Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 10, 2020
Artificial intelligence finds surprising patterns in Earth's biological mass extinctions
Scientists have long believed that mass extinctions create productive periods of species evolution, or ''radiations,'' a model called ''creative destruction.'' However, new analysis provide evidence for different outcome.

Diet modifications - including more wine and cheese - may help reduce cognitive decline
The foods we eat may have a direct impact on our cognitive acuity in our later years, according to new Iowa State University research.

German public attitudes toward health communications regarding COVID-19
This survey study assessed attitudes of the German public regarding COVID-19 health communications with varying degrees of scientific uncertainty.

Increased social media use linked to developing depression, research finds
Young adults who increased their use of social media were significantly more likely to develop depression within six months, according to a new national study authored by Dr.

Evaluating accumulating evidence of how poverty influences mental health, and how to intervene
Why are people who live in poverty disproportionately affected by mental illness?

Health: Loneliness and social isolation associated with higher fall risk in elderly people
Elderly people living alone or without social contact may be more likely to fall in their homes or be admitted to hospital for a fall, suggests a study published in Scientific Reports.

Promising treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, PMDD
The mental symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder improve following treatment with a progesterone receptor modulator, as demonstrated by SciLifeLab researcher Erika Comasco and Professor Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Uppsala University.

Animal behaviour: Cognitive performance of four-months-old ravens may parallel adult apes
By four months of age the cognitive performance of ravens in experimental tasks testing their understanding of the physical world and how they interact with other ravens may be similar to those of adult great apes, according to a study published in Scientific Reports.

In your face: a compact RGB scanning projector for wearable displays and smart glasses
Scientists at the University of Fukui, Japan, have achieved remarkable progress in the development of an extremely compact RGB laser projector that can create a high definition (HD) projection image.

Carbon fertilization effects are declining worldwide, limiting their role in climate change mitigation
The widely observed carbon fertilization effects on plant photosynthesis worldwide are declining, researchers report in a new study.

Research shows impact of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular disease risk in obese teens
Researchers at Children's Hospital Colorado determined that the long-term risk of cardiovascular events including heart attack, congestive heart failure, stroke and coronary death was reduced by almost threefold for teenagers with type 2 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery compared to those whose diabetes was only managed medically.

From the heart: study shows impact of social media appeals from COVID-19 frontliners
Anyone who's on social media right now has probably seen them: Passionate pleas from health care workers, asking for the public to realize how bad the COVID-19 pandemic has gotten, and urging them to take steps to slow the spread of coronavirus.

Immunotherapy improves responses w/o reducing quality of life in early breast cancer
Adding an immune checkpoint inhibitor to the standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with early-stage breast cancer places no greater burden on patients' ability to perform day-to-day activities than chemotherapy alone, new research by Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center investigators shows.

The role of platform protection insurance in the sharing economy
PPI significantly increases buyer spending and seller revenues, affirming the benefits of this service in the sharing economy.

New algorithm will prevent misidentification of cancer cells
Researchers from the University of Kent have developed a computer algorithm that can identify differences in cancer cell lines based on microscopic images, a unique development towards ending misidentification of cells in laboratories.

Predicting heart disease from the skin
Jefferson researchers find that the genetic underpinnings of a skin disorder at birth indicate future heart problems.

Why failing hearts love hard workouts
High-intensity interval training strengthens the heart even more than moderate exercise does.

Trained dogs might be able to detect people infected with COVID-19 by sniffing their sweat
Trained dogs might be able to detect people infected with COVID-19 by sniffing their sweat, according to a preliminary proof-of-concept study.

Rapid lateral flow immunoassay developed for fluorescence detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA
Scientists from the Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology have developed a novel amplification-free rapid SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection platform based on hybrid capture fluorescence immunoassay (HC-FIA).

Kids gain weight when new convenience stores open nearby
A new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published by Elsevier, found that changes in the food environment around low-income and high-ethnic/racial minority populations over time impact childhood obesity.

Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells on the magic threshold of 30% efficiency
An HZB team has published a report in the journal Science on the development of its current world record of 29.15% efficiency for a tandem solar cell made of perovskite and silicon.

Immediate detection of airborne viruses with a disposable kit!
The KIST-GIST collaborative research team developed an integrated sampling/monitoring platform that uses a disposable kit to easily collect and detect airborne viruses on-site.

