Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 28, 2020
Turning a coronavirus protein into a nanoparticle could be key for COVID-19 vaccine
One of the proteins on the virus - located on the characteristic COVID spike - has a component called the receptor-binding domain, or RBD, which is its ''Achilles heel.'' That is, he said, antibodies against this part of the virus have the potential to the neutralize the virus.

Study raises questions about role of leisure activity in dementia
Studies have suggested that taking part in leisure activities such as playing cards or gardening may be associated with a lower risk of developing dementia.

Biophysicists modelled the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes
A team of biophysics from leading Russian research and educational institutions (MSU, RUDN University, and the Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia) developed a computer model that shows the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes.

Why are some COVID-19 infected people asymptomatic?
Immune cells in the lungs are important for the immune system's recognition and fight against viruses.

An artificial cell on a chip
Researchers at the University of Basel have developed a precisely controllable system for mimicking biochemical reaction cascades in cells.

Secrets of 'smasher shrimp' property ladder revealed
Mantis shrimps carefully survey burrows before trying to evict rivals, new research shows.

Using a volcano's eruption 'memory' to forecast dangerous follow-on explosions
Stromboli, the 'lighthouse of the Mediterranean', is known for its low-energy but persistent explosive eruptions, behaviour that is known scientifically as Strombolian activity.

Social isolation puts women at higher risk of hypertension
Researchers at the University of British Columbia are discovering that social isolation affects the health of men and women in different ways--including placing women at higher risk of high blood pressure.

Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects of PFASs could depend on the presence of estrogen
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have received intense scrutiny in recent years because of their persistence in the environment and potential endocrine-disrupting effects.

Surrey device takes us closer to high-performing wearable and eco-disposable AI electronics
The University of Surrey has unveiled a device with unique functionality that could signal the dawn of a new design philosophy for electronics, including next-generation wearables and eco-disposable sensors.

Paracetamol poisonings up
In 2003, the painkiller paracetamol became available in Switzerland in tablets with a higher dose of the active ingredient.

Research lowers errors for using brain signals to control a robot arm
Brain-computer interfaces have seen a large influx of research in an effort to allow precise and accurate control of physical systems.

Microbial strains show individualized patterns of stability in the developing infant gut
Microbial strain stability studies of human infants and children, ages shortly after birth (about 6 months) to 6 years, show individualized patterns of microbial strain specificity as the infant gut microbiomes developed.

Severe form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease linked to a strain of mouth bacteria
Bacteria from the mouth could hold clues to understanding - and potentially treating - severe ulcerative colitis, a painful bowel disease.

A mathematical model facilitates inventory management in the food supply chain
A research study in the Diverfarming project integrates transport resources and inventory management in a model that seeks economic efficiency and to avoid shortages

Exposure to suboptimal doses of antimalarial drugs could, under certain circumstances, increase mala
Exposure to suboptimal doses of the antiparasitic drug artemisinin could increase the sexual conversion rate of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, thereby increasing the probability of transmission, according to a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), an institution supported by ''la Caixa'' Foundation.

Younger knee replacement patients more likely to require reoperation
Knee replacement surgery, also known as total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is increasing among patients 65 and younger.

Bioenergy research team sequences miscanthus genome
An international research team has sequenced the full genome of an ornamental variety of miscanthus, a wild perennial grass emerging as a prime candidate for sustainable bioenergy crops.

In study of 30,000 mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients, antibody responses can persist for five months
Researchers who studied antibody responses in 30,000 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 report that the patients' antibodies were relatively stable for at least five months.

Greater prostate cancer incidence; mortality among Black men linked to genetic alterations
Prostate cancer tumors from African American men had higher frequencies of certain genetic alterations that may be associated with aggressive disease, compared with prostate cancer tumors from white men.

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak investigation in meat processing plant suggests aerosol transmission in confined
The importance of maintaining high quality air flow to restrict transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in confined workspaces has been strongly indicated by the investigation of an outbreak of the virus at a German meat processing plant during May and June 2020.

Physicists circumvent centuries-old theory to cancel magnetic fields
A team of scientists including two physicists at the University of Sussex has found a way to circumvent a 178-year old theory which means they can effectively cancel magnetic fields at a distance.

Adults with endocrine disorders have an increased risk of heart disease
All adults with endocrine disorders should be tested for high cholesterol and triglycerides to evaluate their risk of heart attack or stroke, according to a Clinical Practice Guideline issued today by the Endocrine Society.

