Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 09, 2020
Battling COVID-19 using UV light
Some University of New Mexico researchers have found a possible breakthrough in how to manage COVID-19, as well as future viruses.

Nearly 72% of Black patients with gynecologic cancer and COVID-19 were hospitalized for the virus compared with 46 percent of non-Blacks
COVID-19 deaths among Black patients with gynecologic cancer disproportionately higher compared to non-Black patients.

High-risk, HR+, HER2-, early-stage BC patients continue to benefit from abemaciclib
Extended follow-up data from the phase III monarchE trial showed that adding the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor abemaciclib (Verzenio) to standard adjuvant endocrine therapy continued to improve invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) among patients with high-risk, node-positive, early-stage, HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, according to data presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Youth depression tied to higher risk of 66 diseases and premature death
Depressed children and teenagers have an increased risk of suffering from premature death and a wide range of illnesses later in life.

Under-recognition of symptoms may be common in breast cancer patients receiving radiation
Among patients with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy, under-recognition of symptoms was common in reports of pain, pruritus, edema, and fatigue, with younger patients and Black patients having significantly increased odds of symptom under-recognition.

Program reduces social isolation among middle-aged and older adults
An existing service in the North West of England called Community Connectors, which enables adults to access social activities within their community, can help reduce loneliness and social isolation, according to an analysis published in Health & Social Care in the Community.

Alterations to oral microbiota reduce the cardiovascular benefits of sport
The researchers note that sports drinks containing sugar, anti-bacterial mouthwashes and the excessive consumption of carbohydrates have a negative effect on oral microbiota and, consequently, on the cardiovascular benefits of sport.

'Rambo root' could help with climate action, peace building and environmental issues
Planting cassava can help countries tackle key environmental and sustainable development concerns.

Postmenopausal women with early-stage BC/low recurrence score could skip adjuvant chemo
After a median follow-up of 5.1 years, among women with lymph node-positive early-stage breast cancer and a recurrence score of 25 or lower who received adjuvant endocrine therapy with or without chemotherapy, postmenopausal patients had no added benefit from chemotherapy, while premenopausal patients who received chemotherapy had improved invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) and an early indication of improved overall survival (OS), according to data from the SWOG S1007 RxPONDER clinical trial.

Researchers identify an action mechanism for a drug against Alzheimer' disease
A study conducted on mice published in the journalGeroscience has identified the action mechanism of a promising compound against Alzheimer's disease, developed by the team of Medical Chemistry and Pharmacology at the University of Barcelona.

"Birthday" of the roof of the world recalibrated
A recent study led by researchers from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (ITP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) proves, through fossil analysis, that much of the Third Pole only grew to its modern height over the past 10 million to 20 million years, rather than 40 million years ago (Ma) as previously inferred.

The ethics of human challenge trials
The first human challenge trial to test COVID-19 treatments and vaccines is set to begin in January in the United Kingdom.

How does eye position affect 'cocktail party' listening?
Several acoustic studies have shown that the position of your eyes determines where your visual spatial attention is directed, which automatically influences your auditory spatial attention.

Can sting rays and electric rays help us map the ocean floor?
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have completed a feasibility study indicating that electric rays and sting rays equipped with pingers will be able to map the seabed through natural exploration.

New compound related to psychedelic ibogaine could treat addiction, depression
A non-hallucinogenic version of the psychedelic drug ibogaine, with potential for treating addiction, depression and other psychiatric disorders, has been developed by researchers at UC Davis.

How blood and wealth can predict future disability
Research shows that blood tests for biomarkers such as cholesterol and inflammation can predict disability in five years.

Spiders in space: without gravity, light becomes key to orientation
Humans have taken spiders into space more than once to study the importance of gravity to their web-building.

Filming roaming molecular fragments in real time
An international research team has captured roaming molecular fragments for the first time.

Using light, red blood cells and a honey bee peptide to deliver therapeutic proteins
Protein therapies are often more potent and selective toward their biochemical targets than other types of drugs, particularly small molecules.

