Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 16, 2020
African American youth who receive positive messages about their racial group may perform better in school
Youth of color represent over half of the school-aged population (kindergarten through twelfth grade) in public schools in the United States.

How a very "sociable" protein can hold clues about Alzheimer's origin
An international team of scientists led by the ESRF, the European Synchrotron, have found how the ECSIT protein dictates the behaviour of proteins linked to the energy activity in mitochondria, which is largely affected in Alzheimer's disease.

New study links cadmium to more severe flu, pneumonia infections
High levels of cadmium, a chemical found in cigarettes and in contaminated vegetables, are associated with higher death rates in patients with influenza or pneumonia--and may increase the severity of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, according to a new study.

Extracting precious zinc from waste ash
Incineration of solid waste produces millions of tonnes of waste fly ash in Europe each year, that most commonly ends up in landfill.

In pandemic, people are turning to nature - especially women
One of the first studies on our relationship with nature during COVID finds significant increases in outdoor activity, especially among women.

Energy transition at the crossroads: New topical issue in Russian Journal of Economics
A new issue of the Russian Journal of Economics gets a set of profound messages across, summarized as: ''transition matters, transition goes, yet transition is not a simple, unified march towards a Green future''.

Buildings-related CO2 emissions hit record high: UN
Emissions from the operation of buildings hit their highest-ever level in 2019, moving the sector further away from fulfilling its huge potential to slow climate change and contribute significantly to the goals of the Paris Agreement, according to a new UN-backed report.

New salmonella proteins discovered
Only one small protein needs to be missing and salmonellae are no longer infectious.

Infrastructure key to balancing climate and economic goals in developing countries
Developing nations have an opportunity to avoid long-term dependence on fossil fuel-burning infrastructure as they move toward economic stability, even if they are slow to cut carbon emissions, say the authors of a new paper.

The bull's eye: New modified stem cells can deliver drugs specifically to tumor cells
Targeting drugs to cancer tissues is a major challenge in cancer treatment.

Experimental vaccine can counter dangerous effects of synthetic cannabinoids
Made in clandestine laboratories and sold widely across the United States, the diverse class of drugs known as synthetic cannabinoids presents a growing public health threat.

Report identifies critical gaps and research opportunities for improved cancer care
A new report finds that despite progress in the decline of cancer mortality, there are still critical gaps including the need to develop better tools and explore research opportunities that would lead to limiting cancer as a major health concern.

New type of atomic clock keeps time even more precisely
An MIT-designed atomic clock uses entangled atoms to keep time even more precisely than its state-of-the-art counterparts.

Turning sweat against itself with a metal-free antiperspirant
Body odor is an unpleasant smell, produced when bacteria living on the skin break down the proteins in sweat.

Plant diversity in Germany on the decline
In the last 60 years, plant diversity across Germany decreased by an average of 15 percent in over 70 percent of the more than 2000 species examined.

Ensuring a proper body plan
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have shown that the enzyme lysine demethylase 7a helps ensure the ordered axial development of the mouse embryo by modulating Hox genes which specify positional characteristics along the head-to-tail axis.

King of the Cave: New centipede on top of the food chain in the sulphurous-soaked Movile
A new species of endemic, troglobiont centipede was discovered by an international team of scientists in the Romanian cave Movile: a unique underground ecosystem, isolated several millions years ago during the Neogene, whose animal life only exists because of the chemosynthetic bacteria.

New insights into Fragile X syndrome and the fetal brain
Researchers at Tohoku University have revealed further insight into the fetal development of our brain and the potential causes of Fragile X syndrome (FSX).

Flexible and powerful electronics
A team of researchers led by the University of Tsukuba has developed a method for optimizing the electrical properties of carbon-based conductors by turning them into an ionic gel.

