Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 13, 2020
Show rates for asthma visits during COVID-19 increased thanks to telemedicine
A new study being presented at this year's virtual ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting reveals that ''show rates'' for children with asthma - how often parents brought their kids to an appointment rather than being a ''no show'' - increased with the use of telemedicine during four months of the pandemic.

System brings deep learning to 'internet of things' devices
MCUNet is a new MIT system that brings machine learning to microcontrollers.

First non-human primate study showing promise of gene therapy for stroke repair
Stroke is a leading cause of death and severe long-term disability with limited treatment available.

Shutting Down COVID-19 virus' destructive proteins with aerosolized molecules
Researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have successfully used molecules comprised of small strands of RNA to shut down the production of destructive proteins generated by the COVID-19 virus.

Risk of AAV mobilization in gene therapy
New data highlight safety concerns for the replication of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors commonly used in gene therapy.

Sleep apnea may be risk factor for COVID-19
The question of sleep apnea as the risk factor for COVID-19 arose in a study conducted by the Turku University Hospital and the University of Turku on patients of the first wave of the pandemic.

Antidepressant may prevent severe COVID-19, trial suggests
The antidepressant fluvoxamine appears to prevent COVID-19 infections from worsening and may help keep patients out of the hospital, a trial based on research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine suggests.

Why does COVID-19 seem to spare children?
Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) and their colleagues have determined a key factor as to why COVID-19 appears to infect and sicken adults and older people preferentially while seeming to spare younger children.

What does the fox say to a puma?
The two predator species can successfully share a landscape and hunt for food over the same nighttime hours because they are, in essence, ordering from different menus.

Study: Respiratory failure in COVID-19 usually not driven by cytokine storm
A study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

How air pollution affects homeless populations
When air quality worsens, either from the smoke and ozone of summer or the inversion of winter, most of us stay indoors.

Researchers develop virus live stream to study virus infection
Researchers from the Hubrecht Institute and Utrecht University developed an advanced technique that makes it possible to monitor a virus infection live.

Why do so many parents avoid talking about race?
BU social psychologists share ways adults can overcome their own assumptions and discomfort to talk honestly about race with children.

The future's uncertain - but noradrenaline can help us adapt
A brain chemical called noradrenaline is responsible for our responses to uncertain situations - helping us to learn quickly and adapt our behaviour, a new study has found.

Hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection
The rare incidence of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection is reviewed in this Viewpoint, which also discusses ways it can be minimized, including use of surgical masks, proper ventilation, physical distancing, eye protection, regular testing and the availability of sick leave for health care workers.

Order from chaos
Engineers from Kyoto Universityg have developed a new beam scanning device utilizing photonic crystals, eliminating the use of mechanical mirrors.

Are diagnostic imaging studies with positive conclusions or titles published faster?
According to the American Journal of Roentgenology, positive conclusions--but not titles--were associated with a shorter time from study completion to publication, which may contribute to an overrepresentation of positive results in the imaging diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) literature.

Researchers identify promising new compounds to potentially treat novel coronaviruses
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have discovered new drug compounds to potentially treat the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Intravenous iron reduced rehospitalization risk in people with heart failure
Iron deficiency is present in about 50% of people with chronic heart failure.

Shining a light on the role of the genome's 'dark matter' in cancer development
Innovative research by scientists at Duke-NUS Medical School has shed light on the mysterious role of long non-coding RNAs in the development of pancreatic cancer and suggests potential new targets for precision cancer therapies.

Study reveals physical demands of two-hour marathon
Elite runners need a specific combination of physiological abilities to have any chance of running a sub-two-hour marathon, new research shows.

Here's why conservatives and liberals differ on COVID-19
According to a new study from Lehigh Business, the differences between conservative and liberal responses to COVID-19 are mitigated when people perceive the virus itself to have agency -- the ability to control its own actions and thus exert power over people.

Worms reveal why melatonin promotes sleep
Melatonin is used as a dietary supplement to promote sleep and get over jet lag, but nobody really understands how it works in the brain.

Minnesota cardiac arrest resuscitation treatment demonstrated 100% success rate in cannulation
University of Minnesota Minnesota Mobile Resuscitation Consortium proves high survival rates in a peer-reviewed study.