Mastectomy and reconstructive surgery may lead to patients becoming persistent drug users
Women who receive mastectomy and reconstructive surgery as part of breast cancer treatment may face the risk of developing persistent use of opioids and sedative-hypnotic drugs, according to data presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

New biomarker candidate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
A research team from the Centre for Protein Diagnostics (Prodi) at Ruhr University Bochum (RUB), in collaboration with scientists from Dresden Technical University, Essen University Hospital and University Hospital Göttingen, has developed a diagnostic tool for the rare neurological disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Nursing homes may misinterpret mental changes, falls as infection
There is a widespread belief that a change in the mental status or an increase in falls in a nursing home resident may indicate an underlying infection.

Russian mathematicians develop a new model for predicting epidemics based on precedents
Scientists from St Petersburg University have developed a new Case-Based Rate Reasoning (CBRR) model for predicting the dynamics of epidemics.

Five-minute EEG recordings: a key to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Pathological changes related to the disability of Parkinson's patients can already be detected in signals from the scalp without the need to open the skull.

Uniquely human gene may drive numerous cancers
A new study published in FASEB BioAdvances reveals a human-specific connection between advanced carcinomas and a gene called SIGLEC12.

Evolution may be to blame for high risk of advanced cancers in humans
UC San Diego researchers discovered that most people no longer produce the Siglec-12 protein, but some of those who do are at twice the risk for advanced cancer.

Microbes and plants: A dynamic duo
The unique partnership between root-dwelling microbes and the plants they inhabit can reduce drought stress.

Fatty residues on ancient pottery reveal meat-heavy diets of Indus Civilization
New lipid residue analyses have revealed a dominance of animal products, such as the meat of animals like pigs, cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat as well as dairy products, used in ancient ceramic vessels from rural and urban settlements of the Indus Civilisation in north-west India, the present-day states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Tomatoes offer affordable source of Parkinson's disease drug
Scientists have produced a tomato enriched in the Parkinson's disease drug L-DOPA in what could become a new, affordable source of one of the world's essential medicines.

The pesticides in contact with plastics for mulch take longer to degrade
A study within the Diverfarming project analyses the interactions between 38 pesticides and three types of plastic for mulch

Study connects diabetes, air pollution to interstitial lung disease
People with pre-diabetes or diabetes who live in ozone-polluted areas may have an increased risk for an irreversible disease with a high mortality rate.

CO2 pricing & financial transfers: small changes can have a huge effect on climate equity
Global greenhouse-gas emission reductions could be achieved in a fair and thrifty way by surprisingly small variations of well-known policies.

Study reveals distinct genomic landscape for young adults with appendiceal cancer
The first study to compare molecular landscapes of early-onset and late-onset appendiceal cancer has revealed distinct non-silent mutations in the tumors of younger patients, setting the stage for the development of potential therapeutic advances for this rare disease.

Social media messages help reduce meat consumption
Sending direct messages on social media informing people of the negative health and environmental impacts of consuming meat has proven successful at changing eating habits, a new study from Cardiff University has shown.

Silky sharks find hope in Atlantic, remain targets in Indo-Pacific
Florida International University research shows that conservation efforts in the Atlantic Ocean may be working for one of the most popular -- and endangered -- species that ends up in the global shark fin trade.

Noninvasive way to explore traumatic brain injuries
A noninvasive method to measure the stiffness parameters along fibrous pathways within the brain is helping researchers explore traumatic brain injuries.

Caterpillars mimic leaves or offer rewards for protection by ants
Study reveals different forms of interaction between insect groups: while some caterpillar species have bodies covered with molecules identical to those of the plants they inhabit and are 'invisible' to ants, others offer ants nectar in exchange for protection from predators

Engaged dads can reduce adolescent behavioral problems, improve well-being
In low-income families, fathers who are engaged in their children's lives can help to improve their mental health and behavior, according to a Rutgers University-New Brunswick study published in the journal Social Service Review.

Life expectancy and healthcare costs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis
A new study published in Arthritis & Rheumatology suggests that recent advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis have prolonged patients' lives but also increased healthcare costs.