Computational method provides faster high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging
Researchers at the Beckman Institute have developed a computational strategy that enables faster chemical and spatial characterization of tissues.

A potential therapy for one of the leading causes of heart disease
After 15 years of unrelenting work, a team of scientists from Gladstone Institutes has discovered a potential drug candidate for heart valve disease that works in both human cells and animals and is ready to move toward a clinical trial.

Hematoxylin as a killer of CALR mutant cancer cells
Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) often have a carcinogenic mutated form of the calreticulin gene (CALR).

A day at the beach helps model how sound moves through coastal areas
At a North Carolina beach, researchers have been poking and prodding the sand to study how moisture levels affect sounds as they move across the environment.

Preschool program linked with better social and emotional skills years later
A preschool enrichment program developed at Penn State helps boost social and emotional skills that still have positive effects years later during middle and high school, according to a new study.

Obstructive sleep apnoea puts a strain on the heart, too
Longer nocturnal respiratory events in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) cause higher immediate heart rate variability, and greater changes in beat-to-beat intervals are associated with reduced daytime alertness, according to new research from the University of Eastern Finland.

Study finds strong links between trust and social media use
A recent study finds a powerful correlation between the extent to which users trust Facebook, and the intensity of their Facebook use.

Antiepileptic drug reduces motor neuron excitability in ALS
The antiepileptic drug ezogabine reduced pathologic excitability of cortical and spinal motor neuron cells that are early signs of clinical dysfunction in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a study conducted by the Neurological Clinical Research Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).

"Electronic amoeba" finds approximate solution to traveling salesman problem in linear time
Researchers at Hokkaido University and Amoeba Energy in Japan have, inspired by the efficient foraging behavior of a single-celled amoeba, developed an analog computer for finding a reliable and swift solution to the traveling salesman problem -- a representative combinatorial optimization problem.

PET imaging tracer proves effective for diagnosing and managing rare CNS B-cell lymphoma
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 68Ga-pentixafor is an effective diagnostic tool for central nervous system (CNS) B-cell lymphoma, according to a proof-of-concept study published in the December issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Is George's 'Marvellous Medicine' medically useful, dangerous, or both?
Increased time at home during the covid-19 pandemic may inspire budding scientists to search for a cure, but researchers in the Christmas issue of The BMJ warn of the potential toxicity of homemade potions.

Researchers estimate nearly one-third of oaks are threatened with extinction
An estimated 31% of the world's oak species are threatened with extinction according to data compiled in a new report by The Morton Arboretum and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Tree Specialist Group, The Red List of Oaks 2020.

Low oxygen levels in lakes and reservoirs may accelerate global change
Ultimately, this study is crucial for how researchers, and the general public, think about how freshwater ecosystems produce greenhouse gases in the future.

Quality suffers for audit offices that emphasize non-audit services, study shows
Regulators have expressed concerns that audit firms' emphasis on non-audit services (NAS) such as consulting could distract from an audit, and quality does suffer in certain cases, according to new research from the University of Notre Dame.

Amino acid recycling in cells: Autophagy helps cells adapt to changing conditions
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), Japan, have shown for the first time how specific metabolites produced by autophagy are utilized by a cell.

Essential oral healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the need for consensus on the definition of essential oral healthcare.

Bad news for fake news: Rice research helps combat social media misinformation
Rice University researchers have discovered a more efficient way for social media companies to keep misinformation from spreading online through the use of probabilistic filters trained with artificial intelligence.

Blocking protein restores strength, endurance in old mice, Stanford study finds
A single protein is a master regulator of mouse muscle function during aging, a Stanford study finds.

Social media provides SMEs with tools to mitigate internationalisation-related threats
For SMEs seeking to enter the international markets, social media is a tool for overcoming liabilities connected to their smallness, newness and foreignness, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.

Energy-efficient magnetic RAM: A new building block for spintronic technologies
Researchers demonstrate a new way to enhance the energy efficiency of the non-volatile magnetic memory.

Embryonic development in a petri dish
3D cell culturing technique could replace mouse embryos

Fans may relieve breathlessness associated with advanced cancers
Blowing air from a fan into the face of patients with advanced cancer experiencing breathlessness, and other nonpharmacologic interventions, may offer symptom relief, according to new research directed by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators.

Scientific rigor in COVID-19 age
This Viewpoint discusses the need for scientific rigor in studies related to COVID-19 and presents study design recommendations and methodologies that should be incorporated to ensure that findings are reliable and reproducible.

