Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 18, 2020
Artificial intelligence-based tool may help diagnose opioid addiction earlier
Researchers have used machine learning, a type of artificial intelligence, to develop a prediction model for the early diagnosis of opioid use disorder.

Diabetes increases neuritic damage around amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease
New research from the University of Eastern Finland explores the role of diabetes in the cellular and molecular changes underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis
Rates of both periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease are elevated in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

Faster detection of photocatalyst-generated oxygen has big implications for clean energy
In the future, hydrogen produced from sunlight and water using photocatalysts could provide a source of clean energy.

How fishermen have adapted to change over the past 35+ years
An analysis published in Fish and Fisheries notes that marine fisheries are increasingly exposed to external drivers of social and ecological change, and recent changes have had different impacts upon the livelihood strategies favored by fishermen based on the size of their boats.

Using materials efficiently can substantially cut greenhouse gas emissions
Emissions from the production of materials like metals, minerals, woods and plastics more than doubled in 1995 - 2015, accounting for almost one-quarter of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.

Study finds health trade-offs for wildlife as urbanization expands
City living appears to improve reproductive success for migratory tree swallows compared to breeding in more environmentally protected areas, a new five-year study suggests.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual communities more at-risk for dementia, study finds
Analyzing the elevated cognitive health risks among older members of the LGB community, this is the first study to use a national sample and screening tool to gauge cognitive health disparities between LGB and heterosexual older adults.

Lurking in genomic shadows: How giant viruses fuel the evolution of algae
Together, Aylward and Moniruzzaman have recently discovered that endogenous viral elements that originate from giant viruses are much more common in chlorophyte green algae than previously thought.

Super-resolution "street view" microscopy hits the SPOT
An advanced technique called SPOT is giving researchers a opportunities to study the sophisticated world of lipid dynamics within cells.

NYUAD study finds opposite-gender mentorships may be more beneficial to female researchers
Mentorship contributes to the advancement of individual careers in scientific research and can be an important factor in minimizing persistent barriers to entry, especially for women.

JACC: BTS study looks at COVID-19's impact on cardiovascular tissue, endothelial cells
In the paper, ''Cardiorenal tissues express SARS-CoV-2 entry genes and basigin (BSG/CD147) increases with age in endothelial cells,'' publishing in JACC: Basic to Translational Research, researchers used publicly available gene expression data to determine the relative expression of key SARS-CoV-2 host entry/ processing genes in human cardiorenal tissues, including aorta, coronary artery, heart (atria and left ventricle), whole blood and the kidney and for comparison the colon, spleen and lung.

Dentists from RUDN University found a reason for early deterioration of dental implants
A team of dentists from RUDN University confirmed that a change in the dominant side of chewing is a reason for the early deterioration of dental implants.

New electronic chip delivers smarter, light-powered AI
New tech combines the core software needed to drive AI with image-capturing hardware - in one electronic chip.

Are high-protein total diet replacements the key to maintaining healthy weight?
The results of a study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition suggest that high-protein total diet replacements are a promising nutritional strategy to combat rising rates of obesity.

Diagnosing the cause of exercise-induced respiratory symptoms
Exercise?induced respiratory symptoms are common in childhood, and it can be difficult to diagnose their cause.

For neural research, wireless chip shines light on the brain
Researchers have developed a chip that is powered wirelessly and can be surgically implanted to read neural signals and stimulate the brain with both light and electrical current.

Tackling food allergies at the source
Food allergies cost billions of dollars and cause enormous suffering for people.

Study confirms contribution of bioenergy to climate change mitigation
Across-border team of researchers refute arguments that carbon debt, opportunity cost and indirect land-use change prevent greenhouse gas mitigation by biofuels.

Machine learning innovation to develop chemical library
Purdue University innovators are using machine learning models to create new options for drug discovery pipelines.

Which particulate air pollution poses the greatest health risk?
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, together with colleagues from several other European institutions, have investigated whether particulate matter from certain sources can be especially harmful to human health.

Missing the radiological forest for the trees
Even experienced radiologists, when looking for one abnormality, can completely miss another.

Many unresolved questions remain regarding T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2
T cell responses are critical for providing early control and clearance of many viral infections, but there remain many unknowns concerning T cell immunity in COVID-19.

Xenophobia in Germany is declining, but old resentments are paired with new radicalism
Xenophobia in Germany has decreased, but right-wing extremist attitudes remain high.

