Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 25, 2020
Research creates hydrogen-producing living droplets, paving way for alternative future energy source
Scientists have built tiny droplet-based microbial factories that produce hydrogen, instead of oxygen, when exposed to daylight in air.

Cooking with wood may cause lung damage
Advanced imaging with CT shows that people who cook with biomass fuels like wood are at risk of suffering considerable damage to their lungs from breathing in dangerous concentrations of pollutants and bacterial toxins, according to a study being presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Air-sea coupling improves the simulation of the western North Pacific summer monsoon in the WRF4 model at a synoptic scale resolving resolution
Air-sea coupling improves the simulation of the western North Pacific summer monsoon in the WRF4 model at a synoptic scale resolving resolution

Towards 6G wireless communication networks: vision, enabling technologies, and new paradigm shifts
Recently, a long-form review titled ''Towards 6G wireless communication networks: vision, enabling technologies, and new paradigm shifts'' was published in SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences Vol.

Sheep show the contamination by microplastics in the agricultural soils of Murcia
A team from the Diverfarming project has found microplastics in 92% of the faeces of sheep fed in intensive agricultural zones of Murcia that they analysed

Waste fishing gear threatens Ganges wildlife
Waste fishing gear in the River Ganges poses a threat to wildlife including otters, turtles and dolphins, new research shows.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy against glioblastoma may decrease with dexamethasone
Among patients with glioblastoma receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor, those who received the corticosteroid dexamethasone at baseline for cerebral edema had significantly worse overall survival.

Study in Thailand identifies benefits of community-based freshwater fish reserves
Freshwater fish reserves are extraordinarily successful at protecting multiple species of fish, a new study of a network of community-based reserves in Thailand has found.

Everyday activities enhance personal well-being
Physical activity makes happy and is important to maintain psychic health.

Novel haplotype-led approach to increase the precision of wheat breeding
Wheat researchers at the John Innes Centre are pioneering a new technique that promises to improve gene discovery for the globally important crop.

Patterning method could pave the way for new fiber-based devices, smart textiles
Multimaterial fibers that integrate metal, glass and semiconductors could be useful for applications such as biomedicine, smart textiles and robotics.

Grabbing viruses out of thin air
Materials that convert mechanical into electrical or magnetic energy could open the door to a future of wearable and structure-integrated virus sensors.

Exploring links between infant vocabulary size and vocal interactions with caregivers
Analysis of recordings from infants' homes reveals that certain types of vocal interactions between adults and infants are associated with a larger infant vocabulary.

Extraction of largely-unexplored bodily fluid could be a new source of biomarkers
Using an array of tiny needles that are almost too small to see, researchers have developed a minimally-invasive technique for sampling a largely-unexplored human bodily fluid that could potentially provide a new source of information for routine clinical monitoring and diagnostic testing.

Scientists determine the structure of glass-shaping protein in sponges
Researchers from TU Dresden and the Swiss Light Source at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland are the first to determine the three dimensional (3D) structure of a protein responsible for glass formation in sponges.

Engineered "stealth bomber" virus could be new weapon against metastatic cancer
Researchers at Emory and Case Western Reserve have re-engineered an oncolytic adenovirus.

From fins to limbs and water to land
The study shows how and when the first groups of land explorers became better walkers than swimmers.

Spinal/epidural anesthesia associated with increased survival in leg artery bypass surgery
A new study published in The BMJ shows that people who had surgery to improve blood flow in their legs under spinal or epidural anesthesia were less likely to die than those who were given general anesthesia.

Are we the same person throughout our lives? In essence, yes
Although our body changes and our beliefs and values may vary throughout our lives, our essence remains stable.

Offshore submarine freshwater discovery raises hopes for islands worldwide
Twice as much freshwater is stored offshore of Hawai'i Island than previously thought, revealed a University of Hawai'i study with important implications for volcanic islands around the world.

In fire-prone West, plants need their pollinators -- and vice versa
A new study grounded in the northern Rockies explores the role of wildfire in the finely tuned dance between plants and their pollinators.

SARS-CoV-2 mutations do not appear to increase transmissibility
None of the mutations currently documented in the SARS-CoV-2 virus appear to increase its transmissibility in humans, according to a study led by UCL researchers, published in Nature Communications.

New insights into how the CRISPR immune system evolved
With new insights into how the genetic tool CRISPR - which allows direct editing of our genes - evolved and adapted, we are now one step closer to understanding the basis of the constant struggle for survival that takes place in nature.

A new strategy for the greener use of calcium carbide
Computational chemists from St Petersburg University and the Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed a new strategy for using calcium acetylide in the synthesis of organic compounds.

