Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 01, 2020
Hubble observes spectacular supernova time-lapse
The NASA/ESA's Hubble Space Telescope has tracked the fading light of a supernova in the spiral galaxy NGC 2525, located 70 million light years away.

Carbon-carbon covalent bonds far more flexible than presumed
A Hokkaido University research group has successfully demonstrated that carbon-carbon (C-C) covalent bonds expand and contract flexibly in response to light and heat.

Timing the life of antimatter particles may lead to better cancer treatment
Experts in Japan have devised a simple way to glean more detailed information out of standard medical imaging scans.

Internet gaming youth not more prone to psychiatric disorders
Children who show addiction-like gaming signs are not any more susceptible to mental health problems than their non-gaming peers.

Feeding C-section newborns their mother's poop may help build healthy microbiota
A paper published October 1, 2020 in the journal Cell suggests that newborns delivered by cesarean may benefit from drinking a small amount of their mother's feces dissolved in breast milk, because it provides them with beneficial bacteria they would otherwise be exposed to in vaginal birth.

Scientists map genes controlling immune system 'brakes'
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes, in collaboration with scientists at UC San Francisco (UCSF) and the Technical University of Munich (TUM), have mapped out the networks of genes that help differentiate regulatory T cells from other T cells.

Ezintsha study provides new data on current ART regimens with concerns about weight gain
The South African study ADVANCE by Ezintsha, a research group at the University of the Witwatersrand, which focuses on investigating better options for first-line antiretroviral treatment for people with HIV, today published its 96-week outcomes, providing new safety data, especially on weight gain.

From San Diego to Italy, study suggests wisdom can protect against loneliness
Researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine and University of Rome La Sapienza examined middle-aged and older adults in San Diego and Cilento, Italy and found loneliness and wisdom had a strong negative correlation.

Repurposed anti-malarial compounds kill diarrheal parasite, study finds
A class of compounds used for malaria treatment also kill the intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium, a leading cause of diarrheal disease and death in children that has no cure, a multi-institution collaboration of researchers found in a new study.

Researchers advance COVID-19 antibody knowledge with paper in journal
Researchers at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center working with colleagues at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston have found that some antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are more protective than others, when it comes to reinfection.

General data protection regulation hinders global biomedical research
The European Union (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was designed to give EU citizens greater protection and control of their personal data, particularly when transferred to entities outside the EU.

Caltech researcher unveils sensor that rapidly detects COVID-19 infection
Wei Gao has redesigned technology he previously used to detect other health conditions so that it can be used to diagnose a COVID infection.

LED-based UV irradiation safely prevents the loss of bone and muscle mass in mice
A research team at Nagoya University has revealed that narrow-range ultraviolet (UV) irradiation using light emitting diodes (LEDs) safely increases serum vitamin D levels in aging mice and thereby prevents the loss of their bone and muscle mass.

Chemical innovation stabilizes best-performing perovskite formulation
Publishing in Science, researchers at EPFL have successfully overcome a limiting problem with stabilizing the best-performing formulation of metal-halide perovskite films, a key player in a range of applications, including solar cells.

Black lives also matter in cancer care
It is not biology, but access to health care that is causing Black Non-Hispanic patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck to have lower survival rates.

MUSC researchers test brain stimulation in zero gravity
How does zero gravity affect astronauts' brains? MUSC scientists took to the skies as they try to figure that out.

800 million children still exposed to lead
Every third child in the world has too much lead in their body, according to a report from UNICEF and Pure Earth.

Research: COVID-19 is echoed in dreams
Research has shown that the exceptional circumstances brought about by the novel coronavirus have affected the nightmares people have.

Using machine learning to predict pediatric brain injury
When newborn babies or children with heart or lung distress are struggling to survive, doctors often turn to a form of life support that uses artificial lungs.