Machine learning uncovers missing info about ethnicity in population health data: Study
Machine learning can be used to fill a significant gap in Canadian public health data related to ethnicity and Aboriginal status, according to research published in PLOS ONE by a University of Alberta research epidemiologist.

Artificial intelligence program can pick best candidates for skin cancer treatment
Experts trained a computer to tell which skin cancer patients may benefit from drugs that keep tumors from shutting down the immune system's attack on them, a new study finds.

The timeless, complimentary taste of oysters and champagne -- explained
Matching prices aren't the only reason oysters and champagne pair so well.

Pod e-cigarettes less harmful than regular cigarettes, new study finds
In the first-ever clinical trial of fourth-generation electronic cigarettes, researchers found that adults who switched to e-cigarettes had lower levels of a major carcinogen compared to smokers who continued using combustible cigarettes.

Young asymptomatic 'super spreaders' keep malaria viable by infecting local mosquitoes
The new findings, reported today at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), reveal a hidden reservoir that's a barrier to long-term efforts to eliminate malaria and an immediate threat for disease resurgence if control measures like bednets and indoor spraying falter.

A more sensitive way to detect circulating tumor cells
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, and metastasis from the breast to other areas of the body is the leading cause of death in these patients.

Volcanic eruptions have more effect in summer
Modeling shows that volcanic eruptions can cause changes in global climate, if the timing is right.

New semiconductor coating may pave way for future green fuels
Hydrogen gas and methanol for fuel cells or as raw materials for the chemicals industry, for example, could be produced more sustainably using sunlight, a new Uppsala University study shows.

Suicidal risk during pregnancy, after childbirth on the rise
The prevalence of suicidal thoughts and self-harm in the year before and after giving birth nearly tripled among childbearing people between 2006 and 2017, according to a new study.

Early details of brain damage in COVID-19 patients
Looking at six patients using a specialized magnetic resonance technique, researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital found that COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms show some of the same metabolic disturbances in the brain as other patients who have suffered oxygen deprivation from other causes, but there are also notable differences.

Computer vision predicts congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Using computer vision, researchers have discovered strong correlations between facial morphology and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a life-threatening genetic condition of the adrenal glands and one of the most common forms of adrenal insufficiency in children.

Missing in lockdown -- new report reveals the vulnerable are more at risk
The number of people who went missing during the first national lockdown in England fell by over a third, compared to data from the previous year.

Two K-State studies focus on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in domestic cats, pigs
Two recently published studies from Kansas State University researchers and collaborators include important findings related to SARS-CoV-2 transmission and the COVID-19 pandemic.

3D bioprinted heart provides new tool for surgeons
Surgeons will soon have a powerful new tool for planning and practice with the creation of the first full-sized 3D bioprinted model of the human heart.

UTSA researcher examines drug overdose mortality in the Hispanic community
UTSA researcher Manuel Cano, assistant professor in the Department of Social Work at UTSA is shedding light to understand the topic of drug overdose deaths in the Hispanic community.

AI may predict response to immune checkpoint blockade in patients with metastatic melanoma
A computational method that combines clinicodemographic variables with deep learning of pre-treatment histology images could predict response to immune checkpoint blockade among patients with advanced melanoma.

The role of drones in 5G network security
A study by Giovanni Geraci, a researcher at the Department of Information and Communication Technologies, and researchers at Mississippi State University (USA), which aims to improve the security of advanced wireless networks against a series of eavesdropping, interference and identity theft.

Can memory manipulation help treat alcohol addiction?
BU researchers were able to artificially dampen fear responses in mice and mitigate addiction-related behaviors.

Small finlets on owl feathers point the way to less aircraft noise
Collaboration between City, University of London and RWTH Aachen University researchers reveals how these micro-structures enable silent flight.

Dual brake on transport protein prevents cells from exploding
A high concentration of salt or sugar in the environment will dehydrate microorganisms and stop them from growing.

Review examines sexual aggression in mammals
A recent review of published studies in non-human mammals examines 'sexual disturbance,' or male behavior towards a female around mating that can be costly for the female -- for example, that might inflict physical harm or cause mother-offspring separation.

Surgeons' expectations more accurate in predicting outcomes after lumbar spine surgery
Surgeons' preoperative expectations were more accurate than patients' expectations in predicting patient-reported outcomes two years after lumbar spine surgery, according to a longitudinal study by investigators at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS).