Faster and more efficient information transfer
Physicists use antiferromagnetic rust to carry information over long distances at room temperature

Police investigators of online child abuse at risk of mental harm
Researchers at the University of Portsmouth and Solent University explored moral injury amongst child exploitation investigators and interviewed police officers from two Constabularies during a year-long study.

Inhaled vaccine induces fast, strong immune response in mice and non-human primates
Researchers demonstrate in a study publishing December 10 in the journal Med that a phage-based inhalation delivery system for vaccines generates potent antibody responses in mice and non-human primates, without causing lung damage.

Different forms of sugar impact hunger-suppressing hormones in young adults
Drinks with sucrose compared to glucose may cause young adults to produce lower levels of appetite-regulating hormones, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Deadly, emergent cancer becoming endemic in Tasmanian devils, reducing extinction threat
An emergent transmissible cancer that once threatened Tasmanian devils with extinction appears to be transitioning to a state of endemism, researchers report.

Water on Mars not as widespread as previously thought, study finds
University of Arkansas scientists created planetwide maps of where water might be found on Mars.

How commercial vessels could become tsunami early-warning systems
If a tsunami formed along the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the coast of Oregon, residents might have just 20-30 minutes to get to safety.

Insufficient screening for heart damage after noncardiac surgery puts patients at risk
About five percent of patients experience heart muscle injury around the time of their surgery for a noncardiac condition, yet guideline recommendations to identify patients at risk using biomarkers are not being followed.

Largest-ever study on children's soft contact lens safety shows low complication rates
The largest-ever retrospective study of its kind (the ReCSS Study) has found very low complication rates in children who wear soft contact lenses, similar to rates in adults.

Getting the right grip: Designing soft and sensitive robotic fingers
To develop a more human-like robotic gripper, it is necessary to provide sensing capabilities to the fingers.

The immunomodulatory activity of a drug would improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in breast cancer
* The team of Eva González-Suarez, from the CNIO and IDIBELL, and the team of Christos Sotiriou, from the Jules Bordet Institute, demonstrate that a drug already used to treat osteoporosis promotes the infiltration of immune cells in breast tumours * These findings propose a new target to increase the antitumor immune response and make breast cancer more sensitive to immunotherapy

Melatonin: finally, a supplement that actually boosts memory
Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) showed that melatonin's metabolite AMK can enhance the formation of long-term memories in mice.

NYUAD researchers shed new light on mysteries behind the light emission of fireflies
A team of researchers from the NYU Abu Dhabi's (NYUAD) Smart Materials Lab (SML) led by Professor of Chemistry Panče Naumov has conducted a thorough review of the scientific literature surrounding the natural production of light, called bioluminescence, and developed conclusions that will help others in the field direct their research to uncover the mysteries behind this fascinating natural phenomenon.

Researchers identify the physical mechanism that can kill bacteria with gold nanoparticles
A multidisciplinary team of researchers have discovered that the mechanical deformation of bacteria is a toxic mechanism that can kill bacteria with gold nanoparticles.

State-reported data underestimate the true impact of COVID-19 social distancing
While most studies have used government stay-at-home dates in their models, new research finds that individuals actually changed their behavior in reaction to the presence of COVID-19 in their state a median 12 days before a government lockdown.

Hubble pins down weird exoplanet with far-flung orbit
A planet in an unlikely orbit around a double star 336 light-years away may offer a clue to a mystery much closer to home: a hypothesized, distant body in our solar system dubbed 'Planet Nine.'

Black churches are trusted messengers of COVID-19 information to their communities
U.S. public health officials have reported that Black communities are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

New treatment could spare early-stage rectal cancer patients life-altering side effects
A new and less invasive treatment developed by Cancer Research UK researchers is safer than standard major surgery for early-stage rectal cancer, giving patients a better quality of life with fewer life-altering side effects, results from a pilot study show.

Lung ultrasounds could help determine COVID-19 outcome
Researchers have developed a method using ultrasound imaging to score a patient's lung health, which may help predict if a patient with COVID-19 will worsen.

Using CRISPR, new technique makes it easy to map genetic networks
UC Berkeley scientists has developed an easy way to genetically profile a cell, including human cells, and rapidly determine all DNA sequences in the genome that regulate expression of a specific gene.