Invention may get Army quadcopters to move faster
Researchers believe a new hinge is the key to get load-bearing, large, Army quadrotors to climb a few dozen feet in seconds

Teaching artificial intelligence to adapt
Getting computers to 'think' like humans is the holy grail of artificial intelligence, but human brains turn out to be tough acts to follow.

Unique prediction of 'modified gravity' challenges dark matter
An international group of scientists, including Case Western Reserve University Astronomy Chair Stacy McGaugh, has published research contending that modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) -- a rival idea to the popular dark matter hypothesis--more accurately predicts a galactic phenomenon that appears to defy the classic rules of gravity.

Semiconductor material analysis made possible with artificial intelligence
Researchers in South Korea have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) system that can analyze magnetic systems in an instant.

Graduate student's BADASS code has astronomical benefits
An astro-statistics course UC Riverside graduate student Remington Sexton took three years ago taught him techniques that led him to develop free, open-source code benefiting astronomers everywhere.

Two-year study details dynamics of Huntington's disease markers in patients
A new two-year longitudinal study reveals how two proteins linked to Huntington's disease - an incurable neurodegenerative disorder - change over time in patients and in as-yet asymptomatic people who carry a mutation that causes the condition.

Many Americans reported economic hardships even early in the COVID-19 pandemic
Significant proportions of US respondents were experiencing economic hardships even early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with Hispanic citizens being particularly affected, according to research by Shatakshee Dhongde at the Georgia Institute of Technology, U.S., publishing in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on December 16, 2020.

Babbler bird falls into climate change trap
Animals can fall into an 'ecological trap' by altering their behavior in the 'wrong direction' in response to climate change, researchers say.

How to stop infections caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria
The authors aimed to evaluate in vivo the efficacy of imipenem plus meropenem in an experimental murine model of sepsis caused by clinical isolates of carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii.

Cancer: Tumor driver promoting EMT, metastasis and resistance to therapy
Publication in Nature: researchers at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) identify, for the first time, the functions of FAT1, one of the most frequently mutated cancer gene drivers.

Information transport in antiferromagnets via pseudospin-magnons
A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM), the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (BAdW), and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim has discovered an exciting method for controlling spin carried by quantized spin wave excitations in antiferromagnetic insulators.

LOOP technique for I&D of abscesses in adults is safe, effective alternative to I&D with packing
LOOP technique for incision and drainage (I&D) of abscesses in adults is a safe and effective alternative to the traditional I & D with packing and may offer an alternative to the standard regimen in the treatment of uncomplicated skin abscesses in pediatric patients.

A new method for the functionalization of graphene
An international research team involving Professor Federico Rosei of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) has demonstrated a novel process to modify the structure and properties of graphene, a one atom thick carbon.

Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in younger adults
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is occurring more frequently in adults under age 50, and these younger adults are more likely to be diagnosed at advanced stages.

Towards circular economy: European manufacturers tend not to report on their actions
After analysing the data from 226 large manufacturing companies from the European Union, a team of researchers from Lithuania, Poland and Sweden have drawn a conclusion that organisations almost do not mention circular economy principles in their environmental reporting.

Physicists solve geometrical puzzle in electromagnetism
A team of scientists have solved the longstanding problem of how electrons move together as a group inside cylindrical nanoparticles.

Study of dune dynamics will help scientists understand the topography of Mars
Researchers at the University of Campinas conducted more than 120 experiments with dunes of up to 10 cm that interact for a few minutes, obtaining a model valid for dunes on the surface of Mars that are many miles long and take more than a thousand years to interact

Suicide risk among patients with Parkinson disease
Researchers investigated whether Parkinson disease was associated with an increased risk of suicide among a large group of patients in Taiwan.

The 16 facial expressions most common to emotional situations worldwide
Whether at a birthday party in Brazil, a funeral in Kenya or protests in Hong Kong, humans all use variations of the same facial expressions in similar social contexts, according to a new study from the University of California, Berkeley.

RNA molecules are masters of their own destiny
A new paper suggests that RNA molecules are responsible for regulating their own formation through a feedback loop.