A patch that could help heal broken hearts
According to the American Heart Association, heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide in recent years.

Study tracks public concerns on Twitter about COVID-19
Twitter users initially didn't feel positive about the state of the economy, prevention, treatment and recovery concerning COVID-19.

Raptor-inspired drone with morphing wing and tail
EPFL engineers have developed a drone with a feathered wing and tail that give it unprecedented flight agility.

Artificial intelligence dives into thousands of WW2 photographs
In a new international cross disciplinary study, researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark and Tampere University, Finland have used artificial intelligence to analyse large amounts of historical photos from WW2.

COVID-19 vaccine nationalism could cost world up to $1.2 trillion: New RAND Europe study
A huge global research effort is taking place to bring a fast-tracked COVID-19 vaccine to the market but there is concern that certain countries may prioritise their own population's access to any vaccines developed.

Magnetic nature of complex vortex-like structures in a Kagome crystal Fe3Sn2
Three-dimensional magnetic bubbles were demonstrated from the view of integral magnetizations for the first time, which clarify the physics behind complex multi-ring and arc-shaped vortices obtained from two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy magnetic imaging.

Nudges fail more often than is reported, experts warn
Research led by Queen Mary University of London has shown that despite the widespread use of behavioural interventions across society, failed interventions are surprisingly common.

A new RNA catalyst from the lab
On the track of evolution: a catalytically active RNA molecule that specifically attaches methyl groups to other RNAs - a research group from the University of Würzburg reports on this new discovery in Nature.

Scientists discover second key pathway in colon cancer stem cell growth
Scientists have discovered a link between two key signaling pathways crucial to the development and growth of colon cancer.

Knotting semimetals in topological electrical circuits
Scientists created exotic states of matter using electrical circuit enhanced by machine-learning algorithm

How computer scientists and marketers can create a better CX with AI
A failure to incorporate behavioral insight into technological developments may undermine consumers' experiences with AI.

Soil-powered fuel cell promises cheap, sustainable water purification
Soil microbial fuel cells proven to be capable of creating energy to filter a person's daily drinking water in Brazil test.

Researchers find source of breast tumor heterogeneity and pathway that limits emergence
A team of researchers led by Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center has identified mammary basal cells as a contributing source to the development of heterogeneous tumor cell subpopulations and found that activation of the PKA signaling pathway can curtail their emergence, providing opportunities for new therapeutic approaches to breast cancer.

Close to 17 percent of patients recovered from COVID-19 could still carry virus
A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier, presents new data that address important questions pertaining to the containment of the coronavirus pandemic: When should COVID-19 quarantine really end and which continuing symptoms may be more indicative of a positive test in recovered patients?

Smokers, especially those who begin young, are three times more likely to die prematurely
A large, national study found that smokers faced nearly three times the risk of dying prematurely from heart disease or stroke.

Cracking the secrets of dinosaur eggshells
Since the famous discovery of dinosaur eggs in the Gobi Desert in the early 1920s, the fossilized remains have captured the imaginations of paleontologists and the public, alike.

Outcomes of salvage low dose RT brachytherapy after EBRT for prostate cancer
Researchers involved in the phase II NRG Oncology RTOG 0526 trial studying low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy (BT) following local recurrence (LR) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for patients with low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer reported late Grade 3 gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events (AEs) occurring in 14% of trial participants.

New sulfur dioxide conversion method may transform current industrial techniques
A single-step, plasma-enhanced catalytic process to convert sulfur dioxide to pure sulfur from tail gas streams may provide a promising, more environmentally-friendly alternative to current multistage thermal, catalytic and absorptive processes, according to scientists at Penn State.

Giant lizards learnt to fly over millions of years
Most detailed every study into how animals evolve to better suit their environments shows that pterosaurs become more efficient at flying over millions of years before going extinct with the dinosaurs.

Good mental health and better sleep for the physically active
Quite a lot of people have modified their exercise habits during the pandemic, but that didn't affect sleep quality for active people.

Workplace interruptions lead to physical stress
Using an experiment conducted in a simulated group office environment, ETH researchers have proved for the first time that repeated workplace interruptions cause the body to increase the release of stress hormones.

Machine learning helps hunt for COVID-19 therapies
Michigan State University Foundation Professor Guowei Wei wasn't preparing machine learning techniques for a global health crisis.

Smart solution to detect seafood spoilage
Existing methods for detecting seafood spoilage are far from satisfactory for ensuring food safety and security.