Latent lineage potential in neural stem cells enables spinal cord repair in mice
Spinal stem cells in mice can be reprogrammed to generate protective oligodendrocytes after spinal cord injury, enhancing neural repair, according to a new study.

Vaccine opposition online uniting around 'civil liberties' argument
Anti-vaccination discourse on Facebook increased in volume over the last decade, coalescing around the argument that refusing to vaccinate is a civil right, according to a study published today in the American Journal of Public Health.

COVID-19 infects majority of bad dreams -- study
Researchers crowdsourced dream content from more than 800 people during the sixth week of the COVID-19 lockdown and found many experienced distressed dreams related to the pandemic.

COVID-19 antibodies in donated plasma decline within first months after symptom onset
Although there is still uncertainty about the clinical benefits and role of convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19, new research suggests that the earlier plasma is collected after the donor's recovery from COVID-19, the better, as antibodies start to disappear after three months of symptom onset.

Hubble watches exploding star fade into oblivion
When a star unleashes as much energy in a matter of days as our Sun does in several billion years, you know it's not going to remain visible for long.

Marketing study investigates impact of Viagra TV ads on birth rates
Marketing researchers found that an increase in advertising of erectile dysfunction drugs contributed to more total births in Massachusetts.

Investigation: FDA oversight of clinical trials is lax, slow, secretive and getting worse
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees most clinical research in the United States, ensuring the integrity of trial data and the safety of study participants -- including most recently a number of high-stakes vaccine and drug trials for COVID-19.

Are organ transplant recipients at greater risk of death from COVID-19?
A new study analyzes death risk from COVID-19 in organ transplant recipients and finds one treatment method greatly increased the risk.

Study: Sleep apnea treatment reduces heart problems in patients with prediabetes
A new study found that people with prediabetes and obstructive sleep apnea can reduce their daytime resting heart rate and risk of cardiovascular disease by using a CPAP machine at night.

Ultrasensitive microwave detector developed
A joint international research team from POSTECH of South Korea, Raytheon BBN Technologies, Harvard University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the U.S., Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology in Spain, and the National Institute for Materials Science in Japan have together developed ultrasensitive sensors that can detect microwaves with the highest theoretically possible sensitivity.

Variation among states in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
Researchers examined variation among states in how common high blood pressure disorders of pregnancy (including pregnancy-induced hypertension or pre-eclampsia) and eclampsia were among 3.6 million women who had a live birth in 2017.

New research explores how multinational firms can manage corruption
New research from Charles E. Stevens, associate professor of management in Lehigh's College of Business, shows multinational firms taking a new approach when dealing with corruption.

Carb-eating bacteria under viral threat
Strictly speaking, humans cannot digest complex carbohydrates -- that's the job of bacteria in our large intestines.

Two molecular handshakes for hearing
Scientists have mapped and simulated those filaments at the atomic level, a discovery that shed lights on how the inner ear works and that could help researchers learn more about how and why people lose the ability to hear.

Cerebrospinal fluid leak after nasal swab testing for COVID-19
Researchers describe what to their knowledge is the first case of a cerebrospinal fluid leak after nasal testing for COVID-19.

NASA finds Hurricane Marie rapidly intensifying
NASA infrared imagery revealed that Hurricane Marie is rapidly growing stronger and more powerful.

Integrated terrestrial-freshwater planning doubles tropical freshwater conservation
Freshwater species are sometimes considered an afterthought in conservation planning, which typically prioritizes terrestrial ecosystems and their inhabitants.

Alien species to increase by 36% worldwide by 2050
The number of alien (non-native) species is expected to increase globally by 36% by the middle of this century, compared to 2005, finds new research by an international team involving UCL and the Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre.

Blue whales change their tune before migrating
While parsing through years of recorded blue whale songs looking for seasonal patterns, researchers were surprised to observe that during feeding season in the summer, whales sing mainly at night, but as they prepare to migrate to their breeding grounds for the winter, this pattern reverses and the whales sing during the day.