Southern Hemisphere westerly winds likely to intensify as climate warms
Polar climate scientists have created the most high resolution past record of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds.

Researchers discover a new superhighway system in the Solar System
Researchers have discovered a new superhighway network to travel through the Solar System much faster than was previously possible.

Let the sunshine in: self-cleaning membrane under visible light treatment
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) reported that the research team led by Dr.

Higher body temperatures still a factor in patients in remission from rheumatoid arthritis
A pioneering study carried out among patients in remission from Rheumatoid Arthritis has determined that they display significantly higher temperatures than healthy individuals.

Nature s contributions to people found to be in decline
Over the past 50 years, declining biodiversity has put many of nature s contributions to people at risk.

Young people with autism show cognitive gains from childhood to early adult life
Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face a lifelong challenge characterized by qualitative impairments in both communication and social interaction.

Academy scientists describe 213 species in 2020
Despite challenges posed by the pandemic, researchers from the California Academy of Sciences collaborated to describe 213 new-to-science species from five continents and three oceans.

Charles Darwin was right about why insects are losing the ability to fly
Most insects can fly. Yet scores of species have lost that extraordinary ability, particularly on islands.

"Game changer" perovskite can detect gamma rays
Scientists at EPFL have developed a game-changing perovskite material that can be used as a cheaper and highly efficient alternative to gamma-ray detectors.

Scientists model photoluminescence kinetics in semiconductor nanoplatelets for better optoelectroni
The hunt for materials and systems with better optical properties has always been one of the focal points of semiconductor research.

Out with the old, in with the new
UVA Engineering Discovery Challenges Heat Transfer Paradigm That Guides Electronic and Photonic Device Design.

Honey bees fend off giant hornets with animal dung, U of G researchers discover
Researchers discovered honeybees in Vietnam collect and apply animal dung around hive entrances to deter deadly nest raids by giant hornets.

Bacterial nanopores open the future of data storage
Bioengineers at EPFL have developed a nanopore-based system that can read data encoded into synthetic macromolecules with higher accuracy and resolution than similar methods on the market.

Hidden symmetry could be key to more robust quantum systems, researchers find
Researchers have found a way to protect highly fragile quantum systems from noise, which could aid in the design and development of new quantum devices, such as ultra-powerful quantum computers.

New blended solar cells yield high power conversion efficiencies
Researchers at Hiroshima University in Japan have blended together various polymer and molecular semiconductors as photo-absorbers to create a solar cell with increased power efficiencies and electricity generation.

Researchers call for clarity on the definition of medicine misuse
A recent analysis of published studies provides a comprehensive overview of the terms and definitions used to characterize medicine misuse.

Several U.S. populations and regions exposed to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water
A national study of public water systems found that arsenic levels were not uniform across the U.S., even after implementation of the latest national regulatory standard.

When strains of E.coli play rock-paper-scissors, it's not the strongest that survives
What happens when different strains of bacteria are present in the same system?

Archaeopteryx fossil provides insights into the origins of flight
Moulting is thought to be unorganised in the first feathered dinosaurs because they had yet to evolve flight, so determining how moulting evolved can lead to better understanding of flight origins.

Shedding light on opioid exposure, COVID-19 and health disparities
This Viewpoint describes the planned Healthy Brain and Child Development Study, which will investigate the associations of parental substance abuse, COVID-19 and exposure to health disparities with their children's health and well-being.

Blood test for alzheimer's disease predicts future cognitive decline in healthy people
In Nature Communications, the authors report that baseline NT1 levels in the blood were highly predictive of the risk of cognitive decline and AD dementia.

USC-led researchers develop new way to watch pancreatic cells package insulin
For first time, scientists peer deeply within cells that make insulin, a new way to study diabetes to advance drugs for the disease.

Science paper links root endodermis and microbiota in mineral balance
Valéria Custódio, ITQB NOVA PhD Student and GREEN-IT member, is a co-author of the paper, which offers new insight on the importance of the relationship between microbiota and root endodermis.

