Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 03, 2020
Oncotarget: Predictive biomarkers in Trop-2-expressing triple-negative breast cancer
SG could provide better clinical benefit than irinotecan in patients with HRR-proficient tumors expressing high levels of Trop-2, as well as to patients with HRR-deficient tumors expressing low/moderate levels of Trop-2.

BfR-Corona-Monitor: Respondents reduce contacts and stay at home more frequently
Starting this week, the new regulations for the containment of the coronavirus adopted by the Federal Government and the Länder will come into force throughout Germany.

Depression and anxiety are more frequently diagnosed in women
According to a study conducted by the UPV/EHU's OPIK research group, the hypothesis on the increased biological vulnerability of women is inconsistent, which would suggest that unequal conditions of life between men and women, together with the prevailing hegemonic models of masculinity and femininity, could account for these gender inequalities in mental health.

Key populations for early COVID-19 immunization in Canada
Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends vaccinating key populations, such as people at risk of severe illness or death, those at risk of transmitting the virus and essential workers, during the initial rollout of a COVID-19 vaccine in Canada.

Students develop tool to predict the carbon footprint of algorithms
Within the scientific community, it is estimated that artificial intelligence -- otherwise meant to serve as a means to effectively combat climate change -- will become one of the most egregious CO2 culprits should current trends continue.

Your favorite music can send your brain into a pleasure overload
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used as a novel technique to show how cortical activity, related to the reward-system, happens in the brain when people experience a musical ''chill''.

Oncotarget: Heterogeneity of CEACAM5 in breast cancer
Oncotarget recently published ''Heterogeneity of CEACAM5 in breast cancer'' which reported that Here, we examined a repository of 110 cryopreserved primary breast carcinomas by immunohistochemistry to assess the distribution of CEACAM5 in tumor subtypes.

A breakthrough of the mechanism of energy saving in collective swimming
Professor Xie Guangming's group in the College of Engineering at Peking University has found a simple yet previous unknown rule, explaining how do schooling fish save energy in collective motion.

Some of the principal treatments for osteoporosis could reduce the incidence of COVID-19
A joint study by physicians at Hospital del Mar, researchers from the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Pompeu Fabra University and the Pere Virgili Health Care Park suggests that certain drugs used to treat osteoporosis are safe for COVID-19 patients and could even have a protective effect.

Tracking flight trajectory of evaporating cough droplets
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led many to study airborne droplet transmission in different conditions and environments, and in Physics of Fluids, researchers from A*STAR conducted a numerical study on droplet dispersion using high fidelity air flow simulation.

New method shows great potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
In Alzheimer's disease, a protein (peptide) forms clumps in the brain and causes sufferers to lose their memory.

New mineral discovered in moon meteorite
The high-pressure mineral Donwilhelmsite, recently discovered in the lunar meteorite Oued Awlitis 001 from Apollo missions, is important for understanding the inner structure of the earth.

Buffalo fly faces Dengue nemesis
Australian beef cattle researchers trial the use of insect-infecting bacterium Wolbachia to tackle buffalo fly, a major blood-sucking pest that costs the industry $100 million a year in treatments and lost production.

The craters on Earth
A two-volume atlas presents and explains the impact sites of meteorites and asteroids worldwide

Continuity of English primary care has worsened with GP expansions
A new study published by the British Journal of General Practice has found that patients' abilities to see their preferred GP has fallen greater in English practices that have expanded, compared with those that stayed about the same size.

Goby fins have fingertip touch sensitivity
Primates are renowned for their delicate sense of touch, but now a series of experiments by scientists from The University of Chicago, USA, published in Journal of Experimental Biology reveal that the fins of round gobies are as touch sensitive as primate fingertips.

Harnessing the 'wisdom of crowds' can help combat antibiotic over prescription
A new study has demonstrated that using the 'wisdom of crowds' (also known as collective intelligence) of three or more medical prescribers, can improve decisions about antibiotic prescribing and help combat rising levels of antibiotic resistance.

AI helps detect brain aneurysms on CT angiography
A powerful type of artificial intelligence known as deep learning can help physicians detect potentially life-threatening cerebral aneurysms on CT angiography, according to a new study.

The cement for coral reefs
Coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity. As they can withstand heavy storms, they offer many species a safe home.

New protein nanobioreactor designed to improve sustainable bioenergy production
Researchers at the University of Liverpool have unlocked new possibilities for the future development of sustainable, clean bioenergy.

The importance of good neighbors in catalysis
Are you affected by your neighbors? So are nanoparticles in catalysts.

Solar cells of the future
Organic solar cells are cheaper to produce and more flexible than their counterparts made of crystalline silicon, but do not offer the same level of efficiency or stability.