Researchers hear more crickets and katydids 'singing in the suburbs'
he songs that crickets and katydids sing at night to attract mates can help in monitoring and mapping their populations, according to Penn State researchers, whose study of Orthoptera species in central Pennsylvania also shed light on these insects' habitat preferences.

Pattern in whale songs predicts migration
Through the use of two advanced audio recording technologies, a collaboration of Monterey Bay researchers has found that blue whales switch from nighttime to daytime singing when they are starting to migrate.

Ice Age manatees may have called Texas home
Manatees don't live year-round in Texas, but these gentle sea cows are known to occasionally visit, swimming in for a 'summer vacation' and returning to warmer waters for the winter.

Researchers call for loss of smell to be recognized globally as a symptom of COVID-19
Four out of five people experiencing the recent loss of smell and/or taste tested positive for COVID-19 antibodies--and of those who tested positive, 40 percent did not have cough or fever, reports a new study in PLOS Medicine by Prof.

Pain relief caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection may help explain COVID-19 spread
New research shows SARS-CoV-2 promotes pain relief when it infects cells through a common protein receptor, neuropilin-1.

Ice discharge in the North Pacific set off series of climate events during last ice age
Repeated catastrophic ice discharges from western North America into the North Pacific contributed to, and perhaps triggered, hemispheric-scale changes in the Earth's climate during the last ice age.

How cells build organisms
Researchers at Harvard Medical School have discovered a key control mechanism that cells use to self-organize in early embryonic development.

15-year trend persists in disparate insulin pump use in children
Insulin pumps are widely used in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and reviews have shown insulin pump therapy to be associated with improved glycemic control, fewer severe hypoglycemia events, and improved quality of life.

The most sensitive optical receivers yet for space communications
Communications in space demand the most sensitive receivers possible for maximum reach, while also requiring high bit-rate operations.

AGA releases largest report on safety and effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation
Today, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) released the first results from the NIH-funded AGA Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) National Registry, the largest real-world study on the safety and effectiveness of FMT.

Einstein's description of gravity just got much harder to beat
Astrophysicists put general relativity to a new test with black hole images.

Fecal transplantation can restore the gut microbiota of C-section babies
Birth by Cesarean section is detrimental to normal gut microbiota development.

Why drugs sometimes cause receptor potentiation rather than inhibition
In order to treat certain brain diseases more precisely and with fewer side effects, researchers are focusing on drugs that only inhibit distinct subtypes of the receptors responding to the neurotransmitter glutamate.

Nurture trumps nature in determining severity of PTSD symptoms
Researchers at Yale and elsewhere previously identified a host of genetic risk factors that help explain why some veterans are especially susceptible to the debilitating symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

'Social cells' related to social behavior identified in the brain
A research team led by Professor TAKUMI Toru of Kobe University's Graduate School of Medicine (also a Senior Visiting Scientist at RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research) have identified 'social cells' in the brain that are related to social behavior.

Coupling antibiotics with stem cells to fight off bone infections
Researchers from Kanazawa University investigated the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) loaded with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on osteomyelitis caused by implants.

How scientific leaders can enact anti-racist action in their labs
A new paper provides 10 steps that principal investigators (PIs) and research group leaders can follow to help cultivate anti-racist professional and learning environments.

High risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients with COVID-19
In a systematic review of the worldwide published data on ''Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19 patients'', researchers from the Department of Medicine I (MedUni Vienna), provide an in-depth analysis on the risk of VTE in patients hospitalised for COVID-19.

Gene expression altered by direction of forces acting on cell
Tissues and cells in the human body are subjected to a constant push and pull - strained by other cells, blood pressure and fluid flow, to name a few.

Pathogens in the mouth induce oral cancer
Pathogens found in tissues that surround the teeth contribute to a highly aggressive type of oral cancer, according to a study published 1st October in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Yvonne Kapila of the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues.