The ultimate conditions to get the most out of high-nickel batteries
It is common knowledge in battery manufacturing that many cathode materials are moisture sensitive.

Solving a mystery: How the TB bacterium develops rapid resistance to antibiotics
These slow growing bacteria have long puzzled TB researchers with their fairly rapid resistance to antibiotics.

Antibiotic resistance genes in three Puerto Rican watersheds after Hurricane Maria
In the aftermath of Hurricane Maria, a category 5 hurricane that made landfall in September 2017, flooding and power outages caused some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to discharge raw sewage into waterways in Puerto Rico.

Denmark trial measures effectiveness of adding a mask recommendation to other public health measures
Denmark trial measures effectiveness of adding a mask recommendation to other public health measures for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Neurorehabilitation experts highlight breakthroughs in neurogenic pain management
There have been significant advances in knowledge regarding the pathology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of several significant neurogenic pain disorders regularly encountered by neurorehabilitation professionals in both inpatient and outpatient care.

Gut microbiome manipulation could result from virus discovery
Scientists have discovered how a common virus in the human gut infects and takes over bacterial cells - a finding that could be used to control the composition of the gut microbiome, which is important for human health.

Lovestruck by oxytocin! Novel roles of the hormone in controlling male sexual function
Hormones are the master regulators of sexual functions in mammals.

Gold nanoparticles turn the spotlight on drug candidates in cells
A team including researchers from Osaka University has developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy technique for tracking small molecules in live cells.

The gut microbiota forms a molecule that can contribute to diabetes progression
It is the bacterial changes in the gut that increase the levels of imidazole propionate, the molecule that makes the body's cells resistant to insulin in type 2 diabetes.

Brain protein could be starting point for new treatments for pancreatic cancer
Researchers have discovered that a protein thought to only be involved in the development of neurons in the brain also plays a major role in the development and growth of pancreatic cancer.

Mattress flammability standard is a lifesaver, NIST report finds
Bed fires can grow quickly, creating life-threatening situations within minutes.

Algae breathe life into 3D engineered tissues
3D bioprinted algae can be harnessed as a sustainable source of oxygen for human cells in engineered vascularized tissues, researchers report November 18 in the journal Matter.

Does air pollution affect mental health later in life?
In a study of women aged 80 years and older, living in locations with higher exposures to air pollution was associated with increased depressive symptoms.

NO DRINKING! NO FIGHTING! The laws of early Edo Japan to keep the peace
An early Edo period document stipulating the Hosokawa clan code of conduct for vassals dispatched on a national project to rebuild Sunpu Castle has been discovered by Kumamoto University researchers.

Prehistoric shark hid its largest teeth
Some, if not all, early sharks that lived 300 to 400 million years ago not only dropped their lower jaws downward but rotated them outwards when opening their mouths.

New technique seamlessly converts ammonia to green hydrogen
Northwestern University researchers have developed a highly effective, environmentally friendly method for converting ammonia into hydrogen.

16-year-old cosmic mystery solved, revealing stellar missing link
Astronomers have solved the 16-year-old mystery surrounding the Blue Ring Nebula - an unusual, large, faint blob of gas with a star at its center.

Can facial recognition help identify congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
Investigators train computers to recognize facial features, showing promise for identifying congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a rare hormone disorder.

Geoscientists discover Ancestral Puebloans survived from ice melt in New Mexico lava tubes
New study explains how Ancestral Puebloans survived devastating droughts by traveling deep into the caves of New Mexico to melt ancient ice as a water resource.

Vitamin D supplements may reduce risk of developing advanced cancer
In a secondary analysis of VITAL, a team led by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital has narrowed in on the connection between taking vitamin D supplements and risk of metastatic or fatal cancer.

Single-cell technique could provide 'egg health' indicators
Using the power of single-cell analysis, researchers at the Babraham Institute have assessed the effects of age on egg cells (oocytes) in mice, particularly looking to identify genomic and epigenetic factors that relate to reduced developmental competence.

The bull Y chromosome has evolved to bully its way into gametes
In a new study, published Nov. 18 in the journal Genome Research, scientists in the lab of Whitehead Institute Member David Page present the first ever full, high-resolution sequence of the Y chromosome of a Hereford bull.

Revolutionary CRISPR-based genome editing system treatment destroys cancer cells
Researchers at Tel Aviv University (TAU) have demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is very effective in treating metastatic cancers, a significant step on the way to finding a cure for cancer.