Single-crystal technology holds promise for next-generation lithium-ion batteries
Scientists have improved a promising battery technology, creating a single-crystal, nickel-rich cathode that is hardier and more efficient than before.

Roadmap offers solutions for future of food, global ag innovation
To deflect future world food crises created by climate change, a Cornell University-led international group has created a road map for global agricultural and food systems innovation.

Counseling clients of color affected by COVID-19
An article published in the Journal of Counseling & Development examines how pre-existing racial and ethnic disparities, exacerbated by COVID-19, have negatively affected communities of color that tend to be overrepresented in lower socioeconomic groups, have limited access to health care and education, have an undocumented status, and work in jobs considered ''essential.''

Making cheaper, biocompatible E-skin electrodes
DGIST materials scientists and colleagues in Korea have improved electrical conductivity in a polymer electrode for E-skin applications.

A biased evaluation of employees' performance can be useful for employers
In assessing an employee's performance, employers often listen to his immediate supervisor or colleagues, and these opinions can be highly subjective.

NUS researchers finds best combination of available therapies against COVID-19
Researchers from the National University of Singapore have utilised a ground-breaking AI platform to find an optimal combination of available therapies against COVID-19.

FEFU scientists suggest using neuromodulation to treat patients with spinal cord injuries
Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) together with leading international experts suggest reconsidering the existing treatment protocol for severe spasticity, one of the main complications after spinal cord injury with partial spinal cord disruption.

'Fun size' Cas9 nucleases hold promise for easier genome editing
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues from Russia and the US have described two new, compact Cas9 nucleases, the cutting components of CRISPR-Cas systems, that will potentially expand the Cas9 toolbox for genome editing.

Tasmanian devils may survive their own pandemic
Researchers have found strong evidence that a transmissible cancer that has decimated Tasmanian devil populations likely won't spell their doom.

COVID-19 found in the cornea: Are transplants a transmission risk?
A multi-institutional study finds that COVID-19 can be found in post-mortem corneal tissue, highlighting the importance of the donor screening process.

Study details first artificial intelligence tool to help labs rule-out COVID-19
Hospital-based laboratories and doctors at the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic might soon add artificial intelligence to their testing toolkit.

Gene discovery could help prevent heart attacks
Doctors may be able to use the findings to identify people at high risk of coronary artery disease and to develop better treatments and preventative interventions.

How seaweed-munching crabs could help save coral reefs
Coral reefs are facing a steep decline today for many reasons, including climate change, overfishing, pollution, disease, and more.

Atom-thin transistor uses half the voltage of common semiconductors, boosts current density
University at Buffalo researchers report a new, two-dimensional transistor made of graphene and molybdenum disulfide that needs less voltage and can handle more current than today's semiconductors.

The Journal of Nuclear Medicine celebrates 60 years of research
The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (JNM) has issued a special supplement commemorating six decades of leadership in the field of nuclear medicine, molecular imaging and therapy.

Dartmouth researchers work to reduce child-directed food marketing on educational websites
A new article, published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine by a by a team of researchers and advocates including Dartmouth faculty, asserts that current gaps in the regulation of commercial educational websites are exposing children to unhealthy food marketing.

Princeton Chem reports role of quantum vibrations in electron transfer
Princeton Chemistry's Scholes Group is reporting evidence that quantum vibrations participate in electron transfer, establishing with ultrafast laser spectroscopy that the vibrations provide channels through which the reaction takes place.

Hubble identifies strange exoplanet that behaves like the long-sought "Planet Nine"
The 11-Jupiter-mass exoplanet called HD106906 b occupies an unlikely orbit around a double star 336 light-years away and it may be offering clues to something that might be much closer to home: a hypothesized distant member of our Solar System dubbed ''Planet Nine.'' This is the first time that astronomers have been able to measure the motion of a massive Jupiter-like planet that is orbiting very far away from its host stars and visible debris disc.

Nanocylinder vibrations help quantify polymer curing for 3D printing
In a step toward making more accurate and uniform 3D-printed parts such as personalized prosthetics and dental materials, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated a method of measuring the rate at which microscopic regions of a liquid raw material harden into a solid plastic when exposed to light.

New serological assay provides rapid, accurate testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies
Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have developed a novel serological assay for the detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality in us national sample of patients with COVID-19
Patients with COVID-19 who were treated in U.S. hospitals are described in this study that examines risks factors associated with in-hospital death.