Climate: Iodic acid influences cloud formation at the North Pole
An international team of scientists from EPFL, the Paul Scherrer Institute and Stockholm University has identified a novel driver of new aerosol particle formation in the Arctic during the summer to fall transition.

Flexible and biodegradable electronic blood vessels
Researchers in China and Switzerland have developed electronic blood vessels that can be actively tuned to address subtle changes in the body after implantation.

Invasion by non-native insects expected to increase 36 percent worldwide by 2050
An international team of scientists established that biological invasions will increase by 36 percent between 2005 and 2050.

TGen and HonorHealth study suggests alternative method of diagnosing lung infection
As ventilator use in hospitals skyrockets during the COVID-19 pandemic, results of a study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute, City of Hope, HonorHealth Research and Innovation Institute, and the University of Arizona suggests a better way to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Study reveals element in blood is part of human--and hibernating squirrel--stress response
A new study published in the journal Critical Care Explorations shows for the first time that part of the stress response in people and animals involves increasing the levels of a naturally circulating element in blood.

Amazon study shows big conservation gains possible for imperilled freshwater ecosystems
A new study by an international team of environmental scientists in the Brazilian Amazon shows that redesigned conservation projects could deliver big gains for critical freshwater ecosystems - raising hopes for the futures of thousands of species.

Social isolation increases anxiety and asymmetry in brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease
A study in mice conducted by the UAB shows that social isolation worsens the effects of Alzheimer's disease, with hyperactivity levels reaching up to twice as much as in the pathology itself, and confirms an increase in the asymmetric atrophy of the hippocampus, a brain area central to memory.

Why do people respond differently to the same drug?
Scientists at Scripps Research have comprehensively mapped how a key class of proteins within cells regulates signals coming in from cell surface receptors.

Study: Unnecessary stress testing performed prior to knee and hip replacement surgeries
A new study out of the University of Chicago Medicine shows the overall rate of preoperative stress testing for hip and knee replacements is and has been decreasing consistently since 2006.

Planaria flatworms can be alternative screening tool to avoid rabbit skin testing
A new, accurate screening tool for clinical skin products has been developed which uses flatworms rather than rabbits

Expert opinion: COVID-19 vaccine rollout unlikely before fall 2021
Experts working in the field of vaccine development tend to believe that an effective vaccine is not likely to be available for the general public before the fall of 2021.

Ecological power storage battery made of vanillin
Researchers at TU Graz have found a way to convert the aromatic substance vanillin into a redox-active electrolyte material for liquid batteries.

Conservation planning in Amazon should prioritize aquatic biodiversity, study concludes
Simulations using field data suggest focusing on the protection of species that live in rivers and lakes can be more efficient than the approach most used now, which focuses on terrestrial biodiversity.

Cause of 1990s Argentina cholera epidemic uncovered
The evolution of epidemic and endemic strains of the cholera-causing bacterium Vibrio cholerae in Argentina has been mapped in detail.

Symptoms, outcomes of sailors in isolation after COVID-19 outbreak on USS Theodore Roosevelt
The U.S. Army Public Health COVID-19 Task Force describes the results of an independent investigation of the shore-based USS Theodore Roosevelt outbreak response and 736 sailors in isolation status.

ESO telescope spots galaxies trapped in the web of a supermassive black hole
With the help of ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have found six galaxies lying around a supermassive black hole when the Universe was less than a billion years old.

Tool helps clear biases from computer vision
Researchers at Princeton University have developed a tool that flags potential biases in sets of images used to train artificial intelligence (AI) systems.

Penn Medicine researchers discover a rare genetic form of dementia
A new, rare genetic form of dementia has been discovered by a team of Penn Medicine researchers.

Tunable free-electron X-ray radiation from van der Waals materials
The suggested apparatus produces controlled radiation with a narrow spectrum that can be tuned with high resolution, at a relatively low energy investment.