Cytokine storms play a limited role in moderate-to-severe COVID-19
St. Jude and Washington University researchers have discovered new characteristics that differentiate the response of COVID-19 from flu.

How to ensure patients manage their chronic kidney disease
A Singapore study finds patients with chronic kidney disease need tailored nutrition guidance, as well as better communication with doctors and family support, to empower them to manage their condition.

New medicine reduced risk for heart failure emergencies, hospital visits
Results from a large, Phase 3, global, cardiovascular outcomes study indicate a new medication may reduce the risk for heart failure-related events or cardiovascular deaths in people with chronic heart failure.

Study of infants finds that sleep differences by race, income emerge early
A new study led in part by researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital takes a look at 24-hour sleep-wake cycles for infants across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic categories.

Plastic pollution is everywhere. Study reveals how it travels
A study reveals the mechanism by which microplastics, like Styrofoam, and particulate pollutants are carried long distances through soil and other porous media, with implications for preventing the spread and accumulation of contaminants in food and water sources.

Pearls may provide new information processing options for biomedical, military innovations
Purdue University innovators are using pearls to provide potential new opportunities for spectral information processing that can be applied to spectroscopy in biomedical and military applications.

What type of forest to choose for better CO2 storage?
An international team led by the University of Geneva has studied which types of forest are the most effective in storing carbon.

With or without allergies, outcomes similar for hospitalized patients with COVID-19
A new study being presented at this year's virtual American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) Annual Scientific Meeting examines hospital data to determine if those with allergic conditions had more severe COVID-related disease than those without.

Is zoom increasing the demand for plastic surgery
Patients are seeking plastic surgery in record numbers, citing their appearance on Zoom as a cause.

New screening questionnaire can identify people at high risk of developing heart disease
A new study in a Swedish population of middle-aged adults found that four out of 10 people have atherosclerosis, a buildup of fatty deposits that reduce blood flow to the heart.

New study confirms combo pill alone and with aspirin lowers heart disease risk
A ''polypill'' is a single pill that includes multiple medications to control more than one health risk factor (such as heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, Type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, stroke).

Rare angiosarcoma tumors respond well to immunotherapy combination
Researchers from SWOG Cancer Research Network, a cancer clinical trials group funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment (DCTD), part of the National Institutes of Health, have shown that the immunotherapy combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab shrinks rare angiosarcoma tumors in 25 percent of all patients, with some having an even stronger response to the drug combination.

Politicians and governments are suppressing science, argues The BMJ
Politicians and governments are suppressing science, and when good science is suppressed, people die, argues a senior editor at The BMJ today.

CCNY & partners in quantum algorithm breakthrough
Researchers led by City College of New York physicist Pouyan Ghaemi report the development of a quantum algorithm with the potential to study a class of many-electron quantums system using quantum computers.

Boosting returns on e-commerce retargeting campaigns
Delivering ECR ads too early can engender worse purchase rates than without delivering them, thus wasting online advertising budgets.

Rise in antibiotics prescribed to dental patients in England during COVID-19 lockdown
One of the unintended consequences of the COVID-19 lockdowns in England earlier this year has been a 25 per cent increase in the prescription of antibiotics by dentists, according to a new study published today in the British Dental Journal (BDJ).

Circular RNA regulates neuronal differentiation by scaffolding an inhibitory transcription complex
In a screening for a functional impact to the neuronal differentiation process, Danish researchers identified a specific circular RNA, circZNF827, which surprisingly 'taps the brake' on neurogenesis.

Antibody evolution may predict COVID-19 outcomes
For COVID-19, the difference between surviving and not surviving severe disease may be due to the quality, not the quantity, of the patients' antibody development and response, suggests a new study.

Baricitinib treatment linked to reduced mortality in COVID-19 patients
The rheumatoid arthritis drug baricitinib can block viral entry and reduce mortality in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19, according to translational research by an international team coordinated by researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.

Parasitic worms offer 'the missing link' on the dual nature of a key immune regulator
By studying two models of parasite infection, the University of Pennsylvania's De'Broski Herbert and colleagues filled in crucial gaps about the activity of the signaling molecule IL-33 that is critical to asthma, allergies, and other diseases.

New green materials could power smart devices using ambient light
Researchers have developed environmentally friendly materials that could harvest enough energy from indoor light to power wireless smart devices.