Natural environmental conditions facilitate the uptake of microplastics into living cells
The environment is polluted by microplastics worldwide. A research team at the University of Bayreuth has now discovered that microplastic particles find their way into living cells more easily if they were exposed to natural aquatic environments, i.e. fresh water and seawater.

What caused the ice ages? Tiny ocean fossils offer key evidence
Since the discovery that atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were lower during past ice ages, the cause has been a mystery.

Genomic analysis of early SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Boston shows role of superspreading events
SARS-CoV-2 was introduced to the Boston area of Massachusetts many times in early 2020, according to a new analysis of virus genomes, but only a small number of importations - including one related to an international business conference - led to most cases there.

Germans want open communication of uncertainty in the coronavirus pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has once again highlighted the uncertainty inherent in science.

Genetic differences important in Alzheimer's diagnosis
The two used methods for detecting amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease do not give unambiguous results, with the risk of incorrect or delayed care interventions.

Cataloging nature's hidden arsenal: Viruses that infect bacteria
A new approach for studying phage-bacteria interactions will help scientists study the intricate offensive and defensive chemical tactics used by parasite and host.

Tiny bubbles on electrodes key to speeding up chemical processes
New Curtin University-led research has shown the formation of bubbles on electrodes, usually thought to be a hindrance, can be beneficial, with deliberately added bubbles, or oil droplets, able to accelerate processes such as the removal of pollutants such as hydrocarbons from contaminated water and the production of chlorine.

COVID-19 may also invade the central nervous system, cause neurological illnesses
COVID-19 is known primarily as a respiratory disease, with symptoms that include cough, shortness of breath, and, in severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia.

COVID-19 lockdown causes unprecedented drop in global CO2 emissions in 2020
The global COVID-19 lockdowns caused fossil carbon dioxide emissions to decline by an estimated 2.4 billion tonnes in 2020 - a record drop according to researchers at Future Earth's Global Carbon Project.

Study: teacher performance measures may penalize Black educators
By not adjusting for school and classroom factors outside the control of educators, classroom observation scores for Black teachers in Chicago Public Schools unfairly penalize them for being more likely to teach in schools in low-income neighborhoods with students who are academically disadvantaged, according to a study published today in Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.

Psychiatric disorders explain increased risk for self-harm in autism spectrum disorders
A population-based study revealed reasons behind elevated suicide risk, attempted suicides, and other self-harm, which require special health care, among adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders.

UMBC researchers use machine learning to develop more accurate COVID-19 diagnostic tool
Researchers at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) have developed a method of generating high-quality chest X-ray images that can be used to diagnose COVID-19 more accurately than current methods.

Exoplanet around distant star resembles reputed 'Planet Nine' in our solar system
Astronomers think planets can exist in orbits far from their star, and propose a two-step process: interactions with the star or inner planets kick it out of the inner system, and then a passing star stabilizes the orbit to keep it bound.

First presentation after Hayabusa2 mission return set for SPIE conference 14 December
As part of the opening plenary session at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation Digital Forum, Hitoshi Kuninaka, of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, will be discussing and responding to audience questions about the successful return of the Hayabusa2 capsule from its asteroid-sample mission, a second-time-in-history-success that marks exciting and innovating advances for the astronomical-instrumentation community.

Studies reveal potential weaknesses in SARS-CoV-2 infection
A single protein that appears necessary for the COVID-19 virus to reproduce and spread to other cells is a potential weakness that could be targeted by future therapies.

Bio-inspired lanthanide-transition metal cluster for efficient overall water splitting
A bio-inspired lanthanide-transition metal cluster as oxygen-evolving center anchored on P-doped graphitic carbon nitrides for efficient photocatalytic overall water splitting was demonstrated.

Designed a tool that will automate device programming in the IoT
UOC researchers develop new solutions to boost Industry 4.0 development

Robots could replace real therapy dogs
Robotic animals could be the 'pawfect' replacement for our real-life furry friends, a new study published today by the University of Portsmouth has found.

Ferrets, cats and civets most susceptible to coronavirus infection after humans
Humans, followed by ferrets and to a lesser extent cats, civets and dogs are the most susceptible animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Bosses need appreciation, too
'Tis the season to be grateful, even for your boss, according to a recent A new study suggests that when supervisors feel appreciated, it gives them a boost of energy and optimism.