Picture this: Chromosomes look different than you think
A new method to capture high-resolution, 3D images of human chromosomes in single cells reveals how DNA structure might influence its function (or malfunction).

A regular dose of nature may improve mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic
A study published in Ecological Applications suggests that nature around one's home may help mitigate some of the negative mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Green chemistry: Politecnico di Milano publishes in Chem
The prestigious journal Chem (Cell Press, impact factor: 19.735) publishes the first mechanosynthesis of a molecular crystal with a Borromean topology.

Fostering creativity in researchers: how automation can revolutionize materials research
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) devise a system that combines robotics and artificial intelligence to fully automate the routine aspects of synthesizing, testing, and optimizing new materials according to fabrication conditions.

New test reveals AI still lacks common sense
Natural language processing (NLP) has taken great strides recently--but how much does AI understand of what it reads?

NYUAD researcher aids in the development of a pathway to solve cybersickness
Associate Professor of Psychology and Director of the Neuroimaging Center at NYU Abu Dhabi Bas Rokers and a team of researchers have evaluated the state of research on cybersickness and formulated a research and development agenda to eliminate cybersickness, allowing for broader adoption of immersive technologies.

Teton range glacial ice may have persisted in a dormant state during early Holocene warming
A continuous 10,000-year record of alpine glacier fluctuations in Wyoming's Teton Range suggests that some glacial ice in the western US persisted in a reduced, essentially dormant state during periods of early Holocene warming.

Compound for Alzheimer's combats bacterial resistance to last-resort antibiotics in mice
An experimental drug for neurodegenerative diseases can also reverse resistance to ''last-resort'' polymyxin antibiotics among bacteria that cause sepsis, a life-threatening complication from infections.

Vertebrate biodiversity- a glimmer of hope
A McGill University-led team of biologists found, in an article published today in Nature, that the picture of dramatically declining vertebrate populations of all kinds is driven by a small number of outlier populations whose numbers are dropping at extreme rates.

In the mysterious Blue Ring Nebula, scientists see the fate of binary stars
Scientists have discovered a rare object called the Blue Ring Nebula, a ring of hydrogen gas with a star at its center.

Coinfection: more than the sum of its parts
Infections with two pathogens pose a serious threat in the clinics.

3D-printed, lifelike heart models could help train tomorrow's surgeons (video)
Full-size, realistic models of human organs could help surgeons train and practice before they cut into a patient.

Pandemic has surprising impacts on public transit demand
The COVID-19 pandemic had surprising effects on demand for public transit in American cities, new research suggests.

Controversy continues over '13 Reasons Why' and adolescent suicide
A new pair of commentaries in PLOS ONE debate a reanalysis of data concerning adolescent suicide and the Netflix series ''13 Reasons Why.'' Although a 2019 study found a contagion effect among boys, an Annenberg Public Policy Center reanalysis concluded that, to the contrary, the series had no clear effect.

New understanding of mobility paves way for tomorrow's transport systems
Researchers at DTU and the University of Copenhagen have developed a ground-breaking model that provides a completely new understanding of our movement patterns.

Children with familial hypercholesterolemia are diagnosed late and under-treated
Children born with a common genetic condition, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), are at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) early in life.

Portable solar-powered device for sterilizing medical equipment in the field
By integrating a transparent, cloud-like aerogel with a solar heater, scientists can now efficiently trap solar energy to generate steam that is hot enough and at high enough pressure for sterilizing medical instruments even under hazy and partly cloudy weather.

Cellular pathway of genetic heart disease similar to neurodegenerative disease
Research on a genetic heart disease has uncovered a new and unexpected mechanism for heart failure.

Diabetes, hypertension may increase risk of COVID-19 brain complications
Some patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of neurological complications like bleeding in the brain and stroke, according to a study being presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Astronomers' success: seven new cosmic masers
The astronomers from Toru?, Poland have successfully completed the survey of the Milky Way plane.

Immunotherapy for lung and other cancers may also be beneficial for rare skin cancer
New research from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine and the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center found immunotherapies effective against lung cancer and melanoma may work against cutaneous angiosarcoma, a rare, highly aggressive skin tumor found primarily on the scalps of older White people.

A gel for dosage compensation
Researchers at the MPI of Immunobiology and Epigenetics have discovered how the MSL complex responsible for dosage compensation can distinguish the X chromosome from autosomes in flies.