Some postmenopausal women with common breast cancer may forgo chemotherapy
Postmenopausal women with a common form of breast cancer may safely skip chemotherapy, according to study results from SWOG Cancer Research Network, funded by the National Cancer Institute, to be released at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Shining a light on what's really happening in perovskite solar cells
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to follow the internal deterioration mechanism of perovskite solar cells while they were in operation.

Variation by states in heart transplant outcomes
Data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database were used to examine variation at the state level in waitlist and transplant outcomes among patients listed for heart transplantation from 2011 to 2016.

Warm oceans helped first human migration from Asia to North America
New research reveals significant changes to the circulation of the North Pacific and its impact on the initial migration of humans from Asia to North America.

New study helps pinpoint when earth's plate subduction began
According to findings published Dec. 9 in the journal Science Advances, plate subduction could have started 3.75 billion years ago, reshaping Earth's surface and setting the stage for a planet hospitable to life.

New guidelines for treating the complications of brain tumours
Experts from the leading oncology societies ESMO (European Society for Medical Oncology) and EANO (European Association of Neuro-Oncology) hav now compiled international guidelines and standards for the treatment of complications of brain tumours

Accent perception depends on backgrounds of speaker, listener
Visual cues can change listeners' perception of others' accents, and people's past exposure to varied speech can also impact their perception of accents.

Almost a third of young adults with asthma are ignoring COVID-19 guidelines, says survey
Almost a third of young adults with asthma are ignoring COVID-19 guidelines, says survey

New evidence: Neandertals buried their dead
Was burial of the dead practiced by Neandertals or is it an innovation specific to our species?

Breakthrough in nuclear physics
The positively charged protons in atomic nuclei should actually repel each other, and yet even heavy nuclei with many protons and neutrons stick together.

A technique to sift out the universe's first gravitational waves
A new MIT technique may sift out universe's very first gravitational waves.

Harvesting the sun's energy for clean drinking water: Where we are, where we need to be
A nascent but promising solution to the world's water scarcity problems could be water purification via the direct solar steam generation technology.

Exercise may protect bone health after weight loss surgery
Although weight loss surgery is a highly effective treatment for obesity, it can be detrimental to bone health.

Physicians don't always recognize patients' radiation therapy side effects
Physicians did not recognize side effects from radiation therapy in more than half of breast cancer patients who reported a significant symptom, a new study finds.

CTC dynamics may predict treatment response/prognosis in metastatic breast cancer patients
Early circulating tumor cell dynamics were associated with overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer, according to a meta-analysis presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Paleontologists find pterosaur precursors that fill a gap in early evolutionary history
''Where did pterosaurs come from?' is one of the most outstanding questions in reptile evolution; we think we now have an answer,'' said Sterling Nesbitt, associate professor of geosciences.

A new way to make arteries
In the study, published in Nature, the authors propose that selective blockade of cell proliferation and metabolism could be used to enhance arterialization in patients with cardiovascular disease.

UL, Ireland, research finds promising treatment to protect kidney function in diabetes
A clinical trial involving researchers at University of Limerick, Ireland has demonstrated the potential benefits of new drugs in protecting kidney function in diabetes.

Temporal crop diversity stabilizes agricultural production
Securing food supplies around the globe is a challenge facing humanity, especially in light of the predicted increase in the world's population and the effects of climate change.

Time to lower body temperature is critical in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Time to reach the target body temperature was a significant factor in achieving favorable neurological outcomes in patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Single-eye gene therapy improves vision in both eyes of patients with inherited eye disorder
A gene therapy for an inherited eye disorder can ameliorate vision loss in both eyes despite only being injected into one, according to a phase 3 clinical trial involving 37 patients.

Brains work harder while processing descriptions of motion in other languages
Different languages describe motion differently, according to distinct lexical rules.

Targeting T cell protein could prevent type 1 diabetes, study suggests
Researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine have identified a new therapeutic target to treat patients with type 1 diabetes.