Squid jet propulsion can enhance design of underwater robots, vehicles
Squids use a form of jet propulsion that is not well understood, especially when it comes to their hydrodynamics under turbulent flow conditions.

Review finds almost 20% of COVID-19 patients only show gastrointestinal symptoms
Almost one in five patients with COVID-19 may only show gastrointestinal symptoms, according to a review of academic studies published in the journal Abdominal Radiology.

Venous origin of brain blood-vessel malformations
In the condition known as cavernoma, lesions arise in a cluster of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord or retina.

Transparent soil-like substances provide window on soil ecology
By using two different transparent soil substitutes, scientists have shown that soil bacteria rely on fungi to help them survive dry periods, says a study published today in eLife.

Implantable device can monitor and treat heart disease
Cunjiang Yu, Bill D. Cook Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at UH, led a group of researchers that has reported developing a cardiac patch made from fully rubbery electronics that can be placed directly on the heart to collect electrophysiological activity, temperature, heartbeat and other indicators, all at the same time.

Invisible fungi revealed by their genetic material
How can new life forms that we cannot see be discovered?

Expensive gene therapies raise challenges and opportunities: Expert panel report
Gene therapies are being approved for use in Canada, but could strain healthcare budgets and exacerbate existing treatment inequities across the country.

Ice-binding molecules stop ice growth, act as natural antifreeze
Certain molecules bind tightly to the surface of ice, creating a curved interface that can halt further ice growth.

New AI tool speeds up biology and removes potential human bias
Scientists have developed an AI tool to analyse how proteins move and interact which is faster and more accurate than humans, according to a study published today in eLife.

A DNA-based molecular tagging system that could take the place of printed barcodes
University of Washington and Microsoft researchers have developed a DNA-based molecular tagging system.

New Danish AI tool provides much-needed help to protein scientists across the world
Sorting huge amounts of data is a bottleneck in protein research, a field that is crucial to make use of the gene-editing technology CRISPR and fully understand diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

A new mathematical front to understand species coexistence
In an effort to understand how different species coexist, researchers develop a mathematical model that establishes interactions in co-colonization as the key.

100,000-fold enhancement in the nonlinearity of Si
Scientists at Osaka University show how to achieve a very strong nonlinear optical response in silicon nanostructures based on the photothermal effect.

COVID-19 lung damage caused by persistence of 'abnormal cells'
Investigations of deceased COVID-19 patients have shed light on possible lung damage caused by the virus.

Study points way to possible new treatment for ligament injuries
A new exosomes study released in STEM CELLS may lead to future treatment for ligament injuries.

Earwax sampling could measure stress hormone
A novel method to sample earwax could be a cheap and effective way to measure the hormone cortisol, according to a study led by researchers at UCL and King's College London, published in the academic journal Heliyon.

UC researchers pioneer more effective way to block malaria transmission in mosquitoes
Employing a strategy known as 'population modification,' which involves using a CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive system to introduce genes preventing parasite transmission into mosquito chromosomes, University of California researchers have made a major advance in the use of genetic technologies to control the transmission of malaria parasites.

From nitrate crisis to phosphate crisis?
The aim of the EU Nitrates Directive is to reduce nitrates leaking into the environment and to prevent pollution of water supplies.

One last trip: when tourism embraces the terminally ill
A change of weather cannot cure cancer, but it can provide precious benefits, according to a new study.

Gentoo penguins are four species, not one, say scientists
First analysis combining genetic and physical differences of populations of gentoo penguins indicates they should be treated as four separate species.

Active surveillance safe for African Americans with low-risk prostate cancer
Researchers with UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center say active surveillance is safe for African American men with low-risk prostate cancer.

Healthy oil from wild olives
The oil from wild olive trees has excellent sensorial, physicochemical and stability characteristics from a nutritional point of view, according to an article published in the journal Antioxidants.

RUDN University chemists developed new magnetic and luminescent lanthanide-siloxane-based compounds
A team of chemists from RUDN University synthesized new organosilicon compounds containing terbium and europium ions.

Model of multicellular evolution overturns classic theory
Cells can evolve specialised functions under a much broader range of conditions than previously thought, according to a study published today in eLife.

Johns Hopkins Researchers engineer tiny machines that deliver medicine efficiently
Inspired by a parasitic worm that digs its sharp teeth into its host's intestines, Johns Hopkins researchers have designed tiny, star-shaped microdevices that can latch onto intestinal mucosa and release drugs into the body.

Study finds 1.7 million New Yorkers have been infected with SARS-Cov-2 and virus was in NYC earlier than reported
The virus that causes COVID-19 was present in New York City long before the city's first case of the disease was confirmed on March 1.