Effect of climate change on infectious diseases unknown to half of the population
Although it is a widely known scientific fact that infectious diseases emerge and re-emerge due to climate change, a study which included the involvement of the UAB published in PlosOne reveals that 48.9% of the population surveyed are not aware of this relation.

Early trial hints CAR T cells may combat solid tumors in children with neuroblastoma
A phase 1 trial involving 12 children with relapsed neuroblastoma - a hard-to-treat pediatric cancer - shows that anticancer CAR T cells displayed signs of efficacy against these tumors while avoiding damage to nerve tissue.

Warwick scientists design model to predict cellular drug targets against COVID-19
A computational model of a human lung cell has been used to understand how SARS-CoV-2 draws on human host cell metabolism to reproduce by researchers at the University of Warwick.

Radboud university medical center research: Most lungs recover well after COVID-19
Lung tissue of patients who suffered severely from COVID-19 shows good recovery in most cases.

Ice sheets on the move: how north and south poles connect
Over the past 40,000 years, ice sheets thousands of kilometres apart have influenced one another through sea level changes, according to research published today in Nature.

Understanding the power of our Sun
For the first time, the international team was able to directly observe neutrinos from this cycle (CNO neutrinos) with the Borexino detector in the Laboratori Nazionali in the Gran Sasso Massif (Italy).

An ionic forcefield for nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are promising drug delivery tools but they struggle to get past the immune system's first line of defense: proteins in the blood serum that tag potential invaders.

Early birth linked to greater risk of hospital visits during childhood
Being born early (before 37 weeks' gestation) is associated with a higher risk of hospital admission throughout childhood than being born at full term (40 weeks' gestation), finds a study published by The BMJ today.

Fiji's vaccine program reduces childhood death and illness: study
Fiji's national vaccine program against pneumonia, a serious lung condition, and rotavirus, a common disease which causes severe diarrhoea and vomiting, has reduced illness and death, new research shows.

Genetic study shows that the risk of pre-eclampsia is related to blood pressure and BMI
An international study, coordinated by experts from the University of Nottingham, has revealed that the genetic risk of pre-eclampsia - a potentially dangerous condition in pregnancy - is related to blood pressure and body mass index.

New modified wheat could help tackle global food shortage
Researchers at the University of York have created a new modified wheat variety that increases grain production by up to 12%.

Gene donors at high risk for cancer received feedback
Researchers at the Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu studied how people at high risk for breast, ovarian or prostate cancer responses to the feedback of genetic findings.

Chia, goji & co. -- BfR consumer monitor special superfoods
Chia seeds, goji berries or quinoa -- 48% of the population see so-called 'superfoods' as part of a health-conscious diet.

The keys to the squirrel's evolutionary success in the face of climate change have been identified
Squirrels form a diverse family of rodents. Nearly 300 species have been described, and they occur in every land environment on the planet, from tropical forests to hot and cold deserts.

New study explains important cause of fatal influenza
It is largely unknown why influenza infections lead to an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia.

Specific bacterium in the gut linked to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Researchers at the University of Gothenburg have detected a connection between Brachyspira, a genus of bacteria in the intestines, and IBS -- especially the form that causes diarrhea.

Central trafficking compartment in neurons malfunctions in majority of Alzheimer's patients
A new Columbia study suggests that malfunctioning endosomes--a central trafficking station inside neurons--are commonly involved in the appearance of Alzheimer's disease.

Analysis: talc-based cosmetics test positive for asbestos
Laboratory tests of talc-based cosmetics products, commissioned by the Environmental Working Group, found asbestos -- a deadly human carcinogen for which there is no safe level of exposure -- in almost 15 percent of samples.

New immunotherapy shows promise against rare childhood cancer
A novel CAR T-cell therapy developed by researchers at UCL and designed to target cancerous tumours, has shown promising early results in children with neuroblastoma, a rare form of childhood cancer.

Survival protein may prevent collateral damage during cancer therapy
Australian researchers have identified a protein that could protect the kidneys from 'bystander' damage caused by cancer therapies.

Water-to-land transition in early tetrapods
The water-to-land transition is one of the most important major transitions in vertebrate evolution.

When consumers trust AI recommendations--or resist them
The key factor in deciding how to incorporate AI recommenders is whether consumers are focused on the functional and practical aspects of a product (its utilitarian value) or on the experiential and sensory aspects of a product (its hedonic value).

For teens with migraine, sleeping in (a bit) may help
Research indicates that starting school later in the morning yields health and academic benefits for high schoolers, whose natural body clock tends toward late-to-bed, late-to-rise habits.