Novel principle for cancer treatment shows promising effect
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report in the journal Nature that they have developed novel first-in-class inhibitors that compromise mitochondrial function in cancer cells.

Traffic light system helps reduce clinical uncertainty, improve treatment decisions
A new study has found one in four clinical decisions made by physicians falls short of best practices, but when physicians reviewed a simple traffic light system prior to making a clinical decision, uncertainty was reduced by 70 per cent and treatment decisions improved.

Researchers identify predictors of timely enrollment in treatment for opioid use disorder
Frequent doctor visits were associated with timely treatment, while prior overdose, alcohol use disorder and back problems predicted non-enrollment, study finds.

An atlas of S. pneumoniae and host gene expression during colonization and disease
The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx and can cause pneumonia.

Tepary beans -- a versatile and sustainable native crop
This drought and heat tolerant crop can provide nutrition, even when grown in harsh environments.

How hope can make you happier with your lot
New research finds that that having hope for the future can make you happier with your lot - and protect you from risky behaviours such as drinking and gambling.

Blocking DNA repair enzyme could help treat certain cancers
Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute have found a new way to prevent some tumours from repairing their own DNA, a function that is essential for cancer cell survival.

Atmospheric pollution and COVID-19 spread in Italy
A careful analysis focused on the possible connection between a low air quality index and COVID-19 spread in Italy in the first quarter of 2020.

Potential treatment approach kills lymphoma while sparing healthy cells
Scientists at Scripps Research have demonstrated a promising new strategy for treating lymphomas, a group of cancers that begin in infection-fighting cells of the immune system called lymphocytes.

Adverse childhood experiences are linked to justice system contact
A new paper released by Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health reports a strong association between a high number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and contact with the U.S. justice system.

Black women have the highest risk of pregnancy-related heart problems in the US
Significant racial disparities exist in heart-related complications among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States.

Lipid identified in human breast milk may play important role in early childhood weight
A lipid metabolite called 12,13-diHOME is in human breast milk.

Discriminatory policies threaten care for transgender, gender diverse individuals
The Endocrine Society and the Pediatric Endocrine Society oppose legislative efforts to block transgender and gender diverse individuals from accessing gender-affirming medical and surgical care, the two medical societies said in a joint policy perspective published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

International study reveals the effects of COVID-19 on the experience of public transport
A team of European researchers working on a project about public transport as public space have recently completed a study on the perception and use of public transport during the first wave of COVID-19.

Connections determine everything
A team of scientists, with the first author from the HSE University, were investigating which factors are the most important for the upper limb motor recovery after a stroke.

Secret of Australia's volcanoes revealed
New research from the University of Sydney proposes a theory that explains not only Australia's volcanic coast, but provides a framework for other incidences of intraplate volcanism in China, the US and the Caribbean.

COVID-19 spread increases when UV levels decrease
Natural variations in ultraviolet radiation influence the spread of COVID-19, but the influence is modest compared to preventive measures such as physical distancing, mask wearing, and quarantine, according to new research from Harvard University.

New scientific study: Children falling behind on measles vaccinations
While the world witnessed impressive progress in immunizing children against measles between 2000 and 2010, the last 10 years have seen such efforts stalling in low- and middle-income nations, according to a new scientific study.

Colorful, magnetic Janus balls could help foil counterfeiters (video)
Counterfeiters who sell knockoffs of popular shoes, handbags and other items are becoming increasingly sophisticated, forcing manufacturers to find new technologies to stay one step ahead.

UC Study: Suicide watch more important now than ever
The study, conducted at UC's Center for Prevention Science, found that between 2015 to 2018, there was a 16% increase in suicide ideation, an 18.6% increase in suicide planning, and an 11.6% increase in suicide attempts.

Characterising cold fusion in 2D models
Through a study published in EPJ D, researchers show theoretically how cold fusion driven by muon capture would unfold within 2D systems, without any need for approximations.

