Tropical Depression 22 in the Gulf of Mexico during the early morning hours of Sept.

Confidence in the authorities' handling of COVID-19 provides good mental health
How did you react in March, when the country went into lock-down due to the coronavirus?

Study links rising stress, depression in US to pandemic-related losses, media consumption
Experiencing multiple stressors triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic - such as unemployment - and COVID-19-related media consumption are directly linked to rising acute stress and depressive symptoms across the US, according to a groundbreaking University of California, Irvine study.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite finds tropical storm Noul fading over Laos
Tropical Storm Noul made landfall in central Vietnam on Sept.

Nose's response to odors more than just a simple sum of parts
Based on highly sensitive recordings of neuron activity in the noses of mice, researchers from Kyushu University have found that olfactory sensory neurons can exhibit suppression or enhancement of response when odors are mixed, overturning a long-standing view that the response is a simple sum with more complex processing only happening at later stages.

Removal of a gene could render lethal poxviruses harmless
The removal of one gene renders poxviruses - a lethal family of viral infections that are known to spread from animals to humans - harmless, a new study in the journal Science Advances reports.

Potential new drug to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection consequences
Researchers at the University of Malaga study how '4-PBA' treatment modulates the inflammatory response in severe cases of COVID-19

Complex phonological tests are useful for diagnosing reading dysfunction
HSE University researchers have confirmed that the level of phonological processing skills in children can impact their ability to master reading.

Solar storm forecasts for Earth improved with help from the public
Scientists used observations recorded by members of the public to increase accuracy of computer model predictions of when harmful CMEs will hit Earth.

UCLA-led team of scientists discovers why we need sleep
Why is sleep so vital to our health? A UCLA-led team of scientists has answered this question and shown for the first time that a dramatic change in the purpose of sleep occurs at the age of about 2-and-a-half.

US adults experienced increased COVID-19-related mental health challenges as the pandemic unfolded
US adults increasingly experienced symptoms associated with acute stress and depression as COVID-19 cases and deaths skyrocketed between mid-March and mid-April 2020, according to a study of more than 6,500 people from three large, nationally representative cohorts.
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