New JILA tools 'turn on' quantum gases of ultracold molecules
JILA researchers have developed tools to 'turn on' quantum gases of ultracold molecules, gaining control of long-distance molecular interactions for potential applications such as encoding data for quantum computing and simulations.

Hawai'i researchers kept the data flowing during crisis response on K?lauea
The summer 2018 eruption of K?lauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai'i was one of the most significant in the volcano's history, collapsing a large portion of the summit caldera, erupting massively from its flank and triggering a magnitude 6.9 earthquake in the process.

Aquatic robot inspired by sea creatures walks, rolls, transports cargo
Northwestern University researchers have developed a first-of-its-kind life-like material that acts as a soft robot.

Many older adults hospitalized with the flu face persistent functional decline
In a study of older adults admitted to the hospital with influenza and other acute respiratory illnesses during the 2011-2012 flu season, functional decline was common--and for some, this decline was persistent and catastrophic.

Science of sandcastles is clarified, finally
Capillary condensation is a textbook phenomenon and omnipresent in our world.

Examining association of physician burnout with suicidal thoughts, medical errors
Physicians were surveyed to examine the association between burnout and thoughts of suicide and self-reported medical errors after accounting for depression.

Alzheimer Europe sets out future vision of EU dementia policy
Alzheimer Europe has launched a new report 'Dementia as a European Priority - A Policy Overview' which takes stock of dementia policy at an EU level and sets out recommendations for future priorities across Europe.

Nature conservation requires more dynamic approach to weather impacts of climate change
A new hard-hitting paper, titled ''Post-2020 biodiversity targets need to embrace climate change'' argues that nature conservation strategies need to become more flexible and dynamic in how it addresses the impact of climate change on natural habitats, genetic resources of plants, the composition of species, and the functioning of ecosystems.

Multiple semiconductor type switching to boost thermoelectric conversion of waste heat
Scientists at Tokyo Tech demonstrate double charge carrier type switching of tin SnSe semiconductor by doping of antimony Sb.

Glyphosate can create biomarkers predicting disease in future generations
Exposure to the widely used weed-killer glyphosate makes genetic changes to rats that can be linked to increased disease in their grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Research shows disparities in how communities respond to cardiac arrest
Black neighborhoods had a significantly lower rate of bystander automated external defibrillator (AED) use relative to non-Hispanic/Latino white communities, according to researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Children, teens with depression, risk of subsequent health problems, premature death
Researchers investigated whether children and adolescents diagnosed with depression had an increased risk of subsequent physical health problems and premature death in this observational study.

Dynamics in the root zone
Nutrient contamination of groundwater as a result of nitrogen-based fertilisers is a problem in many places in Europe.

How neurons form long-term memories
Harvard Medical School neuroscientists have identified genes that memory neurons use to rewire connections after new experiences.

Discovery suggests new promise for nonsilicon computer transistors
An alloy material called InGaAs could be suitable for high-performance computer transistors, according to MIT researchers.

Racial disparities in stage of breast cancer diagnosis
Minority women and women in general aged 50-64 in Pennsylvania showed an increased proportion of early-stage breast cancer diagnosis since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

The use of wild mammals in traditional medicine
In an analysis of published research, investigators identified 565 mammalian species that have been used to source products used in traditional medicine around the world, especially in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

Green pandemic recovery essential to close climate action gap - UN report
* Green pandemic recovery can bring 2030 emissions close to levels needed for 2°C goal, with more needed for 1.5°C goal * Pandemic-linked fall in 2020 emissions of up to 7% will have negligible impact on climate change * New net-zero pledges welcome, but need to be reflected in countries' commitments under the Paris Agreement and backed with rapid action

New program for African American couples leads to stronger relationships, improved health
For individuals looking to improve their health in 2021, strengthening your couple relationship may be part of the answer, according to findings from a recent University of Illinois study.

Shipworms' competitive sex frenzy caught on film
A competitive sexual frenzy in which bigger appendages have the most success of reproducing might sound like the briefing for a porn film, but instead, it's the finding of a new study examining a clam.

