Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 29, 2020
These spiders can hear
Ogre-faced spiders hide during the day and hunt by night, dangling from palm fronds and casting nets on insects.

PFAS: these "forever chemicals" are highly toxic, under-studied, and largely unregulated
Per-/poly-fluroalkyl substances, or PFAS, are everywhere. They are used in firefighting foam, car wax, and even fast-food wrappers.

Hybrid photoactive perovskites imaged with atomic resolution for the first-time
A new technique has been developed allowing reliable atomic-resolution images to be taken, for the first time, of hybrid photoactive perovskite thin films - highly favourable materials for efficient photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

Two studies expand insights into Denisovan ancestry and population history in East Asia
In a pair of studies, researchers provide evidence that expands our understanding of modern humans in eastern Asia and their interactions with their most elusive cousins, the Denisovans.

Order in the disorder:
For the first time, a team at HZB has identified the atomic substructure of amorphous silicon with a resolution of 0.8 nanometres using X-ray and neutron scattering at BESSY II and BER II.

Intensive urate lowering reduces urine albumin excretion
Phase 2 trial of verinurad with febuxostat vs. placebo shows 49% reduction in albuminuria

Disease-transmission model forecasts election outcomes
To simulate how interactions between voters may play a role in the upcoming presidential, gubernatorial and senatorial elections, a Northwestern University research team is adapting a model that is commonly used to study infectious diseases.

Graphene-based memory resistors show promise for brain-based computing
As progress in traditional computing slows, new forms of computing are coming to the forefront.

Possible triggers of autism symptoms and motor issues identified for several rare diseases
* Study identifies possible genetic triggers for debilitating symptoms of several rare diseases * These conditions, including Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, have few treatments * The results could eventually lead to more effective and personalised therapies

Resistance and challenges to Green Deals should not be underestimated
A Perspective by the EASAC Environment Steering Panel

Expect more mega-droughts
Mega-droughts - droughts that last two decades or longer - are tipped to increase thanks to climate change, according to University of Queensland-led research.

Waste not, want not: recycled water proves fruitful for greenhouse tomatoes
In the driest state in the driest continent in the world, South Australian farmers are acutely aware of the impact of water shortages and drought.

Academies' report reviews debate on genome editing for crop improvement
Since the ruling of the Court of Justice of the EU of 2018, which placed genome-edited crops under the Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) legislation, the scientific community has passionately debated the future of these new breeding techniques.

Some COVID-19 "long haulers" experience lasting skin problems
Some patients with COVID-19 have persistent skin-related symptoms long after their initial infection has cleared, according to a new analysis.

Lung scans for stroke patients could provide earlier COVID-19 detection
Examination of the lungs via computed tomography angiogram (CTA) scans helped researchers screen for and detect COVID-19 earlier than traditional nasal swab tests in acute stroke patients.

Standardized measures needed to screen kinship foster placements
New research is proposing a novel screening tool to assess the quality of care in kinship foster care placement settings.

Losing ground in biodiversity hotspots worldwide
Agriculture is eating into areas that are important in protecting some of the most biologically diverse places on the planet.

Where were Jupiter and Saturn born?
New work reveals the likely original locations of Saturn and Jupiter.

Study shows myocarditis linked to COVID-19 not as common as believed
A study conducted by Richard Vander Heide, MD, PhD, Professor and Director of Pathology Research at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, and Marc Halushka, MD, PhD, Professor of Pathology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, suggests myocarditis caused by COVID-19 may be a relatively rare occurrence.

Study reveals impact of COVID-19 on oncology staff and their work
A study presented at the NCRI Virtual Showcase reports the results of a survey of oncology staff on their management of patients, their wellbeing and whether they felt valued during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Aspirin use best for those with high coronary calcium, low risk of bleeding
DALLAS - Oct. 28, 2020 - An X-ray test commonly used to assess hardening of the arteries could help doctors decide whether the benefits of taking aspirin to prevent a first heart attack or stroke outweigh the risks of bleeding from its use, UT Southwestern research suggests.

