Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 04, 2020
LSU Health conducts first study on neighborhood deprivation and COVID in Louisiana
A study by researchers at LSU Health New Orleans School of Public Health, believed to be the first study to investigate the role of neighborhood deprivation on COVID-19 in Louisiana, found that the more a neighborhood is deprived, the higher the risk for cases of COVID-19.

Safe space: improving the "clean" methanol fuel cells using a protective carbon shell
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), which produce electricity using methanol, will be an alternative solution in the transition away from fossil fuels and toward a ''hydrogen'' economy.

Assessment of racial/ethnic disparities in hospitalization, mortality in patients with COVID-19 in New York City
COVID-19 outcomes based on race and ethnicity were compared in this observational study of patients in a large health system in New York City, and the association of any disparities with coexisting medical conditions and neighborhood characteristics also was assessed.

The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of having another heart attack
A clinical study with 1,002 patients with heart disease shows the advantages of a Mediterranean diet compared to a low-fat diet.

Mimicking the effect of exercise with gene therapy
Gene therapy is the most effective method to be able to provide health benefits you normally gain through physical exercise.

Unlocking the secrets of chemical bonding with machine learning
In a report published in Nature Communications, Hongliang Xin, associate professor of chemical engineering at Virginia Tech, and his team of researchers developed a Bayesian learning model of chemisorption, or Bayeschem for short, aiming to use artificial intelligence to unlock the nature of chemical bonding at catalyst surfaces.

Pediatric ER saw steep drop in asthma visits during spring COVID-19 lockdown
A new study published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society discusses a steep drop off from prior years in asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits at Boston Children's Hospital during the spring 2020 COVID-19 surge and lockdown.

Identifying markers of COVID-19 infection using blood tests
This study identifies the values for six biochemical biomarkers that indicate a patient may be infected with SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19).

Tapping overlooked marketing data to drive business growth
Overlooked data sources offer considerable opportunity to support companies' growth.

Gestational age linked to ADHD in children with Down syndrome
A new study by the UC Davis MIND Institute finds a connection between gestational age and ADHD in children with Down syndrome.

Digital breast tomosynthesis improves invasive cancer detection
Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) offers significant advantages over digital mammography, including improved cancer detection and lower false negative rates, according to a new study.

Thermal stability analysis technique for EV batteries to detect risk of fire or explosion
Recently, there have been a number of electric vehicle (EV) battery fire incidents.

New study debunks blood type diet
A study published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics by researchers with the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine -- a nonprofit of 12,000 doctors -- debunks the 'blood type diet' by finding that blood type was not associated with the effects of a plant-based diet on body weight, body fat, plasma lipid concentrations, or glycemic control.

Donor stem cell transplant shown to improve survival in older patients with MDS
A new clinical trial offers the most compelling evidence to date that a donor stem cell transplant can improve survival rates for older patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators report at the virtual 62nd American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting.

Findings about cilia on cells of the vessel wall may be relevant for diabetes treatment
A new study from Karolinska Institutet and the Helmholtz Diabetes Research Center shows that primary cilia, hair-like protrusions on endothelial cells inside vessels, play an important role in the blood supply and delivery of glucose to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets.

Riding in a car in the pandemic: which windows to open?
If you find yourself in a car with someone outside your household during the COVID-19 pandemic, your instinct may be to roll down your window, whether you're the driver or a back-seat passenger.

First in nation treatment for chronic subdural hematoma at Los Robles Health System
Los Robles Health System is leading the way in neurovascular clinical trials.

Biological diversity evokes happiness
A high biodiversity in our vicinity is as important for life satisfaction as our income, scientists from Senckenberg, the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), and Kiel University found.

Green energy transition: Early and steady wins the race
Researchers from Aarhus University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have modelled the decarbonisation of the sector-coupled European energy system using uninterrupted high-res hourly data for every European and Scandinavian country and network interconnectivity.