Recommendations for coping with working and learning remotely and returning to the workplace
WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, published by IOS Press, is committed to helping organizations manage the challenges they face during the COVID-19 pandemic by publishing robust, evidence-based research and commentary.

A balancing act: Improved water treatment technique using 'energy matching'
Direct solar steam generation (DSSG) holds immense promise as a feasible water treatment technique; however, its practical implementation requires a boost in the evaporation rate of water.

Insecure livelihoods hindering efforts to combat anti-microbial resistance globally
Patients living in precarious circumstances are less likely to use antibiotics appropriately according to a new study from the University of Warwick, suggesting that efforts to improve conditions for those with little security in their livelihoods could have an unexpected benefit in helping to tackle antimicrobial resistance globally.

New study suggests indigenous practices can help revitalize pacific salmon fisheries
Across the North Pacific, salmon fisheries are struggling with climate variability, declining fish populations, and a lack of sustainable fishing opportunities.

Mucocutaneous manifestations of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during COVID-19 pandemic
This case series describes the mucocutaneous findings seen in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the height of the COVID-19) pandemic in New York City.

Ability to predict C-diff mortality nearly doubled with new guidelines
Updated national guidelines for treating infections caused by the deadly superbug Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) have been examined and approved by a nationally renowned C. diff researcher at University of Houston and his team of students.

Beating the heat: Oxidation in novel coating material for aircraft gas turbine engines
Ytterbium silicide (Yb-Si) is a promising coating material for the high-temperature sections of aircraft gas turbine engines.

Breast cancer survivors are less likely to get pregnant, but often have healthy babies and good long-term health
A large meta-analysis of breast cancer survivors of childbearing age indicated that they are less likely than the general public to get pregnant, and they face higher risk of certain complications such as preterm labor.

New-found phenomenon that may improve hurricane forecasts
2020 Was a Year Like No Other - and That Goes for the Hurricane Season, Too!

PET/MRI, CT metrics assess pathologic response of pancreas cancer to neoadjuvant therapy
According to an open-access Editor's Choice article in ARRS' American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), post-neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) changes in metabolic metrics from PET/MRI and morphologic metrics from CT were associated with pathologic response and overall survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA).

A new evolutionary clue
Colleen B. Young, a graduate student in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Missouri, tested several popular assumptions about the characteristics of Homo floresiensis by comparing an island fox from California's Channel Islands with its mainland US relative, the gray fox.

Less light, more trees assist migrating birds
Scientists from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and Colorado State University used observations from the Lab's eBird citizen-science program to estimate the seasonal species richness of nocturnally migrating passerines within 333 well surveyed urban areas in the contiguous U.S.

Ultrafast dynamics of chiral spin structures observed after optical excitation
A joint research project of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the University of Siegen, Forschungszentrum Jülich, and the Elettra Synchrotron Trieste has achieved a new milestone for the ultra-fast control of magnetism.

Warmer springs mean more offspring for prothonotary warblers
Climate change contributes to gradually warming Aprils in southern Illinois, and at least one migratory bird species, the prothonotary warbler, is taking advantage of the heat.

'Sparkling' clean water from nanodiamond-embedded membrane filters
Although most of the planet is covered by water, only a fraction of it is clean enough for humans to use.

Ancient alliance
''Happy families are all alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.'' So goes the first line of Leo Tolstoy's ''Anna Karenina.'' Little did the Russian novelist know his famous opening line would one day be used to describe microbial communities, their health and their relationships to their hosts.

Religious discrimination particularly high for Jews and Muslims, study shows
Although people of all faiths report growing religious discrimination during the past few years, the phenomenon is most common among Jews and Muslims, according to a new study from researchers at Rice University and West Virginia University (WVU).

The Lancet: New polio vaccine against strain that threatens eradication is safe and generates immune response in adults, young children, and infants
Scientists have developed the first poliovirus vaccine against a mutated form of the disease that is causing disease outbreaks across Africa and Asia.