UIC researchers describe fundamental processes behind movement of magnetic particles
Researchers from the University of Illinois Chicago describe several fundamental processes associated with the motion of magnetic particles through fluids as they are pulled by a magnetic field.

Starved, stuffed and squandered: Consequences of decades of global nutrition transition
Just a handful of rice and beans - a part of our world is starved.

Study identifies reasons for soaring nuclear plant cost overruns in the US
MIT researchers have analyzed the causes of many cost overruns on new nuclear power plants in the US, which have soared in the past 50 years.

Researchers recognize a viral protein's M.O. by just 3% of its size
Skoltech researchers and their colleagues from Russia, the US, and Sweden have described an unusual RNA polymerase that helps a poorly studied crAss-like bacteriophage transcribe its genes.

New studies find financially exploited seniors show brain differences and are more frail
Two recent studies led by USC provide new insight into factors that put older adults at risk for financial exploitation.

Magnetic spray: Giving inanimate objects new bionergy
Recently, researchers from the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with the City University of Hong Kong (CityU), have developed an agglutinate, reprogrammable, disintegrable and biocompatible magnetic spray (M-spray) that can easily turn inanimate objects into millirobots.

Ovarian cancer cells cooperate to metastasize
In a study on human ovarian cancer cells in mice, Harvard Medical School researchers discovered a transient, cooperative interaction between cell subpopulations that allows otherwise nonmetastatic tumor cells to become aggressive and spread.

Accounting for 'research fatigue' in human studies
An article published in Bioethics examines the topic of research fatigue--or psychological and emotional exhaustion both towards and as a result of participating in research.

Trees and green roofs can help reduce the urban heat island effect, finds a new study
Air pollution experts from the University of Surrey have found that green infrastructure (GI), such as trees, can help reduce temperatures in many of Europe's cities and towns.

Found: a genetic link to molecular events that precede symptoms in Alzheimer's disease
Tufts researchers find a key mutation causing abnormal transport of BACE1, the enzyme responsible for processing the Alzheimer's disease-linked amyloid protein.

In the lab, St. Jude scientists identify possible COVID-19 treatment
Immunologists have determined the process driving life-threatening inflammation, lung damage and organ failure in patients with COVID-19, sepsis and other inflammatory disorders suggesting possible treatment using existing drugs.

Antibiotic resistance surveillance tools in Puerto Rican watersheds after Hurricane Maria
Virginia Tech researchers and international collaborators have further developed an innovative antibiotic resistance surveillance approach by applying DNA sequencing techniques to detect the spread of disease in watersheds impacted by large-scale storms.

A DNA-based nanogel for targeted chemotherapy
Current chemotherapy regimens slow cancer progression and save lives, but these powerful drugs affect both healthy and cancerous cells.

Surprises in 'active' aging
Aging is a process that affects not only living beings.

Unraveling a mystery surrounding embryonic cells
Last year, researchers at the University of California, Riverside, identified the early origins of neural crest cells -- embryonic cells in vertebrates that travel throughout the body and generate many cell types -- in chick embryos.

UT researchers establish proof of principle in superconductor study
Three physicists in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, together with their colleagues from the Southern University of Science and Technology and Sun Yat-sen University in China, have successfully modified a semiconductor to create a superconductor, which may lead to unforeseen advancements in technology.

Antiviral defense from the gut
The study demonstrates how a subset of common gut bacteria renders mice resistant to viral infections.

UTHSC researchers identify three drugs as possible therapeutics for COVID-19
Researchers at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center working with colleagues at the University of New Mexico have identified three drugs, already approved for other uses in humans, as possible therapeutics for COVID-19, the illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Predicting urban water needs
New Stanford research uses Zillow and census data combined with machine learning to identify residential water consumption based on housing characteristics.

Proteogenomics enhances the identification of therapeutic vulnerabilities in breast cancer
Applying powerful proteogenomics approaches to breast cancer, researchers propose more precise diagnostics, identify new tumor susceptibilities for translation into treatments and implicate new mechanisms involved in breast cancer treatment resistance.

Parental restrictions on tech use have little lasting effect into adulthood
A new study of more than 1,200 individuals found that time spent with digital technology during adolescence has little impact on long-term use, suggesting that worries about widespread tech addiction may be overblown.

Motorized sensors aim to improve and speed up early-stage disease diagnosis
Researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering want to make it easier to catch diseases earlier in the process, improving patient outlooks and taking some of the load off the medical system.