Male fin whales surprise scientists by swapping songs
The world's second largest mammal varies its song structure and picks up songs from other whale groups, a new study suggests.

New strategies suggested for critical heart care in the ICU
Critically ill heart patients are at increased risk of complications that are potentially preventable and associated with death, longer hospital stays and higher costs.

COVID-19 and obesity: Top abstracts at ObesityWeek® Interactive
Innovative scientific research results on Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its impact on obesity will be presented through oral and poster abstracts at the 38th Annual Meeting of The Obesity Society (TOS) at ObesityWeek® Interactive.

Stronger treatments could cure Chagas disease
Researchers in the University of Georgia's Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases have found that a more intensive, less frequent drug regimen with currently available therapeutics could cure the infection that causes Chagas disease

NEJM: clinical trial indicates monoclonal antibody lowered hospitalizations and emergency visits
COVID-19 (coronavirus) patients who were administered a novel antibody had fewer symptoms and were less likely to require hospitalization or emergency medical care than those who did not receive the antibody, according to a new study published in the The New England Journal of Medicine.

Spring-run and fall-run Chinook salmon aren't as different as they seem
Historically, spring-run and fall-run Chinook salmon have been considered as separate subspecies, races, ecotypes, or even as separate species of fish.

Scientists engineer new cancer immunotherapy to train immune system in cancer fight
A groundbreaking new type of cancer immunotherapy developed at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai trains the innate immune system to help it eliminate tumor cells through the use of nanobiologics, tiny materials bioengineered from natural molecules that are paired with a therapeutic component, according to a study published in Cell in October.

Facing up to the reality of politicians' Instagram posts
A University of Georgia researcher used computer vision to analyze thousands of images from over 100 Instagram accounts of United States politicians and discovered posts that showed politicians' faces in nonpolitical settings increased audience engagement over traditional posts such as politicians in professional or political settings.

How the immune system deals with the gut's plethora of microbes
New research suggests that our immune system may play an active role in shaping the digestive-tract flora, which is tightly linked to health and disease.

UMass Amherst research compares sensitivity of all genes to chemical exposure
A University of Massachusetts Amherst environmental health scientist has used an unprecedented objective approach to identify which molecular mechanisms in mammals are the most sensitive to chemical exposures.

HSE Faculty of Chemistry scientists discovered new anti-cancer molecule
A group of Moscow scientists has discovered and explained the activity mechanism of a new anti-cancer molecule -- diphenylisoxazole.

Models show how COVID-19 cuts a neighborhood path
A research team led by UC Irvine and the University of Washington has created a new model of how the coronavirus can spread through a community.

Cardiac MRI contrast agents carry low risk of adverse events
Contrast agents used to improve views of the heart on MRI carry a very low risk of allergic reactions, vomiting and other acute adverse events, according to a large new study.

World's first agreed guidance for people with diabetes to exercise safely
A Swansea University academic has helped draw up a landmark agreement amongst international experts, setting out the world's first standard guidance on how people with diabetes can use modern glucose monitoring devices to help them exercise safely.

Scientists discover new structures in the smallest ice cube
A research team led by Prof. JIANG Ling and Prof.

A new method to measure optical absorption in semiconductor crystals
Tohoku University researchers have revealed more details about omnidirectional photoluminescence (ODPL) spectroscopy - a method for probing semiconducting crystals with light to detect defects and impurities.

Sensors driven by machine learning sniff-out gas leaks fast
A new study confirms the success of a natural-gas leak-detection tool pioneered by Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists that uses sensors and machine learning to locate leak points at oil and gas fields, promising new automatic, affordable sampling across vast natural gas infrastructure.

Remdesivir for COVID-19: FDA approved but still unproven
In a review of evidence from the most reliable data from randomized trials to find likely small-to-moderate effects of remdesivir, researchers say that totality of evidence compiled before the WHO trial results justifies compassionate use of remdesivir for severely ill patients.

Boo! How do mexican cavefish escape predators?
When startled, do all fish respond the same way? A few fish, like Mexican cavefish, have evolved in unique environments without any predators.