Age not just a number: Causes of joint stiffness differ between older and younger adults
As people age, joints become less flexible, causing balance problems that lower quality of life.

Evidence of the interconnectedness of global climate
The analysis, published in Nature, shows for the first time that changes in the Antarctic ice sheet were caused by the melting of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere.

Study shows minimal impact of APPs on ED productivity, flow, safety, patient experience
Advanced practice providers (APPs) have lower productivity compared with emergency department physicians, seeing fewer and less complex patients and generating less relative value units per hour, and having no apparent impact on patient satisfaction and safety metrics.

Psychological factors contributing to language learning
Motivation for language learning is a system of cognitive, emotional, and personality-related characteristics.

Fruit flies reveal new insights into space travel's effect on the heart
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have shown that fruit flies that spent several weeks on the International Space Station (ISS)--about half of their lives--experienced profound structural and biochemical changes to their hearts.

RUDN University research team of mathematicians suggested a new decision making algorithm
A research team from RUDN University developed an algorithm to help large groups of people make optimal decisions in a short time.

Defects in mitochondria may explain many health problems observed during space travel
Using data collected from a number of different resources, a multidisciplinary team is reporting discovery of a common thread that drives this damage: mitochondrial dysfunction.

Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement
In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a University of Saskatchewan-led international team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.

Space worms experiment reveals gravity affects genes
Living at low gravity affects cells at the genetic level, according to a study of worms in space.

New wheat and barley genomes will help feed the world
An international research collaboration, including scientists from the University of Adelaide's Waite Research Institute, has unlocked new genetic variation in wheat and barley - a major boost for the global effort in breeding higher-yielding wheat and barley varieties.

Wheat diversity due to cross-hybridization with wild grasses
Bread wheat can grow in highly diverse regional environments. An important reason for its great genetic variety is the cross-hybridization with many chromosome fragments from wild grasses.

Keyhole wasps may threaten aviation safety
Over a period of 39 months, invasive keyhole wasps (Pachodynerus nasidens) at the Brisbane Airport were responsible for 93 instances of fully blocked replica pitot probes - vital instruments that measure airspeed -- according to a study published November 25 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Alan House of Eco Logical Australia and colleagues.

A growth mindset of interest can spark innovative thinking
Researchers from Yale-NUS College find that viewing interests as developable, not fixed, can help people make connections among diverse fields that others might miss, with implications for innovation.

UB study identifies new functions in the Machado-Joseph genetic disease
Ataxia is a minority disease with genetic origins, known for its neuromuscular alterations due to the selective loss of neurons in the cerebellum.

Stanford scientists invent ultrafast way to manufacture perovskite solar modules
High-speed manufacturing could advance the commercialization of perovskite modules, a green alternative to conventional solar panels made of silicon.

Research provides new insights on health effects of long-duration space flight
Among the new findings, the research team found that chronic oxidative stress during spaceflight contributed to the telomere elongation they observed.

Doctors use existing treatment earlier to save the lives of Covid-19 patients
The lives of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are being saved by doctors who are using an existing medical treatment at an earlier stage.

High blood pressure in midlife is linked to increased brain damage in later life
Higher than normal blood pressure is linked to more extensive brain damage in the elderly, according to a new study published today in the European Heart Journal.

Researchers have discovered new links between miscarriage and maternal genes
Researchers at the Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu described hitherto undiscovered associations between miscarriage and maternal genes, reveals a recent article published in the Nature Communication.

New mechanism of pain control revealed
Researchers have identified a unique population of astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of mice that produces pain hypersensitivity when activated by neurons carrying signals down from the brain.

New discovery by SMART allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome in plants
Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) have developed a tool that allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) in plants using Raman spectroscopy in significantly less time compared to conventional methods.

New breakthrough in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
People with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) could soon benefit from a new drug treatment, otilimab, that not only suppresses inflammation but also significantly reduces patient reported pain scores.

RUDN University mathematicians applied 19th century ideas to modern computerized algebra systems
A team of mathematicians from RUDN University added new symbolic integration functionality to the Sage computerized algebra system.

Stem cell-based screen identifies potential new treatments
In a recent study published in Stem Cell Reports, Seba Almedawar, PhD, and colleagues with the Center for Regenerative Therapies TU Dresden, Germany, used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the skin of healthy donors and of patients with retinitis pigmentosa to find drugs with the potential to enhance RPE phagocytosis.