Fans arrive like butterflies: Pearl Jam concerts drive tourism, hotel demand
A pair of Pearl Jam concerts made a case that larger, one-off events tend to generate more hotel and tax revenues than sporting events, according to new research from West Virginia University economist Josh Hall.

Research may curb economic losses to power plants after earthquakes
Sitting atop power transformers are bushing systems that play a critical role in supplying communities with electricity.

Clinician survey reveals significant variation in ultrasound-guided PIV insertion
A new survey among vascular access (VA) and emergency department (ED) clinicians has revealed significant levels of variation in ultrasound-guided peripheral IV (UGPIV) practices and supply use across hospitals and alternate care settings.

People with Parkinson's disease have a higher risk of dying from COVID-19
A new database analysis of approximately 80,000 patients shows that people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a 30% higher death rate from COVID-19 than people without the neurodegenerative condition.

Stem cells can help repair spinal cord after injury
Spinal cord injury often leads to permanent functional impairment. In a new study published in the journal Science researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show that it is possible to stimulate stem cells in the mouse spinal cord to form large amounts of new oligodendrocytes, cells that are essential to the ability of neurons to transmit signals, and thus to help repair the spinal cord after injury.

Our health: New focus on the synergy effect of nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are valuable and useful in many products, but according to a new study, they can also damage our cells.

Would menthol cigarettes be banned if the typical consumer was young, white and upper-middle class?
Menthol could be exacerbating deep social inequities according to a paper just published.

COVID-19 pandemic has created flood of potentially substandard research
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a flood of potentially substandard research amid the rush to publish, with a string of papers retracted or under a cloud and a surge in submissions to pre-print servers where fewer quality checks are made, a leading ethicist has warned in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

The development of climate security discourse in Japan
This research traced discourses related to climate security in Japan to determine why so little exists in Japan and whether or not such discourse could suggest new areas for consideration to more comprehensively respond to the climate change problem.

Researchers reveal which benign breast disease is most likely to develop into cancer
Benign breast diseases, which are non-cancerous disorders of the breast, such as lumps, are known to increase the chances of subsequent breast cancer.

Study finds yoga and meditation reduce chronic pain
A mindfulness-based stress reduction course was found to benefit patients with chronic pain and depression, leading to significant improvement in participant perceptions of pain, mood and functional capacity, according to a study in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

Sensor with 100,000 times higher sensitivity could bolster thermal imaging
Army-funded research developed a new microwave radiation sensor with 100,000 times higher sensitivity than currently available commercial sensors.

Why writing by hand makes kids smarter
New brain research shows that writing by hand helps children learn more and remember better.

Earthquake forecasting clues unearthed in strange precariously balanced rocks
Naturally formed balancing boulders could be used to help scientists to forecast large earthquakes more precisely.

Long-term care after Medicaid expansion
This observational study looked at the association between Medicaid expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and long-term home health care and nursing home use among newly eligible low-income adults and older adults whose eligibility did not change.

Decreasing treatment delays for head and neck cancer patients in South Carolina
Investigators from MUSC Hollings Cancer Center classify barriers to a recommended therapy for head and neck cancer that may mean the difference between life and death for these patients.

Noble metal clusters can enhance performance of catalysts and save resources
Billions of noble metal catalysts are used worldwide for the production of chemicals, energy generation, or cleaning the air.

Black hole shadow puts general relativity to the test
The intense gravity of a black hole curves spacetime, acting as a magnifying glass and causing the black hole shadow to appear larger.

How Steak-umm became a social media phenomenon during the pandemic
A new study outlines how a brand of frozen meat products took social media by storm - and what other brands can learn from the phenomenon.

DNA changes in healthy bladder provide clues on how cancer arises
The first comprehensive study of DNA changes in healthy and diseased human bladder tissue has revealed that 'cancer-driving' mutations are common in healthy bladder tissue.

Dementia caregivers' stress leads to sleep deprivation
New Edith Cowan University (ECU) research has found 94 per cent of Australians caring for a loved one with dementia are sleep deprived.