Home-time metric needed to judge hospital readmissions, studies suggest
DALLAS - Oct. 28, 2020 - Two new studies suggest Medicare's system of penalizing hospitals if too many patients are readmitted within 30 days should also look at whether the patients were well enough to remain in their home during that time.

Brazilian researchers discover how muscle regenerates after exercise
Adaptation of muscle tissue to aerobic exercise alters the metabolism of muscle stem cells, helping them recover from injury.

Socio-demographic determinants of overweight and obesity among mothers in South Africa
To investigate the socio-demographic determinants of overweight and obesity among mothers of primary school children living in a rural Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site in South Africa

Election 2020 chatter on Twitter busy with bots, conspiracy theorists, USC study finds
USC scientists find right-leaning bot accounts outnumber left-leaning ones 4-to-1.

Lockdown interviews show poor housing quality has made life even tougher
New research from the University of Huddersfield, in conjunction with the Northern Housing Consortium and Nationwide Foundation, shows the shocking extent of how much people struggled to cope whilst living with poor housing conditions in the north of England during the first lockdown, between May and July 2020

Menstrual dysfunction is more common among young athletes than among non-athletes
Menstrual dysfunction is more prevalent in young Finnish athletes than it is among non-athletes of a similar age, but athletes experience less body weight dissatisfaction than non-athletes do.

Solved: the mystery of how dark matter in galaxies is distributed
In a recent article in Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters, scientists at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC)/University of La Laguna (ULL) and of the National University of the North-West of the Province of Buenos Aires (Junín, Argentina) have shown that the dark matter in galaxies follows a 'maximum entropy' distribution, which sheds light on its nature.

Study finds seabird ecosystem shift in Falkland islands
The 14,000-year-old record raises a very troubling question about where seabirds in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean will go as the climate continues to warm.

Reduction by reduction: Novel approach to mitigating chromium contamination in wastewater
Chromium in its hexavalent state (Cr(VI)) is a major water pollutant.

Antiseizure medication in pregnancy associated with twice the risk of autism in child
Women with epilepsy who take the antiseizure drug valproic acid while pregnant are at more than double the risk of having children with autism spectrum disorder and nearly double the risk of having children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study in the October 28, 2020, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Reforestation plans in Africa could go awry
An international team led by an UdeM researcher publishes the findings of a study on the biogeographical history of sub-Saharan Africa.

Shot of alcohol can help an irregular heartbeat
Research out in this week's issue of JAMA confirms the success of a treatment for persistent atrial fibrillation (AFib) that combines the standard treatment, catheter ablation, with a separate infusion of ethanol, or alcohol, to the vein of Marshall.

The future is now: long-term research shows ocean acidification ramping up on the Reef
A new study has shown ocean acidification is no longer a sombre forecast for the Great Barrier Reef but a present-day reality.

Single-atom alloy: Superb cocatalyst for photocatalysis
The surface charge state of co-catalyst plays an important role in photocatalysis.

RUDN University chemist suggested increasing the biofuel production efficiency with silica-supported
A chemist from RUDN University developed a silica-supported heteropolyacid system to produce ethers from waste products of the wood and paper industry and agriculture.

Location and extent of coral reefs mapped worldwide using advanced AI
researchers from the Arizona State University Center for Global Discovery and Conservation Science have generated a global coral reef extent map using a single methodology capable of predicting the location of shallow coral reefs with nearly 90% accuracy.

Sea turtle nesting season winding down in Florida, some numbers are up and it's unexpected
Florida's sea turtle nesting surveying comes to a close on Halloween and like everything else in 2020, the season was a bit weird.

Reliable quality-control of graphene and other 2D materials is routinely possible
Scientists at Ames Laboratory have discovered and confirmed a method which could serve as an easy but reliable way to test the quality of graphene and other 2D materials.

Smart fluorescent molecular switches based on boron-based compounds
Scientists have developed extremely stable molecular switches of high luminosity that self-assemble into 1D nanostructures and form gel-like materials.

Genetic analysis system yields new insights into bacterial pneumonia
A team of infectious disease researchers has developed a new method to identify virulence genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia.

Leaving more big fish in the sea reduces CO2 emissions
Leaving more big fish--like tuna, sharks, mackerel and swordfish--in the sea reduces the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the Earth's atmosphere.This is because when a fish dies in the ocean it sinks to the depths and sequestrates all the carbon it contains with it.