Individual red foxes prefer different foods in the city and the countryside
Using stable isotope analysis, scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in cooperation with Berlin-Brandenburg State Laboratory showed that individual red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have a narrower diet than might be expected from their omnivorous habits.

Misleading mulch: Researchers find contents of mulch bags do not match claims
Your bag of mulch may not be what you think it is.

Study identifies pitfall for correcting mutations in human embryos with CRISPR
The most detailed analysis to date of CRISPR genome editing in human embryos finds a significant risk of chromosomal abnormalities when using the technique at earliest stage of human development.

International team tracks record-setting smoke cloud from Australian wildfires
Researchers with the University of Saskatchewan's Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies are part of a global team that has found that the smoke cloud pushed into the stratosphere by last winter's Australian wildfires was three times larger than anything previously recorded.

Fungal species naturally suppresses cyst nematodes responsible for major sugar beet losses
In the current study, the authors showed that similar fungi inhabited sugar beet fields in California, suggesting that a group of naturally occurring fungi, given the right conditions, might be able to dramatically reduce nematode populations in one season.

Bound for the EU, American-made biomass checks the right boxes
A first-of-its-kind study published in the journal Scientific Reports finds that wood produced in the southeastern United States for the EU's renewable energy needs has a net positive effect on US forests--but that future industry expansion could warrant more research.

New assay screens human brain organoids, doubles known candidate genes for microcephaly
A new tissue screening assay for human cerebral organoids identified 25 additional candidate genes for microcephaly, nearly doubling the number of currently known genes linked to the rare neurological condition.

Water fleas on 'happy pills' have more offspring
Dopamine can trigger feelings of happiness in humans. Water fleas that are exposed to dopamine-regulating substances apparently gain several advantages.

Amount of COVID viral RNA detected at hospital admission predicts how patients will fare
A new study published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society examines whether the amount of RNA, or genomic load, of SARS-CoV-2 detected in swab tests of patients being admitted to the hospital with viral pneumonia is associated with more severe COVID-19.

High rate of symptomless COVID-19 infection among grocery store workers
Grocery store employees are likely to be at heightened risk of COVID-19 infection, with those in customer-facing roles 5 times as likely to test positive as their colleagues in other positions, suggests the first study of its kind, published in the journal Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

Face mask aims to deactivate virus to protect others
Researchers have developed a face mask with an embedded antiviral layer that sanitizes the wearer's respiratory droplets to make them less infectious to others.

Touch and taste? It's all in the tentacles
Scientists identified a novel family of sensors in the first layer of cells inside the suction cups that have adapted to react and detect molecules that don't dissolve well in water.

An Earth-sized rogue planet discovered in the Milky Way
Our Galaxy may be teeming with rogue planets, gravitationally unbound to any star.

Streetlights contribute less to nighttime light emissions in cities than expected
When satellites take pictures of Earth at night, how much of the light that they see comes from streetlights?

Groundbreaking study on trained immunity to fight cancer
An extensive international collaboration led by Prof. Willem Mulder Eindhoven University of Technology has developed a groundbreaking approach based on trained immunity of the innate immune system to help in the elimination of tumorous cells.

New Denisovan DNA expands diversity, history of species
Ancient Denisovan mitochondrial DNA has been recovered in sediments from Baishiya Karst Cave, a limestone cave at the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, 3280 meters above sea level and adds more evidence to the record that Denisovans, a group of extinct hominins that diverged from Neanderthals about 400,000 years ago, may have more widely inhabited northeast central Asia.

Is the COVID-19 pandemic affecting dengue virus case numbers?
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in dramatic changes to human mobility, which has the potential to change the transmission dynamics of other infectious diseases.

Study of ancient dog DNA traces canine diversity to the Ice Age
A global study of ancient dog DNA, led by scientists at the Francis Crick Institute, University of Oxford, University of Vienna and archaeologists from more than 10 countries, presents evidence that there were different types of dogs more than 11,000 years ago in the period immediately following the Ice Age.