Lyme disease ticks produce antibiotic that protects them from human skin bacteria
Ticks live dangerous lives, spending most of their time questing for a host across wildly different habitats and seasons.

How loud is too loud? Identifying noise levels that deter older restaurant patrons
As restaurants get noisier, the increasing noise levels could deter older patrons, especially those with mild to severe hearing loss.

The greening of the earth is approaching its limit
Vegetation has a key role in mitigating climate change because it reduces the excess CO2 that we humans emit into the atmosphere.

UCI, UCSD study: People more likely to pick up prescriptions via automated kiosks
Ever see long lines at the pharmacy counter and give up on a medication, or find that the drive is just a little too long?

AAV capsid-promoter interactions in the non-human primate brain
The phenomenon of AAV capsid-promoter interaction recently seen in the rat central nervous system has now been shown to occur in the non-human primate brain.

Quantitative approach on understanding how epigenetic switches control gene expression
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology decipher how to quantitatively assess the effects of specific epigenetic changes on the rate of transcription by developing a mathematical model.

A gene from ancient bacteria helps ticks spread Lyme disease
One reason ticks spread Lyme disease so well goes back to a unique evolutionary event.

Testing memory over four weeks could predict Alzheimer's disease risk
New research suggests testing people's memory over four weeks could identify who is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease before it has developed.

Cost information increases utility of decision aids for shared decision making
Cost information, when paired with information about clinical treatment options, greatly enhances the value of shared decision making, reported a FAIR Health brief released today.

Americans must be vigilant against anti-vax rumors in 'fractured media universe'
As the world watches how UK residents respond to COVID-19 vaccinations, three leading experts on the virus are urging Americans and the US government to be vigilant against anti-vaccination advocates and their 'rumors, misinformation, and conspiracy theories in a fractured media universe.'

When it comes to feeling pain, touch or an itch, location matters
When you touch a hot stove, your hand reflexively pulls away; if you miss a rung on a ladder, you instinctively catch yourself.

Artificial Chemist 2.0: quantum dot R&D in less than an hour
A new technology, called Artificial Chemist 2.0, allows users to go from requesting a custom quantum dot to completing the relevant R&D and beginning manufacturing in less than an hour.

Beta-blockers display anti-inflammatory effects in advanced liver disease
Beta-blockers are used to prevent internal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

How much does the way you speak reveal about you?
Listeners can extract a lot of information about a person from their acoustic speech signal.

A genetic shortcut to help visualize proteins at work
A group at Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF) has demonstrated that a large-scale and systematic genetic approach can indeed yield reliable and detailed information on the structure of protein complexes.

Researchers create roadmap for eliminating defects in health care value
A new paper states that the U.S. health care system spends in excess of $1.3 trillion annually on sub-optimal behavior and outlines a roadmap for reducing costs by eliminating defects in health care value.

Calibrating kidney function for cancer patients
A new model to evaluate kidney function can help clinicians find the right balance between treating cancer and avoiding chemotherapy's dangerous side effects.

Mail-order medications often exposed to unsafe temperatures, study shows
Mail-order prescriptions shipped in standard bubble-padded envelopes during winter and summer months are likely to spend a substantial portion of time outside the recommended safe temperature range for most medications, according to research presented at the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear Clinical Meeting and Exhibition.

Assessment of online tool to simulate effect of pooled testing for SARS-CoV-2
A diagnostic study, this describes an online tool created with actual SARS-CoV-2 virus copy number data to help policy makers understand how pooled testing compares with single-sample testing in different populations.

Bacteria release climate-damaging carbon from thawing permafrost
Around a quarter of the ground in the northern hemisphere is permanently frozen.

Hearing tones, elements through atomic music
With each atom assigned a tonal signature based on its spectral signature, music can be a powerful tool for helping students understand atomic structure.

Self-collected saliva samples prove effective for diagnosing COVID-19
Researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) have found that SARS-CoV-2 genetic material can be reliably detected in self-collected saliva samples at a rate similar to that of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs.

Restorative justice preferred among the Enga in Papua New Guinea
Most large-scale populations employ a punitive judicial system. Advocates have long called for a more restorative justice system that repairs harm to victims and reintegrates wrongdoers into society.

Current pace of action on climate change is "unthinkable" state ex UN climate leaders
Justifiable pride can be taken in the incremental accomplishments of international climate change cooperation, but it is ''unthinkable'' to continue at the current pace.