Waiter! This soup is not fly
Black Soldier Fly larvae contains more zinc and iron than lean meat and its calcium content is higher than milk.

Graphdiyne based metal atomic catalyst for efficient ammonia synthesis
Researchers cleverly used the rich chemical bonds, highly conjugated large π bonds, super-large surface and pore structures of graphdiyne.

Researchers find confusion over masks for wildfire, COVID-19 crises
Drawing from studies on human behavior and responses to past epidemics and wildfire smoke, researchers outline recommendations for communicating correct mask use and suggest areas for further research.

JNIS: brain-computer allows patients with severe paralysis to text, email, bank
Researchers demonstrated the success of a fully implantable wireless medical device, the Stentrode™ brain-computer interface (BCI), designed to allow patients with severe paralysis to resume daily tasks -- including texting, emailing, shopping and banking online -- without the need for open brain surgery.

How hard is it to vote in your state?
A new analysis identifies U.S. states that make it easiest, and those that make it more challenging, to register and vote.

Cognitive disorders linked to severe COVID-19 risk
Dementia and other cognitive disorders now appear to be risk factors for developing severe COVID-19, according to research from the University of Georgia.

Specific and rapid expansion of blood vessels
Upon a heart infarct or stroke, rapid restoration of blood flow, and oxygen delivery to the hypo perfused regions is of eminent importance to prevent further damage to heart or brain.

Cut chores and kill chill time: new advice to boost children's academic achievement
Determining a child's best daily balance of sleep, activity and relaxation can be a challenge, but if you're hoping to improve their academic results, then it's time to cut back on chores and chill time, according to new research from the University of South Australia.

Astronomers discover activity on distant planetary object
A team of astronomers, led by doctoral student Colin Chandler in Northern Arizona University's Astronomy and Planetary Science PhD program, earlier this year announced their discovery of activity emanating from Centaur 2014 OG392, a planetary object first found in 2014.

CU Denver study looks into the connection between religion and equal pay
Traci Sitzmann, an Associate Professor at the University of Colorado Denver Business School, and Elizabeth Campbell, an Assistant Professor at the University of Minnesota, provide empirical evidence and an explanation into why religion perpetuates the gender wage gap.

Liquid nanofoam: A game changer for future football helmets
A liquid nanofoam liner undergoing testing could prolong the safe use of football helmets, says a Michigan State University researcher.

Direct observation of a single electron's butterfly-shaped distribution in titanium oxide
A research team led by Nagoya University has observed the smeared-out spatial distribution of a single valence electron at the centre of a titanium oxide molecule, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and a new Fourier synthesis method also developed by the team.

New imaging technique doubles visibility of brain tumors in scans
A new three-dimensional imaging technique has been developed that greatly improves the visibility of brain tumors in magnetic resonance imaging scans.

Researchers find direction decided by rate of coin flip in quantum world
Flip a coin. Heads? Take a step to the left.

A drop in temperature
In the nearly two centuries since German physician Carl Wunderlich established 98.6°F as the standard ''normal'' body temperature, it has been used by parents and doctors alike as the measure by which fevers -- and often the severity of illness -- have been assessed.

Coral researchers find link between bacterial genus and disease susceptibility
Corals that appear healthy are more prone to getting sick when they're home to too many parasitic bacteria, new research at Oregon State University shows.

New dataset provides county-level exposure numbers for tropical cyclones, human health
The new open source data set can be used for epidemiological research on tropical cyclones.

Tracing the source of illicit sand--can it be done?
If you've visited the beach recently, you might think sand is ubiquitous.

Small brain device proves big game changer for severely paralysed patients
A tiny device the size of a small paperclip has been shown to help patients with upper limb paralysis to text, email and even shop online in the first human trial.

Researchers break magnetic memory speed record
An international team of researchers has created a new technique for magnetization switching -- the process used to ''write'' information into magnetic memory -- that is nearly 100 times faster than state-of-the-art spintronic devices.

Antibody screening finds COVID-19 nearly 7 times more prevalent in O.C. than thought
Testing a representative sample of Orange County residents for a wide range of coronavirus antibodies, University of California, Irvine researchers found that 11.5 percent of them have antibodies for COVID-19, in contrast to previous estimates of less than 2 percent.