New saliva-based antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 highly accurate in initial study
A new saliva-based test developed by a team at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has been found to accurately detect the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Two anti-inflammatory compounds shown to be capable of accelerating recovery from COVID-19
Monoclonal antibody tested by researchers at University of São Paulo and experimental drug given to patients in Italy by University of Pennsylvania research group promoted rapid improvement of respiratory function in patients hospitalized in severe condition.

Fish oil and vitamin D supplements not effective for preventing atrial fibrillation
About 2.7 million Americans are living with atrial fibrillation, an irregular heartbeat that can lead to blood clots, strokes, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

Singapore scientists identify potential new biomarker to better personalize cancer therapy
Testing for mutations in RNF43, a protein that affects key cancer cell-growth pathway Wnt, gives clinicians actionable insights to tailor treatments better.

Manchester group discover new family of quasiparticles in graphene-based materials
After years of dedicated research a group of pioneering scientists led by Nobel Laureate Andre Geim have again revealed a phenomenon that is 'radically different from textbook physics' and this work has led to the discovery and characterisation of a new family of quasiparticles found in graphene-based materials.

Promising MS drug may worsen disease, research suggests
The drug has not yet made it to human trials for multiple sclerosis, but scientists at the University of Virginia School of Medicine are urging their colleagues to move cautiously.

Be mindful: Study shows mindfulness might not work as you expect
If dispositional mindfulness can teach us anything about how we react to stress, it might be an unexpected lesson on its ineffectiveness at managing stress as it's happening, according to new research from the University at Buffalo.

Scientists discover secret to superbug's virulence in diabetic infections
The bodies of people with uncontrolled diabetes appear to be the perfect environment for a common type of superbug to thrive unchecked and do its worst damage, according to new research reported today in Science Advances.

Measuring the true cost of conservation
BU Professor created the first high-resolution map of land value in the United states.

Nearly one in five parents of food-allergic children are bullied
A new study being presented at this year's virtual American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) Annual Scientific Meeting shows that nearly one in five parents of food-allergic kids are the target of bullying by a multitude of sources.

Inclusion of patient headshots in electronic health records decreases order errors
Analysis of the millions of orders placed for participating patients over a two-year span showed the rate of wrong patient order entry to be 35 percent lower for patients whose photos were included in their EHR.

CMIP6 adds more value in simulating extreme temperatures in China
CMIP6 adds more value in simulating extreme temperatures in China.

Some allergens that cause contact dermatitis are found in masks that prevent COVID-19
A medically challenging case presented at this year's virtual American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) Annual Scientific Meeting revealed that for a man with several skin allergies, mask-wearing triggered his contact dermatitis.

Ultracompact metalens microscopy breaks FOV constraints
As reported in Advanced Photonics, their metalens-integrated imaging device (MIID) exhibits an ultracompact architecture with a working imaging distance in the hundreds of micrometers.

Drawing the line to answer art's big questions
Algorithms have shown that the compositional structure of Western landscape paintings changed 'suspiciously' smoothly between 1500 and 2000 AD, potentially indicating a selection bias by art curators or in art historical literature, physicists from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and colleagues report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Diet affects skin gene expression in both healthy and atopic dogs
Differences in skin gene expression were observed between healthy and atopic Staffordshire Bull Terriers as well as between dogs that ate either dry food or raw food.

Managing the microbiome raises new hope for autism
Analysis of 619 plasma metabolites in a new study show a distinctive metabolic profile in autistic children prior to microbial transfer therapy The procedure helps modify gut microbiota, improving symptoms gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms of the disease.

Light shed on the atomic resolution structure of phage DNA tube
Given that phages are able to destroy bacteria, they are of particular interest to science.

Neurons stripped of their identity are hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, study finds
Researchers at the University of California San Diego have identified new mechanisms in neurons that cause Alzheimer's disease.

Chemistry: How nitrogen is transferred by a catalyst
Catalysts with a metal-nitrogen bond can transfer nitrogen to organic molecules.

Handles and holes in abstract spaces: how a material conducts electricity better
A new theory has succeeded in establishing a new relationship between the presence or absence of 'handles' in the space of the arrangements of atoms and molecules that make up a material, and the propensity of the latter to conduct electricity.

COVID-19 survival among elderly patients could be improved by arthritis drug
A type of arthritis drug may reduce the risk of dying for elderly patients with COVID-19.