Scientists took a rare chance to prove we can quantify biodiversity by 'testing the water'
While extraction of DNA from water samples provides a convenient and non-invasive way to study aquatic biodiversity, reliable evidence that this approach is accurate enough to estimate the number of fish per species and their biomass in natural habitats, is still lacking.

Crystals may help reveal hidden Kilauea Volcano behavior
Stanford researchers used millimeter-sized crystals from the 1959 eruption of Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano to test models that offer insights about flow conditions prior to and during an eruption.

New pathway in Alzheimer's disease provides earlier target for potential therapies
A novel Alzheimer's disease marker--coming early in progression of the condition--could open significant new fronts of research into possible therapies

Secukinumab in children with plaque psoriasis: Study unsuitable for benefit assessment
Secukinumab in children with plaque psoriasis: study unsuitable for benefit assessment The comparator group was not treated appropriately.

Radicals seem to be good for the brain
Scientists of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) report in the journal Cell Stem Cell that reactive oxygen molecules, also known as 'free radicals.' are important for the brain's ability to adapt -- at least in mice.

RUDN University medics created a wound-healing gel with metabolic products of trichoderma
Researchers from the Department of Biochemistry of RUDN University developed a wound-healing gel based on a substance that is produced by Trichoderma fungi.

COVID-19 in Victorian schools and childcare mainly driven by community transmission
COVID-19 cases in schools, early childhood education centers and childcare are mainly driven by community transmission.

The climate changed rapidly alongside sea ice decline in the north
Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen have, in collaboration with Norwegian researchers in the ERC Synergy project, ICE2ICE, shown that abrupt climate change occurred as a result of widespread decrease of sea ice.

Reversible stickiness is something to smile about
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) have developed a cross-linker for curing dental cement that can be degraded with UV light.

Research confirms crucial monitoring assessment is effective for patients with COVID-19
A combined research team from the Universities of Portsmouth and Bournemouth and Portsmouth Hospitals University NHS Trust has shown that an assessment score used to measure a patient's severity of illness can be applied to patients with Covid-19 without modification.

No strings attached: maximizing wireless charging efficiency with multiple transmitters
Scientists at Incheon National University, Korea, develop a control strategy that allows for transferring power wirelessly through multiple transmitter coils with maximum efficiency.

Biologists from RUDN University discovered the secret of flaxseed oil with long shelf life
Biologists from RUDN University working together with their colleagues from the Institute of Molecular Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Flax studied the genes that determine the fatty acid composition in flaxseed oil and identified polymorphisms in six of them.

The heavier, the better -- superior stability in isotope functionalized perovskites
We discover a significantly suppressed lattice disorder in isotope functionalized perovskite MAPbI3, which is crucial for structural stability and extraordinary optoelectronic properties.

Ionic defect landscape in perovskite solar cells revealed
Joint research work between Chemnitz University of Technology and Technische Universität Dresden under Chemnitz leadership reveals ionic defect landscape in metal halide perovskites -- publication in renowned journal Nature Communications

Mass incarceration results in significant increases in industrial emissions, study finds
Mass incarceration is as much an environmental problem as it is a social one, according to a new Portland State University study that finds increases in incarceration are significantly associated with increases in industrial emissions.

Optimising laser-driven electron acceleration
In a new paper published in the EPJ D, Etele Molnár, ELI-NP, Bucharest, and co-authors study and review the characteristics of electron acceleration in a vacuum caused by the highest-power laser pulses achievable today looking for the key to maximum net energy gain.

New CCNY-developed resource measures severity of work-related depression
First came their pioneering research a few years ago linking burnout and depression.

Kidney injury in diabetic ketoacidosis linked to brain injury
Researchers have identified factors that make children with diabetic ketoacidosis more likely to experience acute kidney injury.

Immunity passports: Ethical conflict and opportunity
Ikerbasque Research Professor Iñigo de Miguel Beriain, who works with the UPV/EHU Chair in Law and the Human Genome, defends the usefulness of immunity passports, providing they are used to protect the rights of those who are immune.