Oncotarget: Targeting breast cancer metabolism with a novel inhibitor
The Oncotarget author's data suggest in vitro proof-of-concept that supports inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthase and ROS generation as contributors to the effectiveness of CADD522 in the suppression of tumor growth

SoundWatch: New smartwatch app alerts d/Deaf and hard-of-hearing users to birdsong, sirens and other desired sounds
University of Washington researchers have developed SoundWatch, a smartwatch app for deaf, Deaf and hard-of-hearing people who want to be aware of nearby sounds.

Video provides guidance on surgery to wean patients with COVID-19 off ventilators
A temporary tracheostomy can be essential for allowing a critically ill patient to come off a ventilator.

Performance test for neural interfaces
Freiburg researchers develop guidelines to standardize analysis of electrodes.

Fish banks
Society will require more food in the coming years to feed a growing population, and seafood will likely make up a significant portion of it.

Study helps explain why motivation to learn declines with age
MIT neuroscientists have identified a brain circuit critical for learning to make decisions that require evaluating the cost or reward of an action.

Black hole 'family portrait' is most detailed to date
An international research collaboration including Northwestern University astronomers has produced the most detailed family portrait of black holes to date, offering new clues as to how black holes form.

Climate change drives plants to extinction in the Black Forest in Germany, study finds
Climate change is leaving its mark on the bog complexes of the German Black Forest.

Study documents racial differences in US hospice use and end-of-life care preferences
In a new medical records analysis of racial disparities in end-of-life care, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine and three collaborating institutions report that Black patients voluntarily seek substantially more intensive treatment in the last six months of life, while white patients more often choose hospice services.

Stem cells: new insights for future regenerative medicine approaches
The study published in Open Biology unravels important data for a better understanding of the process of division in stem cells and for the development of safer ways to use them in medicine.

Artificial intelligence (AI)-aided disease prediction
Artificial Intelligence (AI)-aided Disease Prediction https://doi.org/10.15212/bioi-2020-0017 Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal.

Forecasting elections with a model of infectious diseases
Election forecasting is an innately challenging endeavor, with results that can be difficult to interpret and may leave many questions unanswered after close races unfold.

Age and pre-existing conditions increase risk of stroke among COVID-19 patients
Fourteen out of every 1,000 COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital experience a stroke, a rate that is even higher in older patients and those with severe infection and pre-existing vascular conditions, according to a report published this week.

Most people mount a strong antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 that does not decline rapidly
The vast majority of individuals infected with mild-to-moderate COVID 19 mount a robust antibody response that is relatively stable for at least five months, according to research conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published October 28, in the journal Science.

Weak equivalence principle violated in gravitational waves
New research published in EPJ C proves theoretically that the Weak Equivalence Principle can be violated by quantum particles in gravitational waves - the ripples in spacetime caused by colossal events such as merging black holes.

Researchers map genomes of agricultural monsters
The University of Cincinnati is unlocking the genomes of creepy agricultural pests like screwworms that feast on livestock from the inside out and thrips that transmit viruses to plants.

Burning biomass fuels at home led to 32% of premature deaths from inhaling fine particles in China in 2014
The burning of biomass fuels such as wood and crop residues, which are often used for cooking and heating homes in rural China, contributed to 32% of an estimated 1,150,000 premature deaths caused by inhaling fine particle pollutants in China in 2014, according to a new study.

Stanford researchers link poor memory to attention lapses and media multitasking
Stanford researchers are connecting the dots between attention and memory to explain why we remember certain things and forget others, why some people remember better than others and how media multitasking affects how well we recall.

Researchers uncover health disparities in childhood obesity and access to treatments
The use of bariatric surgery to treat severe obesity in adolescents, and the racial disparities in access to that treatment, were analyzed in a retrospective study published in Annals of Surgery by researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Artificial intelligence-based algorithm for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's
In a recent study published in the Journal of Medical Imaging, scientists from Texas Tech University employed machine-learning algorithms to classify fMRI data.

Learning the language of sugars
We're told not to eat too much sugar, but in reality, all of our cells are covered in sugar molecules called glycans.

High-sugar diet can damage the gut, intensifying risk for colitis
DALLAS - Oct. 28, 2020 - Mice fed diets high in sugar developed worse colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and researchers examining their large intestines found more of the bacteria that can damage the gut's protective mucus layer.

Mountain gorillas are good neighbours - up to a point
Mountain gorilla groups are friendly to familiar neighbours - provided they stay out of ''core'' parts of their territory - new research shows.

Let's (not) stick together
New research led by the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering examines the properties of the mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the role it plays in a pathogens' ability to survive.