Saving your data together helps birds and bird research
It hasn't been more than a year and a half since the international researchers' network SPI-Birds started officially.

Catapult-like hydrogel actuator designed to deliver high contraction power
Recently, inspired by muscle-powered accelerations in biological jumpers, ZHOU Feng's group from the Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (LICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and HE Ximin's group from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) have designed an elastic-driven strong contractile hydrogel through storing and releasing elastic potential energy in polymer network.

Printed solid-state batteries
A Maryland-led team developed a new method of printing and sintering a variety of solid-state electrolyte thin films called ''printing and radiative heating''

Air pollution costs Utahns billions annually and shortens life expectancy by two years
The study estimated that air pollution shortens the life of the average Utahn by around 2 years.

Prostate cancer: CRYM protein inhibits tumour growth
Prostate cancer is caused by elevated hormone levels, and tumours are generally treated using hormone therapy.

Web searches for insomnia surged at height of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders
A study found a significant increase in the number of online search queries for ''insomnia'' between April and May 2020, when governments across the U.S. and around the world implemented stay-at-home orders in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Scientists develop a magnetic switch with lower energy consumption
Joint research conducted by the UAB has shown the ability to switch magnetizacion « on » and « off » using voltage in a new class of easy-to-fabricate materials containing nitrogen.

Tau protein changes in Alzheimer's disease correlate with dementia stage
In new research, Judith Steen, Ph.D. and colleagues at Boston Children's Hospital show for the first time that a pathological form of the tau protein involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease changes over time due to chemical modifications.

New tool that integrates the psychological, social and medical data of patients with rare diseases
Researchers from the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) and the technology center Eurecat have developed an innovative formal representation of rare disease data, including information unavailable in current models on the rare disease patient's biological, psychological and social profile.

System can sterilize medical tools using solar heat
Autoclaves, which are used to sterilize medical tools, require a steady supply of hot, pressurized steam.

How the polio vaccine virus occasionally becomes dangerous
The polio vaccines, developed by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin in the mid-1950s, heralded the elimination of polio from the U.S., saving countless children from sudden paralysis and death.

Racial attitudes in a community affect COVID-19 numbers
Implicit racial attitudes within a community can effectively explain racial disparities seen in rates of COVID-19 in the United States, according to a new study published this week in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by George Cunningham and Lisa Wigfall of Texas A&M University, USA.

Lethal brain infections in mice thwarted by decoy molecule
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a molecule that protects mice from brain infections caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito-borne virus notorious for causing fast-spreading, deadly outbreaks in Mexico, Central America and northern South America.

Study finds sexual lineage plays key role in transgenerational plasticity
A new pair of papers published in the Journal of Animal Ecology has shown that sexual lineage matters for how offspring receive adaptations from parents in stickleback fish.

Research on environmental history: 330-year-old poplar tree tells of its life
Similar to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, i.e. gene modifications that do not occur on the primary DNA sequence, sometimes arise accidentally in plants and can be transmitted across generations.

Cichlid fishes from African Lake Tanganyika shed light on how organismal diversity arises
Lake Tanganyika in Africa is a true hotspot of organismal diversity.

GSA publishes 12 research articles on COVID-19 and aging
The Gerontological Society of America's highly cited, peer-reviewed journals are continuing to publish scientific articles on COVID-19, and all are free to access.

A 2D perspective: stacking materials to realize a low power consuming future
Scientists have designed a 2D material-based multi-stacked structure comprising tungsten disulfide (WS2) layer sandwiched between hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) layers that displays long-range interaction between successive WS2 layers with potential for reducing circuit design complexity and power consumption.

'Oasis effect' in urban parks could contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, ASU study finds
Following a year of on-site analyses at a Phoenix-area park, hydrologist Enrique Vivoni of Arizona State University identified that the park showed what meteorologists call the ''oasis effect,'' a microclimate that is cooler than a surrounding dry area due to the evaporation of a water source.

Bacteria convince their squid host to create a less hostile work environment
Bacteria living symbiotically within the Hawaiian bobtail squid can direct the host squid to change its normal gene-expression program to make a more inviting home, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Hawai'i.

Patients strongly favor banning bacon in hospitals, according to new survey
Most hospitalized patients favor eliminating processed meats--including bacon, deli meat, and sausage--from hospital menus to reduce cancer risk, according to a new survey published in the Journal of Hospital Management and Health Policy.
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