Americans agree: improving our public health system is an urgent priority
As COVID-19 infections escalate, Americans across the political divide demonstrate pronounced support for public health.

Cancer-fighting gene restrains 'jumping genes'
About half of all tumors have mutations of the gene p53, normally responsible for warding off cancer.

Changes in subcellular traffic increase invasiveness of radioresistant cancer cells
Scientists have revealed the molecular mechanism regulating the trafficking of lysosomes that increases the invasiveness of radioresistant cancer cells following radiotherapy.

How people would choose who gets scarce COVID-19 treatment
As COVID-19 cases begin climbing again in the United States, the possibility arises of a grim moral dilemma: Which patients should be prioritized if medical resources are scarce?

Radical diagnostic could save millions of people at risk of dying from blood loss
Engineers at Monash University in Australia have developed a fast, portable and cheap diagnostic that can help deliver urgent treatment to people at risk of dying from rapid blood loss.

New analysis reveals 'long-hauler' COVID-19 patients with prolonged skin symptoms
Some COVID-19 patients experience long-lasting skin symptoms that vary according to type of COVID-19 skin rash

Brainstem neurons control both behaviour and misbehaviour
A recent study at the University of Helsinki reveals how gene control mechanisms define the identity of developing neurons in the brainstem.

Early results from DETECT study suggest fitness trackers can predict COVID-19 infections
Examining data from the first six weeks of their landmark DETECT study, a team of scientists from the Scripps Research Translational Institute sees encouraging signs that wearable fitness devices can improve public health efforts to control COVID-19.

Eating less suppresses liver cancer due to fatty liver
Liver cancer from too much fat accumulation in the liver has been increasing in many countries including Japan.

Escaping the 'Era of Pandemics': experts warn worse crises to come; offer options to reduce risk
Future pandemics will emerge more often, spread more rapidly, do more damage to the world economy and kill more people than COVID-19 unless there is a transformative change in the global approach to dealing with infectious diseases, warns a major new IPBES report on biodiversity and pandemics by 22 leading experts from around the world.

Denisovan DNA in the genome of early East Asians
Researchers analyzed the genome of the oldest human fossil found in Mongolia to date and show that the 34,000-year-old woman inherited around 25 percent of her DNA from western Eurasians, demonstrating that people moved across the Eurasian continent shortly after it had first been settled by the ancestors of present-day populations.

Genetic determinants of fertility and ongoing natural selection in humans
A recent study presented at the ASHG 2020 Virtual Meeting suggests genetic variants may be associated with reproductive success.

Molecular compass for cell orientation
Plants have veins that transport nutrients through their body. These veins are highly organized.

Study: Republicans and Democrats hate the other side more than they love their own side
In the study, titled 'Political sectarianism in America,' the authors provide a broad survey of current scientific literature to interpret the current state of politics, and introduce the construct of 'political sectarianism''' to describe the bitter polarization between the Republican and Democratic parties in the US that has been on the rise since the 1990s.

Tube-dwelling anemone toxins have pharmacological potential, mapping study shows
Analysis identified 525 genes encoding proteins that act on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and cell walls.

Chemical scissors snip 2D transition metal dichalcogenides into nanoribbon
One of the biggest challenges in making hydrogen production clean and cheap has been finding an alternative catalyst necessary for the chemical reaction that produces the gas, one that is much cheaper and abundant than the very expensive and rare platinum that is currently used.

Predictive model reveals function of promising energy harvester device
A small energy harvesting device that can transform subtle mechanical vibrations into electrical energy could be used to power wireless sensors and actuators for use in anything from temperature and occupancy monitoring in smart environments, to biosensing within the human body.

Buzz kill: Ogre-faced spiders 'hear' airborne prey with their legs
In the dark of night, ogre-faced spiders with dominating big eyes dangle from a silk frame to cast a web and capture their ground prey.

Breakthrough quantum-dot transistors create a flexible alternative to conventional electronics
Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their collaborators from the University of California, Irvine have created fundamental electronic building blocks out of tiny structures known as quantum dots and used them to assemble functional logic circuits.