BIDMC researchers define immune system's requirements for protection against COVID-19
In a new paper in the journal Nature, BIDMC researchers shed light on the role of antibodies and immune cells in protection against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in rhesus macaques.

Virtual doctor visits are increasing, but use differs by patient race, age and insurance
A new study published December 4, 2020, in the journal JMIR Medical Informatics examines the increase in telemedicine visits due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and recommends adopting policies that encourage virtual visits going forward.

New CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 uses a smartphone camera
In a new study published in the scientific journal Cell, the team from Gladstone Institutes, UC Berkeley, and UC San Francisco has outlined the technology for a CRISPR-based test for COVID-19 that uses a smartphone camera to provide accurate results in under 30 minutes.

'Off switch' during error-prone cell cycle phase may fix CRISPR's unwanted changes problem
Turning off gene-editing until it reaches cell cycle phases where more accurate repairs are likely to happen offers a promising fix to CRISPR-Cas9's problem with unwanted genetic changes.

RUDN University chemists synthesized new fluorescent substances for medical applications
Indolizines are a group of substances with biological and optical properties.

PTSD with depression may significantly increase risk of early death in women
Women with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression have an almost fourfold greater risk of early death than women without trauma exposure or depression.

Researchers urge priority vaccination for individuals with diabetes
Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers have discovered individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes infected with COVID-19 are three times more likely to have a severe illness or require hospitalization compared with people without diabetes.

Rochester researchers uncover key clues about the solar system's history
Researchers have used magnetism to determine, for the first time, when asteroids that are rich in water and amino acids first arrived in the inner solar system.

Protein storytelling to address the pandemic
Computer molecular physics has contributed to the understanding of protein behavior by creating 3D models of molecular machines and setting them in motion.

Satellite tag tracks activity levels of highly migratory species across the vast ocean
MIAMI--Scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and Wildlife Computers, Inc. today announced the release of a new activity data product application for marine animal tracking.

New testing system could become the IoT of photovoltaics
New Suns Voc testing measures system voltage as a function of light intensity in outdoor setting, enabling real-time performance measurement and diagnostics

Pediatric appendix perforation rate at children's hospital during COVID-19 pandemic
This observational study assessed the rate of appendix perforations during the COVID-19 pandemic at a children's hospital compared with 2019.

Project 5-100 universities see a dramatic increase in publications in leading journals
A team of HSE researchers have analyzed the research activity of universities participating in Russia's Academic Excellence Project 5-100.

Electrons falling flat: Germanium falls into a 2D arrangement on zirconium diboride
Scientists have recently revealed, both theoretically and experimentally, that germanium atoms can arrange themselves into a 2D 'bitriangular' lattice on zirconium diboride thin films grown on germanium single crystals to form a 'flat band material' with an embedded 'kagome' lattice.

Once hospitalized, Black patients with COVID-19 have lower risk of death than white
While multiple research studies show that Black and Hispanic patients are more likely to test positive for COVID-19, a team of investigators at NYU Langone Health has found that once hospitalized, Black patients (after controlling for other serious health conditions and neighborhood income) were less likely to have severe illness, die, or be discharged to hospice compared to White patients.

Mailman School experts contribute to new Lancet report on health and climate change
Unless we take urgent action to tackle climate change, we can expect an ever-hotter world that threatens global health, disrupts lives and livelihoods and overwhelms healthcare systems, according to The Lancet's Global Countdown on Health and Climate Change, a comprehensive global analysis tracking the impact of climate change on human health across 41 key indicators.

Iron deficiency can be managed better
Publishing in The Lancet, Australian and European researchers have released updated, evidence-based guidance for managing iron deficiency, a serious worldwide health problem.

