Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 04, 2020
Data science pathway prepares radiology residents for machine learning
A recently developed data science pathway for fourth-year radiology residents will help prepare the next generation of radiologists to lead the way into the era of artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI-ML), according to a special report.

Intensive lab experiences and online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic
For students studying ecology and evolution, it's important to experience the processes and concepts they are learning about nature in nature.

Being in treatment with statins reduces COVID-19 mortality by 22% to 25%
A research by the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV) and Pere Virgili Institut (IISPV) led by Lluís Masana has found that people who are being treated with statins have a 22% to 25% lower risk of dying from COVID-19.

Research lays groundwork for ultra-thin, energy efficient photodetector on glass
Though we may not always realize it, photodetectors contribute greatly to the convenience of modern life.

Different outcomes by race/ethnicity among patients with COVID-19 and rheumatic disease
Among US patients with rheumatic disease and COVID-19, racial/ethnic minorities had higher risks of needing to be hospitalized and put on ventilators.

Victims of school bullying are more prone to develope violent behavior in the future
A University of Cordoba and University of Cambridge study analyzed what factors in childhood and adolescence increase the likelihood of having violent behavior in adulthood

Scientists find Ebola virus antibodies in people before 2018 DRC outbreak
Scientists found antibodies to Ebola virus in people up to a year before the 2018 Ebola virus disease outbreak began in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, or DRC.

Case study details leukemia patient who shed infectious SARS-CoV-2 for at least 70 days
The majority of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 appear to actively shed infectious virus for about 8 days, but there is a wide range of variability from person to person.

Scientists identify synthetic mini-antibody to combat COVID-19
By screening hundreds of synthetic mini-antibodies called sybodies, a group of scientists has identified one that might stop SARS-CoV-2 from infecting human cells.

Coral larvae movement is paused in reaction to darkness
A new study published in Scientific Reports shows that coral larvae swimming in seawater behave in such a manner so as to temporarily stop swimming due to reduced light, especially blue light.

Ants are skilled farmers: They have solved a problem that we humans have yet to
Ants have been farmers for tens of millions of years and successfully solved a riddle that we humans have yet to.

Luminescent wood could light up homes of the future
The right indoor lighting can help set the mood, from a soft romantic glow to bright, stimulating colors.

Chikungunya may affect central nervous system as well as joints and lungs
Investigation conducted by international group of researchers showed that chikungunya virus can cause neurological infections.

Convection-permitting modelling improves simulated precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau
A China-UK research team explains the possible reasons for excessive precipitation over the TP in the mesoscale convection-parameterized models.

Revealing the identity of the last unknown protein of autophagy
Japanese scientists discovered that Atg9, one of the proteins that function to mediate autophagy, has phospholipid-translocation activity (the lipid scramblase activity) between the two layers of the lipid bilayer?and elucidated that the protein's activity brings about autophagosome membrane expansion.

Scientists grow carbon nanotube forest much longer than any other
Carbon nanotube (CNT) forests are a solution to scaling up the production of CNTs, which are becoming a staple in many industries.

New multicomponent reaction frontiers
The synthesis of complex molecules such as drugs, requires a process that sometimes involves several phases that increase its cost and harden the access to the product.

New multiscale view of the human brain
Researchers from University of Barcelona study how multilayers that form the human brain interact at different resolutions

Brain region tracking food preferences could steer our food choices
Researchers discovered that a specific brain region monitors food preferences as they change across thirsty and quenched states.

Do small gifts to donors increase charity appeal ROI?
Pre-giving incentives have different effects on different outcomes. The best strategy depends on what the charity wants to achieve.

FAST reveals mystery of fast radio bursts from the universe
The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) has revealed some mystery of the fast radio bursts, according to a study published in Nature on Oct.

Divide and conquer--modular controller design strategy makes upgrading power grids easier
Scientists at Tokyo Tech develop a novel approach for the modular design of controllers for large-scale network systems.

New technique extends next-generation lithium metal batteries
Columbia Engineering researchers have found that alkali metal additives, such as potassium ions, can prevent lithium microstructure proliferation during battery use.

Study examines trends in symptoms experienced at the end of life
A new analysis published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society indicates that fewer older adults may be experiencing certain symptoms that can restrict their activity at the end of life.

Do cesarean delivery's effects on birth hormones impact a newborn's neurodevelopment?
Cesarean section delivery and vaginal delivery lead to different hormonal exposures that may affect a newborn's development, according to an article published in the Journal of Neuroendocrinology.