The impact of the pandemic on the Brazilian labor market
Black people and women are worst-off - blacks because they mainly work in the informal sector and women because they are mainly considered non-essential workers.

Wielding a gun makes a shooter perceive others as wielding a gun, too
Nearly a decade ago, cognitive psychologist Jessica Witt wondered if the mere act of wielding a firearm could bias someone to perceive another person as wielding one, too - and more importantly, if such a bias could be scientifically measured.

Big data offers promise of better groundwater management in California
A McGill University-led research team has analyzed big data of more than 200,000 groundwater samples taken from across the state and found that there are problems with the guidelines used for groundwater management.

Omitting radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery may not impact 10-year survival rates for older patients with HR-positive breast cancer
Older patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who did not receive radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery had higher rates of local recurrence but similar 10-year survival rates when compared to patients who received postoperative radiation therapy, according to updated 10-year data from the PRIME II study, presented at the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

First peer-reviewed results of phase 3 human trials of Oxford vaccine show efficacy
Wits University scientists were amongst the co-authors who published the first peer-reviewed results of phase 3 human trials of the Oxford/AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine, in prestigious scientific journal The Lancet, on 8 December.

Obesity impairs immune cell function, accelerates tumor growth
New study in mice finds that a high-fat diet allows cancer cells to outcompete immune cells for fuel, impairing immune function and accelerating tumor growth.

Within a hair's breadth--forensic identification of single dyed hair strand now possible
A single strand of hair in a crime scene contains many clues that can help identify a perpetrator.

Prehistoric 'sea dragon' discovered on English Channel Coast is identified as new species
A mysterious small marine reptile dating from 150 million years ago has been identified as a new species that may have been capable of diving very deeply.

Toxin provides clues to long-term effects of diarrhea caused by E. coli
A study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Index reveals integrity issues for many of the world's forests
Only 40 per cent of forests are considered to have high ecological integrity, according to a new global measure, the Forest Landscape Integrity Index.

Magnesium contact ions stabilize the macromolecular structure of transfer RNA
In cells transfer RNA (tRNA) translates genetic information from the encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) for protein synthesis.

Sous vide cooking method makes beef protein more digestible
Once used to prepare cuisine in only the finest restaurants, sous vide is now making its way into home chefs' kitchens.

Hydrogen peroxide keeps gut bacteria away from the colon lining
An enzyme in the colon lining releases hydrogen peroxide - a known disinfecting compound- to protect the body from gut microbial communities.

A simple rule drives the evolution of useless complexity
A new study at the University of Chicago has shown that elaborate protein structures accumulate over deep time even when they serve no purpose, because a universal biochemical property and the genetic code force natural selection to preserve them.

Natural antibiotics produced in wounds increase sleep and survival after injury
When wounded, our body sets off a complex immune response.

Tri-lab initiative leads innovation in novel hybrid energy systems
Future novel hybrid energy systems could lead to paradigm shifts in clean energy production, according to a paper published last week in Joule.

New 'sea dragon' discovered off UK coastline
An amateur fossil hunter has unearthed a new type of prehistoric 'sea dragon' on the beach of the UK's Dorset coast.

Hip-hop is helping tackle stigma around mental health, say Cambridge researchers
An article published today in BMJ Opinion explores the relationship between hip-hop and mental health, revealing how the genre has helped shine on light on the issues surrounding mental health.

Health care workers' COVID infections driven mainly by community exposure
In a well-resourced health system with adequate PPE, health care worker risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection was more strongly driven by community exposure than patient exposure early in the pandemic, reports a new study.

DeepLabCut-Live! real-time marker-less motion capture for animals
Behavioral scientists at EPFL introduce DeepLabCut-Live!, a deep-learning tool that can enable real-time feedback studies on animal movement and posture.

UBCO researchers suggest stool transplants can battle serious infections
Could number two be number one when it comes to combating recurrent Clostridium difficile (CDI) infections?

Listen to the birds: illegal diet pill DNP might kill you on the long run
DNP, a weight loss agent withdrawn from the market in the late 1930s due to acute toxicity, has become increasingly popular in recent years through online illegal sales.