A microscope for everyone: Jena researchers develop open-source optical toolbox
Researchers from the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena University and University Hospital have developed an optical toolbox to build microscopes for a few hundred euros that deliver high-resolution images comparable to commercial microscopes that cost up to a thousand times more.

Researchers uncover the unique way stem cells protect their chromosome ends
Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes which protect our DNA and ensure healthy division of cells.

Quantum nanodiamonds may help detect disease earlier
The quantum sensing abilities of nanodiamonds can be used to improve the sensitivity of paper-based diagnostic tests, potentially allowing for earlier detection of diseases such as HIV, according to a study led by UCL researchers in the i-sense McKendry group.

The epidemiology of muscle-strengthening exercise in Europe: A 28-country comparison
A 28-country comparison of 280,605 adults reveals that just 17% of adult Europeans perform specific muscle-strengthening exercises--e.g.: squats, situps, and pushups--twice or more a week, as recommended by the WHO.

Scientists claim controversial results of comets observations are consistent
Astrophysicists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) joined the international research team for explaining the difference in the results of observation of the comet 41P/ Tuttle - Giacobini - Kresak.

Electromagnetic imaging reveals freshwater cache off Hawai'ian coast
Pointing toward a much-needed future reservoir of freshwater for the island of Hawai'i in the face of climate-driven drought, electromagnetic images of the island have revealed multilayered basalt, ash and soil formations that serve as a previously unknown conduit to move freshwater offshore to the submarine flank of the island.

Aim to exceed weekly recommended physical activity level to offset health harms of prolonged sitting
The health harms associated with prolonged sitting can be offset by exceeding weekly recommended physical activity levels, says the World Health Organization (WHO) in new global guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior [1], published in a special dedicated issue of the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

Breaking the skill limit, pianists attain more delicate touch
Japanese scientists discovered a training method to further improve the delicate touch of pianists by optimizing the method rather than increase the amount of training.

Minimal waste production is a fundamental law for animal locomotion
Is there a unifying principle underpinning animal locomotion in its rich diversity?

Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood.

Ancient blanket made with 11,500 turkey feathers
New WSU research sheds light on the production of an 800-year-old turkey feather blanket and explores the economic and cultural aspects of raising turkeys to supply feathers in the ancient Southwest.

Bank-affiliated funds contribute to funding their parent banks in times of crisis
So reveals academic research involving the collaboration of Javier Gil-Bazo, a professor at the UPF Department of Economics and Business, with Peter Hoffmann and Sergio Mayordomo, published in the renowned journal Review of Financial Studies.The study shows that banks in Spain strategically resort to this practice especially in times of crisis, when access to traditional funding is limited and costly, and therefore the incentives are greater.

Transcultural literacies and meaning-making through fanfiction
This is the subject of analysis of a digital ethnography study by Liudmila Shafirova, Daniel Cassany and Carme Bach, all members of the GR@EL research group at the Department of Translation and Language Sciences, published in Journal of Language and Intercultural Communication on 24 September.

High achievement cultures may kill students' interest in math -- especially for girls
In countries where academic performance in math is high, students paradoxically tend to have lower levels of interest in the subject.

Neuroscientists measure fans' reactions to the big game
In a study published November 25 in the journal Neuron, researchers show how the feelings of surprise experienced while watching sports creates shifts in brain patterns.

First large-scale proteogenomic analysis offers insights into pediatric brain tumors
A comprehensive ''proteogenomic'' analysis of the proteins, genes, and RNA transcription involved in pediatric brain tumors has yielded a more complete understanding of these tumors, which are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children.

Using a soft crystal to visualize how absorbed carbon dioxide behaves in liquid
A team of scientists has succeeded in visualizing how carbon dioxide (CO2) behaves in an ionic liquid that selectively absorbs CO2.

CsPbBrI2 perovskites with low energy loss for high-performance indoor and outdoor photovoltaics
Large energy loss in the device has limited a further increase in efficiency and commercialization.

Scientists call for decade of concerted effort to enhance understanding of the deep seas
An international team of scientists, spanning 45 institutions in 17 countries, has called for a dedicated decade-long programme of research to greatly advance discovery in the deep ocean.

The invasive species that Europe needs to erradicate most urgently are identified
An international research team analyzed the risk impact and the effectiveness of possible erradication strategies for invasive species already in the region as well as those that have yet to arrive

BIDMC researchers reveal how genetic variations are linked to COVID-19 disease severity
New BIDMC-led research sheds light on the genetic risk factors that make individuals more or less susceptible to severe COVID-19.

Sniffing your way to the gym
On a near daily basis, the internet spews out numerous tips and tricks for exercise motivation.