Psychedelic treatment with psilocybin relieves major depression, study shows
A compound found in so-called magic mushrooms, psilocybin produces visual and auditory hallucinations and profound changes in consciousness over a few hours after ingestion.

3D print experts discover how to make tomorrow's technology using ink-jet printed graphene
The University of Nottingham has cracked the conundrum of how to use inks to 3D-print novel electronic devices with useful properties, such as an ability to convert light into electricity.

Brown carbon 'tarballs' detected in Himalayan atmosphere
Some people refer to the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau as the ''third pole'' because the region has the largest reserve of glacial snow and ice outside of the north and south poles.

NASA missions help pinpoint the source of a unique x-ray, radio burst
On April 28, a supermagnetized stellar remnant known as a magnetar blasted out a simultaneous mix of X-ray and radio signals never observed before.

Coronavirus infection odds twice as high among Black, Latinx hospital workers
Support staff and Black and Latinx hospital employees with and without patient care responsibilities are at highest risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection in health care settings, a Rutgers study found.

Beetles cooperate in brood care
Ambrosia beetles are fascinating: they practice agriculture with fungi and they live in a highly developed social system.

Large-scale study: Congolese fishermen report decline in fish stocks on Lake Tanganyika
Fishermen working on Lake Tanganyika in eastern Congo experience a lack of safety and want better enforcement of existing regulations.

Lighting the way to selective membrane imaging
A team of scientists at Kanazawa University have shown how water-soluble tetraphenylethene molecules can become fluorescent when aggregating at a biomembrane-mimetic liquid-liquid interface.

Delirium could be an early marker of COVID-19
Delirium accompanied by fever could be an early symptom of COVID-19.

Scientists develop method to detect charge traps in organic semiconductors
Scientists at Swansea University have developed a very sensitive method to detect the tiny signatures of so called 'charge traps' in organic semiconductors.

Western diet impairs odor-related learning and olfactory memory in mice
Problems with the sense of smell appear to be an early indicator of cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes.

Using artificial intelligence can improve pregnant women's health
Disorders such as congenital heart birth defects or macrosomia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth can be detected earlier when artificial intelligence is used.

Tricking fake news detectors with malicious user comments
New research from a team at Penn State's College of Information Sciences and Technology shows how these fake news detectors can be manipulated through user comments to flag true news as false and false news as true.

Understanding the spread of infectious diseases
Physicists at Münster University (Germany) have shown in model simulations that the COVID-19 infection rates decrease significantly through social distancing.

Four major predictors of COVID-19 emerge in Texas A&M study
In March 2020, New York City, an icon of America, was unfortunately named an early epicenter of the novel coronavirus.

Violent encounters between gorillas slow population growth rate
A new study by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund and UC Davis used five decades of data to show how social behavior explains fluctuations in the growth rate of a subpopulation of mountain gorillas.

"Helper" ambrosia beetles share reproduction with their mother
A new study shows for the first time that Xyleborus affinis beetles are cooperative breeders, where females disperse to found new nests or stay to help their mother raise siblings, while also reproducing themselves.

The dangers of collecting drinking water
Fetching drinking water in low and middle income countries can cause serious injury, particularly for women.

A material that "bruises"like the skin?
Human skin bruises when the tissue and muscle in the area suffer trauma or become damaged due to an application of blunt force. when an object suffers an impact that is expected to damage, If the areas damaged by a physical impact undergo a change in color, just like human skin, it will be easy to distinguish what needs to be repaired.

Bronze Age travel routes revealed using pioneering research method
Archaeologists from the University of Sydney have reconstructed the ancient seasonal migration routes of Bronze Age herders in Xinjiang, north-western China.

Early big-game hunters of the americas were female, researchers suggest
For centuries, historians and scientists mostly agreed that when early human groups sought food, men hunted and women gathered.

Why protecting the brain against infection takes guts
The brain is uniquely protected against invading bacteria and viruses, but its defence mechanism has long remained a mystery.

Researchers identify key marker to help speed development of CMV vaccines
A Duke Health-led research team has identified a key marker that will help speed effective vaccine designs for cytomegalovirus (CMV), the most common congenital infection worldwide and a leading cause of infant brain damage.

New decision support tool can provide personalized antibiotic treatment recommendations
A new study led by researchers at the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute developed an algorithm that could greatly reduce use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in outpatient settings, a step toward reducing antibiotic resistance.

Plot twist
The black rats weren't supposed to be there, on Palmyra Atoll.