Towards next-generation molecule-based magnets
Magnets are to be found everywhere in our daily lives, whether in satellites, telephones or on fridge doors.

Advanced facade material for urban heat island mitigation
A joint research team of Toyohashi University of Technology and Osaka City University has proposed two analytical models to evaluate the reflection directional characteristics of retro-reflective (RR) materials applied to building envelopes for urban heat island (UHI) mitigation, based on the measured data of optical experiments.

Decadeslong effort revives ancient oak woodland
Vestal Grove in Cook County, Illinois, looks nothing like the scrubby, buckthorn-choked tangle that first confronted restoration ecologists 37 years ago.

Copolymer helps remove pervasive PFAS toxins from environment
Researchers have demonstrated that they can attract, capture and destroy PFAS - a group of federally regulated substances found in everything from nonstick coatings to shampoo and nicknamed ''the forever chemicals'' due to their persistence in the natural environment.

Identifying biomolecule fragments in ionising radiation
In a new study published in EPJ D, researchers define for the first time the precise exact ranges in which positively and negatively charged fragments can be produced when living cells are bombarded with fast, heavy ions.

Brain imaging of tau protein in patients with various forms of dementia
A new imaging-based method could enable the early detection and differentiation of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the buildup of tau protein in the brain, suggests an October 29 in the journal Neuron.

CHOP genomic study reveals role for hypothalamus in inflammatory bowel disease
Using sophisticated 3D genomic mapping and integrating with public data resulting from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have found significant genetic correlations between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and stress and depression.

New evidence shows microbe strain can orally treat systemic inflammation in psoriasis
New data published today shows the first clinical evidence of modulating systemic inflammation by oral delivery of a non-living single strain commensal microbe.

NUS researchers develop novel process that turns waste into nutritional supplements
Researchers from NUS Engineering have developed a novel conversion approach that marries chemical and biological processes to produce high-value amino acids such as L-DOPA and L-Proline from low-cost, abundant waste material like crustacean shells and sawdust.

Unravelling the origins of autoimmune psychosis
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an autoimmune brain illness that is often mistaken by a psychiatric disorder since it causes psychoses and other behaviour alterations.

Seesaw of Indo-Pacific summer monsoons triggered by the tropical Atlantic Ocean
The increasing influences from the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature could trigger the observed multidecadal seesaw of Indo-Pacific summer monsoons in terms of their intensity of interannual variability and monsoon-ENSO biennial relationship variability.

Mouse studies link some autism to brain cells that guide sociability and platonic love
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report that new experiments with genetically engineered mice have found clear connections among a range of autism types and abnormalities in brain cells whose chemical output forges platonic (non-sexual) feelings of love and sociability.

Corporations directing our attention online more than we realize
It's still easy to think we're in control when browsing the internet, but a new study argues much of that is ''an illusion.'' Corporations are ''nudging'' us online more than we realize, and often in hidden ways.

Decision conflict before cancer surgery correlates with lower activity after surgery
Nearly one-third of cancer patients who decide to undergo surgery for their condition may have second thoughts, and this decision conflict may lead to less favorable treatment outcomes in both the near- and long-term, according to a team of investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital and Ariadne Labs.

Flash graphene rocks strategy for plastic waste
Rice University scientists advance their technique to make graphene from waste with a focus on plastic.

Drones as stinger spotters
Researchers from James Cook University in Cairns have demonstrated, for the first time, the potential for off-the-shelf drones to be used to detect deadly box jellyfish.

Asteroid Ryugu shaken by Hayabusa2's impactor
Professor ARAKAWA Masahiko (Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Japan) and Hayabusa2 mission members discovered more than 200 boulders, which either newly appeared or moved as a result of the artificial impact crater created by the Japanese spacecraft's Small Carry-on Impactor.

Two million lost health coverage, thousands died prematurely in Trump's first 3 years
A new Harvard study finds that even before COVID-19, more than 2 million individuals lost health coverage during the first three years of the Trump Administration.