Europe took centre-stage in global spread of the coronavirus, says new research
A collaboration between genome researchers at the University of Huddersfield and Portugal's University of Minho has discovered it is Europe, not China, which has been the main source of spreading the coronavirus disease around the world.

Study uncovers subset of COVID-19 patients who recover quickly and sustain antibodies
Brigham investigators examined blood samples and cells from patients who had recovered from mild to moderate COVID-19 and found that while antibodies against the virus declined in most individuals after disease resolution, a subset of patients sustained anti-virus antibody production several months following infection.

How to fix the movement for fossil fuel divestment
Bankers and environmentalists alike are increasingly calling for capital markets to play a bigger role in the war on carbon.

Plant viruses hijack the defence system of plants, but there might be a way to strike back
Recently discovered interactions between plant and viral proteins open up new avenues for making plants resistant to viruses, thus safeguarding crop yields in changing climate conditions.

Challenges to providing behavioral health care during pandemic
The COVID-19 outbreak has significantly impacted the delivery of behavioral health services, which had to modify rapidly from in-person to remote, according to a Rutgers study published in the Community Mental Health Journal.

Supersonic winds, rocky rains forecasted on lava planet
Among the most extreme planets discovered beyond the edges of our solar system are lava planets: fiery hot worlds that circle so close to their host star that some regions are likely oceans of molten lava.

Vitamin E from palm oil useful in boosting immune response based on studies on liver cells
Palm oil is an economical source of vitamin E, and several studies have shown the beneficial effects on the immune system, which include anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activity as well has cytoprotective actions.

Association between African American race, clinical outcomes in men treated for low-risk prostate cancer with active surveillance
This observational study estimates the 10-year risk for disease progression, surgery, metastasis, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality among African American men with low-risk prostate cancer managed with active surveillance.

Drones that patrol forests could monitor environmental and ecological changes
Imperial researchers have created drones that can attach sensors to trees to monitor environmental and ecological changes in forests.

Combining population health management and online program may help patients lose weight
Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital paired an online weight loss program with a phone- and email-based population health management program, a two-pronged strategy previously unexplored, and determined that patients in the combined program had greater weight loss over 12 months than patients in the other two groups.

Texas A&M lion genetics study uncovers major consequences of habitat fragmentation
Over the course of only a century, humanity has made an observable impact on the genetic diversity of the lion population.

UConn researcher identifies genetic elements involved in heart development
Justin Cotney, assistant professor of genetics and genome sciences in the UConn School of Medicine, has identified a suite of genes and regulatory elements critical to normal heart development.

Brain effects of repetitive low-level occupational blast exposure
Military and law enforcement personnel with extensive occupational blast exposure had statistically significant differences in brain imaging measures compared to nonexposed control personnel

Industrial-strength brine, meet your kryptonite
A thin coating of the 2D nanomaterial hexagonal boron nitride is the key ingredient in a cost-effective technology developed by Rice University engineers for desalinating industrial-strength brine.

Leaf-cutter bees as plastic recyclers? Not a good idea, say scientists
Scientists have noted instances of leaf-cutter bees using plastic waste to construct their nests and one research group suggested such behavior could be an 'ecologically adaptive trait' and beneficial recycling effort.

Study provides first evidence of a relationship between a bird's gut and its brain
A study of the relationships between cognition and the gut microbiome of captive zebra finches showed that their gut microbiome characteristics were related to performance on a cognitive assay where they learned a novel foraging technique.

The birth of a bacterial tRNA gene
The Microbial Evolutionary Dynamics Group at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Plön has directly observed the birth of a tRNA gene, using experimental evolution of bacterial populations in the laboratory.

Ants swallow their own acid to protect themselves from germs
Ants use their own acid to disinfect themselves and their stomachs.

Cornea appears to resist infection from novel coronavirus
Some doctors have worried that the novel coronavirus may be able to infect people by getting into their eyes.

New species of ancient cynodont, 220 million years old, discovered
''This discovery sheds light on the geography and environment during the early evolution of mammals,'' Kligman said.

Crown-of-thorns eat themselves out of house and home
A world-first study on the Great Barrier Reef shows crown-of-thorns starfish have the ability to find their own way home -- a behavior previously undocumented--but only if their neighborhood is stocked with their favorite food: corals.

Unraveling the genetic determinants of small vessel vasculitis
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have shown that the single-nucleotide variants of TERT and DSP, which promote risk for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), are significantly associated with susceptibility to microscopic polyangiitis and myeloperoxidase-ANCA associated vasculitis.

Magma 'conveyor belt' fuelled world's longest erupting supervolcanoes
International research led by geologists from Curtin University has found that a volcanic province in the Indian Ocean was the world's most continuously active -- erupting for 30 million years -- fuelled by a constantly moving 'conveyor belt' of magma.
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