Russian scientists improve 3D printing technology for aerospace composites using oil waste
Scientists from NUST MISIS have improved the technology of 3D printing from aluminum, having achieved an increase in the hardness of products by 1,5 times.

Community conservation reserves protect fish diversity in tropical rivers
A collaboration between researchers from Cornell University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison has found that small, community-based reserves in Thailand's Salween River Basin are serving as critical refuges for fish diversity in a region whose subsistence fisheries have suffered from decades of overharvesting.

Princeton scientists discover a motif that guides assembly of the algal pyrenoid
Princeton University researchers have discovered that assembly of the algal pyrenoid, a structure that mediates the incorporation of carbon dioxide into sugars, is guided by the presence of a particular protein sequence, or motif.

Signaling switch in pancreatic β-cells determines anti-diabetic drug effectiveness
An international research group headed by Professor SEINO Susumu (Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine) has clarified the action mechanism of widely utilized incretin-based drugs in the treatment of diabetes.

Iron infusion proves effective to treat anaemia in Rural Africa
Iron-deficiency anaemia is a major concern in low-income settings, especially for women.

Mapping out the mystery of blood stem cells
Princess Margaret scientists have revealed how stem cells are able to generate new blood cells throughout our life by looking at vast, uncharted regions of our genetic material that hold important clues to subtle biological changes in these cells.

Forming beliefs in a world of filter bubbles
Why do so many Republicans still believe that the recent US presidential election was fraudulent?

Global collaboration is unlocking wheat's genetic potential
In a paper published Wednesday, Nov. 25, 2020, in Nature, Kansas State University researchers, in collaboration with the international 10+ Genome Project led by the University of Saskatchewan, have announced the complete genome sequencing of 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world -- an invaluable resource to improve global wheat production.

What makes a happy couple, a happy family?
Being emotionally flexible may be one of the most important factors when it comes to longevity and overall health of your romantic and familial relationships.

Bird with tall, sickle-shaped beak reveals hidden diversity during the age of dinosaurs
A new bird fossil helps scientists better understand convergent evolution of complex anatomy and provides new insights into the evolution of face and beak shape in a forerunner of modern birds.

Barley pan-genome: IPK scientists reach milestone on the way to 'transparent' barley
An international research team led by the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) has reached a milestone on the way to the 'transparent' barley plant.

Space travel can adversely impact energy production in a cell
Studies of both mice and humans who have traveled into space reveal that critical parts of a cell's energy production machinery, the mitochondria, can be made dysfunctional due to changes in gravity, radiation exposure and other factors.

Obesity is not only the individual's responsibility
Analysis of survey results by Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine has revealed that in women, obesity is linked to various social and economic factors.

Basketball on the brain: Neuroscientists use sports to study surprise
Princeton neuroscientists tracked the brains and pupils of self-described basketball fans as they watched March Madness games, to study how people process surprise -- an unexpected change of circumstances that shifts an anticipated outcome.

Pitt researchers create nanoscale slalom course for electrons
''We already know how to shoot electrons ballistically through one-dimensional nanowires made from these oxide materials,'' explains Levy.

Neutrinos yield first experimental evidence of catalyzed fusion dominant in many stars
An international team of about 100 scientists of the Borexino Collaboration, including particle physicist Andrea Pocar at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, report in Nature this week detection of neutrinos from the sun, directly revealing for the first time that the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) fusion-cycle is at work in our sun.

Almost like on Venus
A team of international scientists led by ETH researcher Paolo Sossi has gained new insights into Earth's atmosphere of 4.5 billion years ago.

Solar CNO neutrinos observed for the first time
Scientists who are members of the Borexino Collaboration have provided the first experimental proof of the occurrence of the so-called CNO cycle in the Sun: They have managed to directly detect the distinctive neutrinos generated during this fusion process.

Study characterizes suspected COVID-19 infections in emergency departments in the UK
Among patients reporting to hospital emergency departments (EDs) with suspected COVID-19 infection, important differences in symptoms and outcome exist based on age, sex and ethnicity, according to a new study published this week in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Steve Goodacre of the University of Sheffield, UK, and colleagues.

Princeton scientists solve the mystery behind an enigmatic organelle, the pyrenoid
Princeton researchers Shan He, Martin Jonikas, and colleagues have discovered how Rubisco holoenzymes assemble to form the fluid-like matrix of the algal pyrenoid, an organelle that mediates the incorporation of carbon dioxide into sugars.

The smell of cooperation
Despite their reputation, rats are surprisingly sociable and regularly help each other out.
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.