A groundbreaking genetic screening tool for human organoids
Researchers from the laboratory of Jürgen Knoblich at IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences - developed CRISPR-LICHT, a revolutionary technology that allows genetic screens in human tissues such as brain organoids.

Landscape to atomic scales: Researchers apply new approach to pyrite oxidation
Pyrite, or fool's gold, is a common mineral that reacts quickly with oxygen when exposed to water or air, such as during mining operations, and can lead to acid mine drainage.

'Time machine' offers new pancreatic cancer drug testing approach
Drug resistance is a major reason why pancreatic cancer has a five-year survival rate of only about 10%.

ICE detention centers saw sustained outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, says study
More than a dozen US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention centers experienced large, repeated outbreaks of vaccine-preventable illnesses in the last three years, according to a new study by researchers at UC San Francisco.

Mothers pass on allergies to offspring, Singapore preclinical study shows
Maternal antibodies primed to react to specific allergens can cross the placenta, passing on transiently allergic reactions to offspring, according to new preclinical research from a collaborative study by the Agency for Science, Technology and Research, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, and Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore.

SMART researchers develop new gelatin microcarrier for cell production
Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) developed a novel microcarrier for large-scale cell production and expansion that offers higher yield and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional methods, and reduces steps required in the cell retrieval process.

New study demonstrates importance of large-scale SARS-CoV-2 antibody
A new study lead by Helmholtz Zentrum München indicates a six-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 exposure rate among children in Bavaria, Germany, than reported cases.

Why people with dementia go missing
People with dementia are more likely to go missing in areas where road networks are dense, complicated and disordered - according to new research from the University of East Anglia.

New ancient genomes reveal a complex common history of dogs and humans
Newly sequenced whole genomes of ancient dogs reveal a complicated genetic legacy that reflects a long, shared history with humans spanning more than 11,000 years into the past.

Potential impact of COVID-19 school closures on academic achievement
A study published today in Educational Researcher, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association, provides preliminary projections of the impact of COVID-19-related school closures in spring 2020 on student learning.

How Twitter takes votes away from Trump but not from Republicans
In the 2016 US presidential election, Twitter made independent voters less likely to vote for Donald Trump, finds new study from Bocconi University and Princeton

Muscle pain and energy-rich blood: Cholesterol medicine affects the organs differently
Contrary to expectation, treatment with statins has a different effect on blood cells than on muscle cells, a new study from the University of Copenhagen reveals.

Probing water for an electrifying cause
An experiment, elegant in its simplicity, helps explain why water becomes electrified when it touches hydrophobic surfaces.

Rice finds path to nanodiamond from graphene
Rice University researchers expand their theory on converting graphene into 2D diamond, or diamane.

How octopus suckers "taste by touch"
Imagine if you could taste something simply by touching it.

New Texas poll: Trump and Biden in close race
President Donald Trump is about even with former Vice President Joe Biden in a close contest for Texas' 38 electoral votes in a new swing state poll of Texas likely voters released today.

New NH poll: Biden leads Trump by 10 points
Former Vice President Joe Biden leads President Donald Trump by 10 points among likely New Hampshire voters, according to a new poll released today by the UMass Lowell Center for Public Opinion.

Study measures effectiveness of different face mask materials when coughing
A team of researchers have tested everything from t-shirts and socks to jeans and vacuum bags to determine what type of mask material is most effective at trapping the ultrafine particles which may contain viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus which causes COVID-19.

Smart bottle brushes
They look like microscopic bottle brushes: Polymers with a backbone and tufts of side arms.

Study shows COVID-19 risk to firefighters and emergency medical workers in New York City
Firefighters and emergency medical workers in New York City were 15 times more likely to be infected during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the general public, according to a study published in ERJ Open Research.

Study of COVID-19 levels in oncology staff suggests need for more extensive testing
A study of oncology staff carried out immediately after the spring peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK indicates that many had been infected with the coronavirus as they tested positive for COVID-19 antibodies.

Priming the immune system to attack cancer
Research by an international team, co-led by the University of Pennsylvania's George Hajishengallis, showed how immune ''training'' transforms innate immune cells to target tumors.