Seafood extinction risk: Marine bivalves in peril?
Marine bivalves are an important component of our global fishery, with over 500 species harvested for food and other uses.

Habitat loss is bad news for species - especially for top predators
Scientists at Linköping University, Sweden, have simulated what happens in ecosystems when the habitats of different species disappear.

Models for potential precursors of cells endure simulated early-Earth conditions
Membraneless compartments--models for a potential step in the early evolution of cells--have been shown to persist or form, disappear, and reform in predictable ways through multiple cycles of dehydration and rehydration.

Multi-drone system autonomously surveys penguin colonies
A new multi-drone imaging system was put to the test in Antarctica.

Validation of ERCC1/2 signature as radiosensitivity biomarker for tumor & normal tissues in NSCLC
A genetic analysis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients on the phase III NRG Oncology RTOG 0617 clinical trial assessing radiation dose discovered that high dose radiation therapy is associated with shorter survival times among patients with a radiation-sensitive genotype in DNA repair pathway.

Study reveals robust performance in aged detonator explosive
High-speed video (39,000 frames per second) of the initiation of a detonator holding 40 milligrams of PETN, encased in an acrylic holder.

International study uncovers secret surfing life of remoras hitchhiking on blue whales
A new int'l study of blue whales off the coast of California has given researchers the first ocean recordings of their famous hitchhiking partner -- the remora -- revealing the suckerfish's secret whale-surfing skills as well as their knack for grabbing the most flow-optimal spots while riding aboard the world's largest vertebrate.

International collaboration reveals China's carbon balance
An international team of researchers has compiled and verified newly available data on the country's CO2 sink, and, for the first time, they have quantitatively estimated the effect of China's carbon mitigation efforts.

Nucleus accumbens recruited by cocaine, sugar are different
In a study using genetically modified mice, a University of Wyoming faculty member found that the nucleus accumbens recruited by cocaine use are largely distinct from nucleus accumbens recruited by sucrose, or table sugar.

Motivation to seek cocaine is driven by elegant cellular communication
In response to cocaine, the connections between neurons, or brain cells, strengthen due to signaling that starts outside those cells, report researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina and the National Institutes of Health in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Racial disparities in treatment for common lung cancer persist despite gains
African American patients with lung cancer are still less likely to receive the most effective treatment for a common type of early stage lung cancer.

Infrared light antenna powers molecular motor
Light-controlled molecular motors can be used to create functional materials, to provide autonomous motion or in systems that can respond on command, for example, to open drug-containing vesicles.

Topology gets magnetic: The new wave of topological magnetic materials
The electronic structure of nonmagnetic crystals can be classified by complete theories of band topology, reminiscent of a 'topological periodic table.' However, such a classification for magnetic materials has so far been elusive, and hence very few magnetic topological materials have been discovered to date.

Teen boys link marijuana use with more, better sex
Teen-age boys exposed to pro-cannabis advertising and social media posts are more likely than female peers to associate marijuana use with improving sexual activity, new research from Washington State University suggests.

Ultra-small hollow alloy nanoparticles for synergistic hydrogen evolution catalysis
The ultra-small hollow ternary alloy PtNiCu, PtCoCu and CuNiCo nanoparticles were prepared via an effective and simple one-pot strategy.

Dull-colored birds don't see the world like colorful birds do
Bengalese finches -- also called the Society finch -- are a species of brown, black and white birds that don't rely on colorful signals when choosing a mate.

Scientists discover new organic compounds that could have helped form the first cells
Chemists studying how life started often focus on biopolymers like peptides and nucleic acids, but modern biopolymers don't form easily without help from living organisms.

The National Human Genome Research Institute publishes new vision for human genomics
The National Human Genome Research Institute this week published its 'Strategic vision for improving human health at The Forefront of Genomics' in the journal Nature.

Answer to Darwin's question
In a paper published in Nature, evolutionary biologist Axel Meyer from the University of Konstanz analyses almost 500 genomes and provides answers to questions concerning the genomic basis of adaptations, the differences between species, and the mechanisms of speciation

Major new African genome study finds varieties that inform African history, migration and immunity
More than three million new genetic variants were uncovered in one of the most extensive studies of high-depth-sequenced African genomes reported to date.

Baking soda treatment may help prevent leukemia relapse after stem cell transplants
Scientists have discovered that sodium bicarbonate - also known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda - can reprogram T cells in leukemia patients to resist the immune-suppressing effects of cancer cells, which can drive leukemia relapse after stem cell transplants.
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