In California, COVID death rate higher for people with IDD living in congregate settings
A new study published recently in ScienceDirect by researchers from Syracuse University and SUNY Upstate Medical University shows that California residents who receive services for intellectual and development disabilities (IDD) have lower COVID-19 case rates but a higher case-fatality rate than the general population.

'Spooky Interactions', shocking adaptations discovered in electric fish of Brazil's Amazon
In findings published in the journal Frontiers, researchers have shown how a cave-adapted glass knifefish species of roughly 300 living members (Eigenmannia vicentespelea) has evolved from surface-dwelling relatives (Eigenmannia trilineata) that still live just outside their cave door -- by sacrificing their eyes and pigmentation, but gaining slightly more powerful electric organs that enhance the way they sense prey and communicate in absolute darkness.

Weathered microplastic particles, readily internalized by mouse cells, may pose a greater risk than pristine ones
Microplastic particles exposed to freshwater or saltwater environments for several weeks are about 10 times more likely than pristine particles to be absorbed by mouse cells, due to a crust of microorganisms and biomolecules that forms on the particles' surfaces, according to a new study.

Memory deficits resulting from epigenetic changes in Alzheimer's disease can be reversed
Memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be able to be restored by inhibiting certain enzymes involved in abnormal gene transcription, according to a preclinical study by researchers at the University at Buffalo.

Nebraska anglers are creatures of habit
Fishing behavior of Nebraska anglers may be more predictable than previously thought, says a new paper published in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications. Seven fishing spots across the state were visited by loyal communities of anglers throughout the year, with little variation from spring to fall in the home ZIP codes of visitors.

First-known fossil iguana burrow found in the Bahamas
The fossilized burrow dates back to the Late Pleistocene Epoch, about 115,000 years ago, and is located on the island of San Salvador -- best known as the likely spot where Christopher Columbus made his first landfall in his 1492 voyage.

How soil fungi respond to wildfire
When wildfires swept through the North Bay in 2017, graduate student Gabriel Smith saw a unique opportunity to study how fire affected his research subject: soil fungi.

Neuropeptide discoveries could someday help defeat the dreaded cockroach
Cockroaches are notorious for their abilities to survive and reproduce, much to humanity's chagrin.

Hydrogels with fine-toothed molecular combs may make enduring glucose-monitoring implants
In a new study, published online in the journal American Chemical Society (ACS) Applied Polymer Materials, scientists at Texas A&M University reported they have designed a hydrogel membrane that may be used to house optical glucose sensing materials, toward building a biosensor for monitoring sugar levels in diabetics.

Toxic pollutants can impact wildlife disease spread
Exposure to toxic pollutants associated with human activities may be influencing the spread of infectious diseases in wildlife, according to a new study from the University of Georgia.

Researchers get a look at the sun's dusty environment
Scientists say that how dust moves and transforms around the sun may give them new insights to how Earth and its neighboring planets formed more than 4.5 billion years ago.

One-two punch: sea urchins stuck belly-up in low-oxygen hot water
Low oxygen seawater (hypoxia) may be more stressful to reef organisms than high water temperatures and ocean acidity, which are usually considered the most serious stressors associated with global change.

Under wraps: X-rays reveal 1,900-year-old mummy's secrets
Researchers used the powerful X-rays of the Advanced Photon Source to see the preserved remains of an ancient Egyptian girl without disturbing the linen wrappings.

No mortality increase with paclitaxel-coated devices in peripheral arterial disease
An interim analysis from the Swedish Drug-Elution Trial in Peripheral Arterial Disease (SWEDEPAD) has now been presented.

A better kind of cybersecurity strategy
The multilateral nature of cybersecurity today makes it markedly different than conventional security, according to a study co-authored by Alexander Wolitzky of MIT.

New and unexplored dimension in the study of protein-protein interactions
Cells accumulate glutamate and related molecules under stress, and so formation of high-order protein assemblies under these conditions has important biological implications.
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