Study finds 5 distinct dog types from 11,000 years ago
An international team of researchers that includes a Texas A&M University professor has studied the lineage of dogs and found that there were at least five different types of dogs as far back as 11,000 years ago.

Effective stroke drugs are saving the NHS millions
Drugs prescribed to high-risk stroke patients are costing the NHS hundreds of millions each year - but they are so effective, the service is actually saving money.

Should I run, or should I not? The neural basis of aggression and flight
Researchers in the Gross group at EMBL Rome have investigated the mechanism behind defensive behaviour in mice.

Machine learning helps pinpoint sources of the most common cardiac arrhythmia
Researchers have designed a new ML-based approach for detecting atrial fibrillation drivers, small patches of the heart muscle that are hypothesized to cause this most common type of cardiac arrhythmia.

CAM modes provide environment-specific water-saving benefits in a leaf metabolic model
Several plant lineages living in arid environments have evolved crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, a water-saving mode of carbon fixation in which CO2 uptake and CO2 fixation are temporally separated.

Positive student-teacher relationships benefit students' long-term health, study finds
Teens who have good, supportive relationships with their teachers enjoy better health as adults, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

Measuring the expansion of the universe: Researchers focus on velocity
There seems to be a discrepancy between measurement of the expansion of the Universe using radiation in the early Universe and using nearby objects.

'Lazy use' of term populist has helped to legitimize far-right politics
New analysis from academics at the University of Bath into the media's use of the term 'populism' highlights how its overuse has clouded important debates about nationalism, racism, and xenophobia.

Autoantibody order, timing predict genetically at-risk children most likely to get T1D
New findings from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study in the U.S. and Europe show that detailed information about the order, timing and type of autoantibodies appearing after the first autoantibody can significantly improve prediction of which children are most likely to progress to type 1 diabetes more rapidly.

Curbing COVID-19 hospitalizations requires attention to construction workers
Construction workers, who are disproportionately Hispanic or Latino, have a much higher risk of becoming hospitalized with the novel coronavirus than non-construction workers, according to a new study in JAMA Network Open.

New research shows SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins disrupt the blood-brain barrier
New work by scientists at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University shows that the spike proteins that extrude from SARS-CoV-2 promote inflammatory responses on the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier.

Simple genetics control timing of chinook salmon migration
The complex migratory traits of northern California's Chinook salmon - which have led some to regard the early- versus late-migrating fish as different species - result from a single, small gene region, researchers report.

Affinity vs. cooperativity
Our biological processes rely on a system of communications -- cellular signals -- that set off chain reactions in and between target cells to produce a response.

Knee OA guidance for clinicians simplified and streamlined
Researchers review the similarities and differences between OARSI and ESCEO 2019 guidelines for the management of knee OA and provide a narrative to help steer health-care providers through the complexities of non-surgical management of the disease.

Trust levels in AI predicted by people's relationship style, study shows
A University of Kansas interdisciplinary team led by relationship psychologist Omri Gillath has published a new paper in the journal Computers in Human Behavior showing people's trust in artificial intelligence (AI) is tied to their relationship or attachment style.

Positive outlook predicts less memory decline
The happier we feel, the less likely we are to experience memory decline.

Archaeologists reveal human resilience in the face of climate change in ancient Turkey
An examination of two documented periods of climate change in the greater Middle East, between approximately 4,500 and 3,000 years ago, reveals local evidence of resilience and even of a flourishing ancient society despite the changes in climate seen in the larger region.

How allergens trigger itching: Finding points to new targets for allergy drug development
A key step in the immune system's response to allergens has been uncovered by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Researchers take a stand on algorithm design for job centers: Landing a job isn't always the right goal
Algorithms that assess the risk of citizens becoming unemployed are currently being tested in a number of Danish municipalities.

Shining a (UV) light on the glow-in-the-dark platypus
The fur of the platypus - an Australian species threatened with extinction - glows green under ultraviolet light, a new study finds.
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