Food allergies take a greater emotional toll on Asian families
A new study being presented at this year's virtual American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Annual Scientific Meeting reveals the impact on food allergy quality of life (FAQOL) for Asian patients and their parents is significantly higher than for other races.

Black and Hispanic children in the US have more severe eczema than white children
A presentation at this year's virtual American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) Annual Scientific Meeting reveals the disparities that exist for Black and Hispanic children when it comes to Atopic Dermatitis (AD), commonly known as eczema.

A few kilograms weight loss nearly halves the risk of diabetes
Losing a few kilograms in weight almost halves people's risk of developing Type 2 diabetes - according to a large scale research study.

East African Rift System is slowly breaking away, with Madagascar splitting into pieces
''The rate of present-day break-up is millimeters per year, so it will be millions of years before new oceans start to form,'' said Stamps, an assistant professor in the Virginia Tech College of Science. 

Most type 2 diabetes patients are at high risk of a fatal heart attack or stroke
'The most striking result of our study was that the vast majority of patients (93%) had a high or very high risk of fatal events within a decade.

Hydroxychloroquine does not help patients hospitalized with COVID-19: Study
Findings from a national study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) ''do not support'' the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

American Heart Association Scientific Sessions to feature Brigham breakthroughs
Leading cardiologists worldwide will convene virtually from November 13-17 at the American Heart Association's 2020 Scientific Sessions, sharing the latest advancements in cardiovascular science and clinical care.

Sussex research points to new effective breast cancer treatment
An international five-year study led by scientists at the University of Sussex has provided strong evidence for an effective new target for breast cancer treatment.

Best practices for mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS, COVID-19
A team from pulmonary and critical care medicine at Michigan Medicine outlines 20 evidence-based practices shown to reduce time spent on a ventilator and death in patients with acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress -- conditions that have many overlaps with severe COVID-19.

How religion can hamper economic progress
Study from Bocconi University on impact of antiscientific curricula of Catholic schools on accumulation of human capital in France during the 2nd Industrial Revolution could hold lessons on impact of religion on technological progress today.

Cancer deaths resulted in more than 4 million potential years of life lost in 2017
Deaths from cancer accounted for more than 4 million potential years of life lost in 2017, according to a study published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Researchers develop ultra-fast polymer modulators that can take the heat
Researchers in Japan have demonstrated a silicon-polymer hybrid modulator that can efficiently and reliably transmit data at 200 Gbit/s over an extremely wide range of temperatures from 25 °C to 110 °C.

Anions matter
Metal-ion hybrid capacitors combine the properties of capacitors and batteries.

Pharmacology - An unconventional ion channel
Scientists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have identified the first mechanosensitive ion channel to be found in an intracellular vesicle system.

Link between Alzheimer's disease and gut microbiota is confirmed
In recent years, the scientific community has suspected that the gut microbiota plays a role in the development of the disease.

Need for more and better testing for COVID-19
This Viewpoint discusses the need for new and better testing for COVID-19 to help prevent community transmission, and it explains the limitations of such testing, including performance in the asymptomatic phase and access in resource-limited communities.

Computer vision app allows easier monitoring of diabetes
A computer vision technology developed by University of Cambridge engineers has now been developed into a free mobile phone app for regular monitoring of glucose levels in people with diabetes.

Dynamic risk management in cell populations
Scientists at AMOLF and Yale report the discovery of a mechanism that enables cell populations to tune their diversity much faster, by a combination of physical and chemical interactions between existing proteins.

Approved JAK inhibitor baricitinib shows promise against cytokine storm in COVID-19 clinical study
A clinical study involving 601 patients in Italy and Spain suggests that the JAK inhibitor drug baricitinib may enhance survival rates of patients

The unique hydraulics in the Barbegal water mills, the world's first industrial plant
The Barbegal watermills in southern France are a unique complex dating back to the 2nd century AD.

Retreating glacier presents landslide threat, tsunami risk in Alaskan fjord
Using NASA satellite imagery and software processing approaches, a group of geoscientists has discovered a landslide-generated tsunami threat in Barry Arm, Alaska, that will likely affect tourists and locals in the surrounding area in the next 20 years.