Exposure to high temperatures linked to poor pregnancy outcomes
Exposure to high temperatures in pregnancy is associated with an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially preterm birth and stillbirth, and among women in lower socioeconomic groups, finds a study published by The BMJ today.

A 520-million-year-old five-eyed fossil reveals arthropod origin
Researchers from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NIGPAS) have discovered a shrimp-like fossil with five eyes, which has provided important insights into the early evolutionary history of arthropods.

Machine learning shows similar performance to traditional risk prediction models
Some claim that machine learning technology has the potential to transform healthcare systems, but a study published by The BMJ finds that machine learning models have similar performance to traditional statistical models and share similar uncertainty in making risk predictions for individual patients.

Death from below: the first video of a parasitic wasp attacking caterpillar underwater
A previously unknown species of Japanese parasitic wasp was observed and filmed to dive underwater to parasitize moth caterpillars.

DNA in seawater can reveal fish diversity in the deep ocean
A new study demonstrates the effectiveness of a novel method for using DNA in seawater samples to determine which fish species are present in a given part of the deep sea.

How asymmetrical alliances impact firm performance and risk
Firms need to assess a potential alliance partner's direct ties and indirect ties because they have significant effects on financial performance and risk.

Safety of HPV vaccines in males
A new analysis published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology shows that HPV vaccines are safe and well tolerated in the male population, and the side effects that may occur after immunization are similar in both sexes.

Local cooking preferences drove acceptance of new crop staples in prehistoric China
The food preparation preferences of Chinese cooks -- such as the technological choice to boil or steam grains, instead of grinding or processing them into flour -- had continental-scale consequences for the adoption of new crops in prehistoric China, according to research from Washington University in St.

Researchers show how to target a shape-shifting protein in Alzheimer's disease
A new study suggests that it is possible to design drugs that can target a type of shape-shifting protein involved in Alzheimer's disease, which was previously thought to be undruggable.

Vitamin D lessens symptoms of severe eczema in children
Vitamin D supplementation eased the symptoms experienced by children with severe atopic dermatitis, or eczema, in a recent randomized controlled trial published in Pharmacology Research & Perspectives.

Biologists create "atlas" of gene expression in neurons, documenting diversity of brain cells
New York University researchers have created a ''developmental atlas'' of gene expression in neurons, using gene sequencing and machine learning to categorize more than 250,000 neurons in the brains of fruit flies.

Sea-level rise will have complex consequences
Rising sea levels will affect coasts and human societies in complex and unpredictable ways, according to a new study that examined 12,000 years in which a large island became a cluster of smaller ones.

Laser-powered nanomotors chart their own course
The University of Tokyo introduced a system of gold nanorods that acts like a tiny light-driven motor, with its direction of motion is determined by the orientation of the motors.

Effective government saves lives in cyclones, other disasters
Effective national and local governments are associated with fewer deaths from tropical cyclone disasters -- even in countries with similar levels of wealth and development.

Needlestick, sharps injuries among resident physicians
Rates and characteristics of needle stick and other sharps injuries among resident physicians and other staff at a large health care center were examined in this study.

A novel immunotherapy proves effective in animal models of multiple sclerosis
Jefferson researchers develop an approach to specifically impede the autoimmune response that drives the disease, while leaving the rest of the immune system fully functioning.

Lockdown lifestyle link to poor mental health in Scotland
A rise in negative health behaviors - such as lack of sleep, exercise and an unhealthy diet -- is connected to poorer mental health during the tightest restrictions of Scotland's COVID-19 lockdown, a new study has confirmed.

FAST helps reveal the origin of fast radio bursts
Researchers from Beijing Normal University, Peking University and National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) found that there is weak correlation between fast radio bursts(FRBs) and soft gamma-ray repeater J1935+2145(SGRs).

Tel Aviv University says 'environmentally-friendly' tableware harms marine animals
A new Tel Aviv University study compares the effects of two types of disposable dishes on the marine environment -- regular plastic disposable dishes and more expensive bioplastic disposable dishes certified by various international organizations -- and determines that the bioplastic dishes had a similar effect on marine animals as regular plastic dishes.

Brain region implicated in predicting the consequences of actions
A new study highlights the sophisticated mental machinery that helps the brain simulate the results of different actions and make the best choice.

Model for acid-tolerant yeast helps guide industrial organic acid production
Microbes and other microscopic organisms could serve as sustainable ''factories'' to create many types of industrial materials because they naturally convert nutrients such as sugars into byproducts.