Survey finds American support for human-animal chimera research
In September 2015, the US National Institutes of Health placed a funding moratorium on research that involves introducing human pluripotent stem cells into animal embryos.

Danish King got enshrined in his own clothes, appeared with his brothers' when examined
Scientific analysis solve puzzle about the age and destiny of precious silk textiles from AD 1100.

Scientists repeat century-old study to reveal evidence of evolutionary rescue in the wild
Repeating a study conducted in 1914, scientists from the University of Plymouth have shown that species may be able to evolve and adapt to rapid climate change.

Bright light bars big-eyed birds from human-altered landscapes
New research shows the glaring light in human-altered landscapes, such as livestock pastures and crop fields, can act as a barrier to big-eyed birds, potentially contributing to their decline.

Decent living for all does not have to cost the Earth
A new study reveals that decent living standards could be provided to the entire global population of 10 billion that is expected to be reached by 2050, for less than 40% of today's global energy.

New research sheds light on the reluctance of farmers to adopt new technologies
Research from the University of Kent's School of Economics sheds new light on a long-standing obstacle to improving agricultural productivity in developing countries: the reluctance of small-scale farmers to adopt modern technologies because of the risks associated with them.

University of Ottawa study finds self-harm may be socially contagious among adolescents
A new study led by University of Ottawa epidemiologist Dr.

Study: Women want more info on reproductive care restrictions from religious hospitals
Researchers from the University of Chicago and the University of California, San Francisco found that women value clear information shared early from their health care providers to help them anticipate religious restrictions before their care becomes urgent.

Mud-slurping chinless ancestors had all the moves
A team of researchers, led by the University of Bristol, has revealed our most ancient ancestors were ecologically diverse, despite lacking jaws and paired fins.

Influence of bots on spreading vaccine information not as big as you think
The role of bots in spreading vaccine-critical information on Twitter is limited and rarely cross paths with active Twitter users, finds study led by University of Sydney.

Study details strategies to address barriers keeping older adults out of clinical trials
A study revealed little effort has been made to improve older adult representation in clinical trials of new cancer drugs, even when the treatment is aimed at a disease that disproportionately affects this age group.

Sticking together
In unraveling how a single cell develops into a complex organism, one vexing question has remained for developmental biology: How do robust patterns form in the body?

Tumor progression depends on the tumor microenvironment
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and Niigata University identified a novel mechanism by which tumors progress.

Venom glands similar to those of snakes are found for first time in amphibians
Brazilian researchers discover that caecilians, limbless amphibians resembling worms or snakes that emerged some 150 million years before the latter, can probably inject venom into their prey while biting.

Men predominate in 85%+ COVID-19 decision-making/advisory bodies globally
Men predominate in more than 85% of COVID-19 decision-making and key advisory bodies around the globe, with gender parity in just 3.5%, reveals an analysis of the available data, published in the online journal BMJ Global Health.

Foreign election interference focuses on cultivating distrust, reducing consensus
Recent efforts by Russia to meddle in US elections are based largely on strategies developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War, and partly aim to elicit strong reactions and drive people to extreme positions to lower the odds they will reach a consensus, a new study says.

Risk of heart disease in breast cancer patients can be predicted from routine scans
Automated analysis of breast cancer patients' routine scans can predict which women have a greater than one in four risk of going on to develop cardiovascular disease, according to research presented at the 12th European Breast Cancer Conference.

Record-breaking, floating laser resonator
Physical Review X recently reported on a new optical resonator from the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology that is unprecedented in resonance enhancement.

Rise of the mutants: New uOttawa-led research to improve enzyme design methodologies
A group of researchers at the University of Ottawa has been looking for ways to improve enzyme design methodologies.

Zika infections drastically underreported during 2015 epidemic
More than 100 million infections of Zika virus within Central and South America and the Caribbean went undetected between 2015 and 2018, according to a new study.
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