Study: Teacher performance measures may penalize black educators
By not adjusting for school and classroom factors outside the control of educators, classroom observation scores for Black teachers in Chicago Public Schools unfairly penalize them for being more likely to teach in schools in low-income neighborhoods with students who are academically disadvantaged, according to a study published today in Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.

Phase 1 trial assesses whether fecal microbiota transplant impacts cancer patients resistant to immu
In one of the first in-human studies to investigate whether modifying the gut microbiome by a fecal microbiota transplant could make cancer immunotherapy more effective, researchers analyzing this in ten cancer patients with refractory melanoma suggest the treatment can improve patient outcomes.

Which product categories and industries benefit most from social advertising
New research from a team of scientists at four leading universities has shed new light on the effectiveness of social advertising in specific product categories to learn which product categories tend to benefit more from social advertising, and which may not.

Reactive Video playback that you control with your body
An international team of researchers from Lancaster University, Stanford University and FXPAL, have created a system that dynamically adapts to mirror the position of the viewer's body and matches the speed of video playback to the viewer's movements.

Human egg cells are imperfect surprisingly often
More than 7% of human oocytes contain at least one exchangeless chromosome pair, demonstrating a remarkably high level of meiotic recombination failure, finds a study appearing December 10 in the American Journal of Human Genetics. The findings suggest that right from the get-go of human egg cell development, a striking proportion of oocytes are predestined to be chromosomally abnormal.

Research examines impact of hurricanes on hospitalizations, medical providers
More older adults are hospitalized in the month following hurricanes while fewer primary care doctors, surgeons and specialists are available in some of their communities in the long term, according to a pair of University of Michigan studies.

Researchers demonstrate nondestructive mid-infrared imaging using entangled photons
Researchers have shown that entangled photons can be used to improve the penetration depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in highly scattering materials.

Analyses of risk, racial disparity, outcomes among US patients with cancer, COVID-19 infection
This study investigated how patients with specific types of cancer are at risk for COVID-19 infection and its adverse outcomes and whether there are cancer-specific race disparities for COVID-19 infection.

Bristol researchers publish significant step toward quantum advantage
Researchers from the University of Bristol and quantum start-up, Phasecraft, have achieved a milestone in quantum computing research, accelerating the journey from theory to research to reality.

1300 species, 2400 genes, 21 museums, and 40 years
The tropics are a rich source of nature's biodiversity. However, due to limited sampling knowledge of tropical diversity is incomplete, making it difficult to uncover the mechanisms that drive and maintain such a high diversity.

The psychology of causality
Like a parent being pestered with endless questions from a young child, most people will now and again find themselves following an infinite chain of cause and effect when considering what led to some particular event.

Nutrigenomics: new frontiers
Plant omics and food engineering offer novel perspectives and value to sustainable agriculture and ecological sciences

Diabetes in dogs may indicate elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in their owners
Owners of a dog with diabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than owners of a dog without diabetes.

Double element co-doped carbon quantum dots enhance photocatalytic efficiency
In a paper published in NANO, researchers from Nanjing Tech University proposed a theory which attributes the photocatalytic efficiency enhancement of Phosphorus and Nitrogen co-doped CQDs (PNCQDs)/TiO2 nanosheets composite photocatalyst to the quantum wells of PNCQDs.

Signs of healthy aging found in ergothioneine telomere study
Signs of healthy aging found in ergothioneine telomere in vitro study, published in the Journal of Dietary Supplements, demonstrating Blue California ErgoActive ergothioneine helped to preserve telomere length and reduced the rate of telomere shortening under oxidative stress.

Predicting British railway delays using artificial intelligence
Over the past 20 years, the number of passengers traveling on British train networks has almost doubled to 1.7 billion annually.

The edible marine snail now contains a new species
Recognizing species is important for understanding regional biodiversity and for environmental conservation.

A surgeon's birthday may be a dicey day for older patients
Older people who undergo emergency surgeries on their operating surgeon's birthday may be more likely to die within a month than patients who go through similar procedures on other days, a new UCLA-led study suggests.

Impacts of COVID-19 emissions reductions remain murky in the oceans
While greenhouse gas emissions dropped significantly in the first half of 2020, new research finds ocean acidification remains unchanged--yet the world's oceans can respond quickly in other ways to reduced emissions.
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