'Monster tumors' could offer new glimpse at human development
Finding just the right model to study human development--from the early embryonic stage onward--has been a challenge for scientists over the last decade.

????Strain of rhizobacteria shown to naturally and sustainably promote rice growth
''Our study has demonstrated that B. pumilus LZP02 colonizes rice roots and promotes growth by improving carbohydrate metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,'' explained Zhigang Wang, one of the scientists involved in the research.

The gut trains the immune system to protect the brain
The membranes surrounding our brains are in a never-ending battle against deadly infections, as germs constantly try to elude watchful immune cells and sneak past a special protective barrier called the meninges.

Promising therapeutic approach against COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common and deadliest diseases worldwide.

Pinning down how the brain predicts the consequences of choices
Learning to predict the outcomes of actions happens through two separate cognitive processes.

Smaller earthquakes "with ambition" produce the most ground shaking
An earthquake of magnitude 8.0 or larger will almost always cause strong shaking, but a new study suggests that smaller earthquakes--those around magnitude 5.5 or so--are the cause of most occurrences of strong shaking at a 60-kilometer (37-mile) distance.

Hydrogen bonds may be key to airborne dicamba
Research from the lab of Kimberly Parker in the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St.

No reduction in fractures seen in falls prevention programmes prescribed to older people
Two population screen and treat programmes commonly prescribed to prevent older people falling have no impact on reducing fractures, researchers from the University of Warwick and University of Exeter have concluded.

New opportunities for detecting osteoporosis
Osteoporosis can be detected through low dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging tests performed for lung cancer screening or other purposes.

Dietary supplement may help in the treatment of fatty liver
A recent study by researchers at the University of Jyväskylä was successful in partially preventing fatty liver disease in rats.

Seabirds' response to abrupt climate change transformed sub-Antarctic island ecosystems
A 14,000-year paleoecological reconstruction of the sub-Antarctic islands done by an international research team including HKU has found that seabird establishment occurred during a period of regional cooling 5,000 years ago.

AI tool improves breast cancer detection on mammography
Artificial intelligence (AI) can enhance the performance of radiologists in reading breast cancer screening mammograms, according to a new study.

Fighting Zika? Call in the T cells
In a new Science Advances study, Shresta and her colleagues at LJI report that the immune system's T cells have the power to prevent Zika infection in mice.

New insights on a common protein could lead to novel cancer treatments
A new University of Colorado Boulder-led study sheds light on a protein key to controlling how cells grow, proliferate and function and long implicated in tumor development.

'Improvised' decontamination procedures are likely better than nothing for toxic chemicals
If you encounter toxic chemicals, 'improvised' decontamination procedures are likely better than nothing, especially when combining dry and wet removal techniques.

When plants attack: parasitic plants use ethylene as a host invasion signal
Researchers from Nara Institute of Science and Technology have found that parasitic plants use the plant hormone ethylene as a signal to invade host plants.

Experts release new management strategies for malignant colorectal polyps
Early identification and removal of cancerous colorectal polyps is critical to preventing the progression of colorectal cancer and improving survival rates.

The long and complex history of cereal cuisine in ancient China
Changing cuisines in ancient China were driven by multiple environmental and cultural practices over thousands of years, according to a study published November 4, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Xinyi Liu of Washington University in St.

Providing a safe environment for psychiatric patients during pandemic
The very heart of inpatient care for psychiatric patients is socialization, group therapy, shared meals, and a standard two people per room.

Physician advocates screening teen emergency room patients for sexually transmitted infections
Of the 20 million cases of sexually transmitted infections each year 10 million occur among adolescents and young adults.

Paper addresses fieldwork safety for minority scientists
Scientists and graduate students with minority identities who conduct fieldwork report being stalked, followed, sexually assaulted, harassed, threatened, having guns pulled on them and police called on them.

Water-energy nanogrid provides solution for rural communities lacking basic amenities
Researchers at Texas A&M University have come up with an economical, green solution that can help underprivileged communities with their water and electricity needs.

Monitoring open-cast mines better than before
Mahdi Motagh from the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ, in cooperation with Chinese scientists, has evaluated data from the Sentinel 1 satellite mission of the European Union's Copernicus program and thus demonstrated new possibilities for monitoring mining areas.

Building a quantum network one node at a time
University of Rochester and Cornell University researchers create 'optically active spin arrays' within a device that could serve as a node for exchanging photons with distant locations.