Gasdermin offers insight into coral necrotic death
A research team led by Professor SUN Li from the Institute of Oceanology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS), in collaboration with Professor ZHOU Zhi from Hainan University, has identified gasdermin E (GSDME) from the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata and demonstrated that coral GSDME triggers pyroptosis and is involved in pathogen-induced coral death.

Lung tissue from COVID-19 patients and others reveals promising target to treat lung fibrosis
An analysis of lung tissues from patients with different types of pulmonary fibrosis - including cases triggered by COVID-19 - has revealed a promising molecular target to ameliorate the chronic and irreversible disease.

NIH researchers link cases of ALS and FTD to a Huntington's disease-associated mutation
A study led by researchers at the National Institutes of Health has made a surprising connection between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two disorders of the nervous system, and the genetic mutation normally understood to cause Huntington's disease.

Researchers discover new particle in the blood of septic patients
Researchers at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) have found that people with sepsis have never-before-seen particles in their blood.

COVID-19 pandemic responsible for decrease in hepatitis C testing
New research from Boston Medical Center finds that the COVID-19 emergency systemic changes made to decrease in-person visits during the pandemic have led to a decrease in hospital-wide Hepatitis C (HCV) testing by 50 percent, and a reduction in new HCV diagnoses by more than 60 percent.

Inouye Solar Telescope releases first image of a sunspot
The US NSF's Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope just released its first image of a sunspot.

Hubble captures unprecedented fading of Stingray nebula
Astronomers have caught a rare look at a rapidly fading shroud of gas around an aging star.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation in the knee: M-ACI has comparable benefit to therapy alternative
Only matrix-induced ACI (M-ACI) shows a benefit that is at least comparable to that of therapy alternatives.

Hidden structure found in essential metabolic machinery
Rice University biochemists have discovered membrane-divided subcompartments within organelles called peroxisomes, essential pieces of metabolic machinery for all higher order life from yeast to humans.

Baby's first breath triggers life-saving changes in the brain
A new discovery reveals how something amazing happens when a baby takes a first breath.

Characterising complex flows in 2D bubble swarms
Research published in EPJ E shows that in 2D simulated fluids, upward-flowing swarms of bubbles, a mathematical relationship describing the nature of flows in their wake, previously thought to be universal, actually changes within larger-scale flows in less viscous fluids.

Using a video game to understand the origin of emotions
A number of studies have sought to connect given emotions, such as fear or pleasure, to specific areas of the brain, but without success.

Detecting solar neutrinos with the Borexino experiment
A paper published in EPJ C by a team of authors including XueFeng Ding, Postdoc Associate of Physics at Princeton University, United States, documents the attempts of the Borexino experiment to measure low-energy neutrinos from the sun's carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle for the first time.

Molecules convert visible light into ultraviolet light with record efficiency
Researchers from Kyushu University have doubled efficiency records for the conversion of visible light into ultraviolet light using triplet-triplet annihilation, achieving 20% efficiency at high light intensities while also greatly improving efficiency even under weak ambient light.

Airflow modeling suggests driving with all windows down safest to prevent COVID-19 transmission
A new series of computational fluid dynamics simulations suggests that, for two people who must travel together in the same passenger car, the safest way to prevent possible transmission of COVID-19 in such a risky, enclosed environment is to do so with all four windows down and the passenger seated as far as

Research reveals how airflow inside a car may affect COVID-19 transmission risk
A new study uses computer simulations to track airflows inside a car's passenger cabin, providing potential strategies -- some of them counterintuitive -- for reducing the risk of transmitting airborne diseases.

Researchers adapt cell phone camera for SARS-CoV-2 detection
Researchers have developed an assay that can detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in a nasal swab using a device attached to an ordinary smartphone, they report December 4 in the journal Cell. Although more research is needed before such a test can be rolled out, the results are promising and ultimately may be applicable to screening more broadly for other viruses.

IVF boost: Monash researchers use acoustic waves to select high quality sperm
Monash University researchers have used acoustic waves to develop a new approach to separate high-quality sperm for assisted reproduction.
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