A cost-effective program to fight COVID-19 in resource-challenged countries
A public health strategy that combines contact tracing and community-based screening with isolation and quarantine centers can substantially reduce infections, hospitalizations and deaths from COVID-19 while being cost-effective in low-and-middle-income countries like South Africa, a study by Massachusetts General Hospital has found.

Elastic-free face masks can help some with allergies stay safe during COVID-19
A University of Cincinnati fellow presents a COVID-19 related case study during the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) scientific meeting held November 13-15.

History of temperature changes in the Universe revealed
How hot is the Universe today? How hot was it before?

Aurora-chasing citizen scientists help discover a new feature of STEVE
A new finding about the formation of streaks within the aurora-like STEVE phenomenon brings scientists one step closer to solving the mystery.

Diabetes drug can treat and reverse heart failure and reduce
Mount Sinai clinical trial results could help lead to FDA approval

Preparing for a human mission to Mars
Future human missions to Mars depend on field research in an environment similar to that of Mars.

Benefits of high-dose blood thinners in COVID-19 patients remain unclear
While COVID-19 infected patients should be treated with standard anticoagulation therapies, such as blood thinning medication, a new study by researchers at the George Washington University shows that anticoagulating patients at higher doses, without traditional medical indications to do so, may be ineffective and even harmful. 

Study: Vitamin D, fish oil don't lower atrial fibrillation risk
New research presented today at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions suggests neither vitamin D nor the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil prevent the development of atrial fibrillation, a potentially serious heart rhythm disturbance.

Heat and dust help launch Martian water into space, scientists find
Scientists using an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, or MAVEN, spacecraft have discovered that water vapor near the surface of the Red Planet is lofted higher into the atmosphere than anyone expected was possible.

Love waves from the ocean floor
Supercomputer simulations of planetary-scale interactions show how ocean storms and the structure of Earth's upper layers together generate much of the world's seismic waves.

Wolves alter wetland creation and recolonization by killing ecosystem engineers
Researchers observed and demonstrated that wolves affect wetland ecosystems by killing beavers leaving their colonies to create new ponds.

Success in controlling perovskite ions' composition paves the way for device applications
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have received much attention as potential next generation solar cells and as materials for light-emitting devices.

Dissecting the immune characteristics of severe COVID-19 responses
A team of immunology experts from research organisations in Belgium and the UK have come together to apply their pioneering research methods to put individuals' COVID-19 response under the microscope.

A diet rich in ultra-processed fats and sugars increases the possibility of muscle pain
A research team from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona - Spain) has observed that following a diet rich in fats and sugars from ultra-processed foods (such as sweet rolls and pastries) for a six-week period increases the number of inflammatory molecules in the organism, which increases the excitability of the muscle nerves.

Gut check: Teff grain boosts stomach microbiome health
Cornell University food scientists confirm that the grain teff helps the stomach and enhances the nutritional value of iron and zinc, according to a new modeling method.

Researchers from CSIC identify the genetic program that allows us to see in 3D
A group of researchers from the Institute of Neurosciences UMH-CSIC, in Alicante, led by Dr.

The Popovich of floral nectar spurs
Scientists identify the gene critical to controlling the development of these spurs in the common columbine, or Aquilegia.

Single institution study finds high rates of cardiac complications in MIS-C
During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers at Children's National Hospital discovered that as many as one half of children diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory disease in children (MIS-C) at the hospital developed cardiac complications including coronary artery abnormalities, even when diagnosed and treated promptly.

???New insights can foster development of natural and safer fungicides
In a recent study published in PhytoFrontiers journal, plant pathologists confirmed that 13 natural and semi-synthetic glucosinolate derivatives are efficient fungicides alone or when used in combination against widespread genetically distant species of fungal plant pathogens.

Amgen announces new FOURIER analysis showing Repatha® (evolocumab) reduced cardiovascular events in patients with prior percutaneous intervention at AHA 2020
Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced a new analysis from the Repatha® (evolocumab) cardiovascular (CV) outcomes study (FOURIER) that evaluated the effectiveness of Repatha in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients on statin therapy with prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as coronary angioplasty.

Most Medicare beneficiaries say they don't receive cognitive assessments
In a survey of Medicare beneficiaries, approximately one-half reported having an annual wellness visit, but only about a quarter of total respondents reported receiving a structured cognitive assessment at an annual wellness visit, even though, under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), detection of cognitive impairment is a required component of the visit.
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.