New form of brain-training helps prevent relapse after alcohol treatment
A recent study has shown that it may be possible to dampen the workings of the subconscious brain to prevent alcohol relapse, the results leading to a world-first trial of a personalized smartphone app called 'SWiPE'.

Hormone differences
During birth, hormones in the body surge in both mother and baby, sent along by the nervous system.

UL research reveals extreme levels of uric acid can significantly reduce patient survival
Extreme values of serum uric acid levels in the blood can markedly reduce a patient's chance of surviving and reduce their lifespans by up to 11 years, according to a new study by researchers at University of Limerick's School of Medicine in Ireland.

Social media can guide public pandemic policy: QUT research
As global cases of COVID-19 fast approach 50 million, a team of Australian, Afghan, Iranian and Italian researchers examined more than 35,000 tweets and say social media analytics can capture the attitudes and perceptions of the public during a pandemic.

Detection of a short, intense radio burst in Milky Way
New data from a Canadian-led team of astronomers, including researchers from the McGill Space Institute and McGill University Department of Physics, strongly suggest that magnetars -- a type of neutron star believed to have an extremely powerful magnetic field -- could be the source of some fast radio bursts (FRBs).

Near-atomic 'maps' reveal structure for maintaining pH balance in cells
For the first time, scientists have visualized a new class of molecular gates that maintain pH balance within brain cells, a critical function that keeps cells alive and helps prevent stroke and other brain injuries.

Microbial space travel on a molecular scale
Galactic cosmic and solar UV radiation, extreme vacuum, temperature fluctuations: how can microbes exposed to these challenges in space survive?

Genetic mutation could worsen heart function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients
DALLAS - Nov. 4, 2020 - A mutation in the gene that causes cystic fibrosis may accelerate heart function decline in those with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a new study by UT Southwestern researchers suggests.

Identifying communities at risk for impacts of extreme heat
An analysis of ways to measure a community's vulnerability to climate change suggests that California's current method may leave some at-risk communities behind in efforts to reduce health impacts of extreme heat.

Recipe for a storm
Turbulence is an omnipresent phenomenon - and one of the great mysteries of physics.

Examining association of changes in firearm laws with suicides among youth
Researchers investigated whether loosening of state firearm restrictions in Missouri were associated with changes in rates of suicide by firearms among young people ages 14 to 24.

Married, single, kids or not, participating in workforce may protect women's memory
Women who work in the paid labor force in early adulthood and middle age may have slower memory decline later in life than women who do not work for pay, according to a new study published in the November 4, 2020, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Stanford engineers have developed a genetic microlab that can detect COVID-19 in minutes
The microlab test takes advantage of the fact that coronaviruses like SARS-COV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, leaves behind tiny genetic fingerprints wherever they go in the form of strands of RNA, the genetic precursor of DNA.

Nature-inspired design--Mimicking moth eyes to produce transparent anti-reflective coatings
The eyes of moths have a biological nanostructure that grants them anti-reflective properties.

New understanding of how proteins operate
A ground-breaking discovery by Centenary Institute scientists has provided new understanding as to the nature of proteins and how they exist and operate in the human body.

Every month delayed in cancer treatment can raise risk of death by around 10%
People whose treatment for cancer is delayed by even one month have in many cases a 6 to 13% higher risk of dying - a risk that keeps rising the longer their treatment does not begin - suggests research published online in The BMJ.

Argonne collaborates on largest COVID-19 viral sequence analysis in U.S.
Argonne computational resources supported the largest comprehensive analysis of COVID-19 genome sequences in the U.S. and helped corroborate growing evidence of a protein mutation.

New research traces the origins of trench fever
Trench fever was first clinically described in World War 1 when it sickened nearly 500,000 soldiers.

Noise reduction via intermittent control by utilizing a plasma actuator
A research team at Toyohashi University of Technology developed a method for reducing aerodynamic noise via plasma.

Mothers' lifestyle predicts when offspring will have first heart attack or stroke
Offspring of mothers with heart healthy lifestyles live nearly a decade longer without cardiovascular disease than those whose mothers have unhealthy lifestyles.

Climate change will give rise to more cancers
Climate change will bring an acute toll worldwide, with rising temperatures, wildfires and poor air quality, accompanied by higher rates of cancer, especially lung, skin and gastrointestinal cancers, according to a new report from UC San Francisco.

Rare ancient child burial reveals 8,000-year-old secrets of the dead
An 8,000 year old complete child burial has been discovered at the entrance to a cave at Gua Makpan, Alor Island, Indonesia.
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