Study uncovers two phases of infection in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia
To analyze SARS-CoV-2 at the tissue level, scientists examined lung specimens from 24 patients who succumbed to COVID-19.

When dinosaurs disappeared, forests thrived
To understand how specific ecosystems were affected by the meteorite impact that led to the mass extinction of dinosaurs, a team of McGill scientists has analyzed the microscopic remains of plants from this period.

Talking like a woman in TED Talks is associated with more popularity
Talking like a woman at online TED Talks is being ''uniquely rewarded'' with more views according to researchers, who say female language style is an ''underappreciated but highly effective tool for social influence''.

One in five doctors in Sweden has a doctor parent
One in five doctors in Sweden has a parent who is also trained in medicine, more than triple the proportion for doctors born three decades earlier, finds a study in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.

Just what the doctor ordered: Mental health and wellness apps
Kaiser Permanente physicians and therapists now have the ability to refer their patients to evidenced-based mental health and wellness apps through the organization's electronic health record system.

New theranostic approach reduces tumor volume and increases survival in NET study
A pair of copper radionuclides that target the somatostatin receptor overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumors has proven successful in identifying tumors and improving survival.

Whole genomes map pathways of chimpanzee and bonobo divergence
Chimpanzees and bonobos are sister species that diverged around 1.8 million years ago as the Congo River formed a geographic boundary and they evolved in separate environments.

SwRI models point to a potentially diverse metabolic menu at Enceladus
Using data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, scientists at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) modeled chemical processes in the subsurface ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus.

A no-meat diet everywhere will not solve the climate crisis
Scientists argue Authors further argue that a singular focus on negative livestock-related environmental impacts ignores the critical but more positive role livestock play in ecosystem services, income and asset provision or insurance in low- and middle-income countries.

Low-intensity exercise during adolescence may prevent schizophrenia
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have found that low-intensity exercise, which is associated with improved mental function, has a protective effect against symptoms of schizophrenia in adolescent mice.

New approach reveals structure and function of individual synapses
An interdisciplinary team of scientists at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience report the results of a novel approach that allowed them to achieve direct measurements of the activity of individual synapses, their size, and their neuron's output signal.

Popular European football games linked to traffic accidents in Asia
Days when high profile European football matches are played are associated with more traffic accidents in Asia than days when less popular matches are played, finds a study in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.

Modulating cells' chloride channels
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) researchers gain deeper insight into a cell membrane channel, with potential implications for drug development.

Novel biomarkers predict the development of incident heart failure
Researchers at the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital have discovered several new biomarkers that are associated with incident heart failure.

Maternal diet during lactation shapes functional abilities of milk bacteria
The mother's diet while breastfeeding can shape the profile of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), a type of complex carbohydrate in the mother's milk.

Scientists publish the first human psychological aging clock using artificial intelligence
Scientists at Deep Longevity published the first set of psychomarkers of aging developed using deep learning to track the changes in human psychology and assess the effectiveness of interventions, life events, and external events.

Researchers develop new combined process for 3D printing
Chemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have developed a way to integrate liquids directly into materials during the 3D printing process.

Study highlights stark inequality in survival after cardiac surgery between paying and NHS patients
A new study has revealed paying patients are 20 per cent less likely to die or develop major complications, such as reintervention or stroke, after cardiac surgery than NHS patients - findings researchers say cannot be explained by socioeconomic factors alone.

Clemson researcher identifies gene teams working in subregions of brain
You must first understand how something works normally before you can figure out why it's broken.

Seismic Hazard Assessment: Campotosto, Italy
Between 1997 and 2017, central Italy was struck by several seismic sequences that cumulatively claimed more than 600 victims, besides producing widespread destruction in historical towns and damage to vital infrastructures.

Aroma diffuser and plastic bag offer inexpensive method to test fit of face masks at home
Researchers have developed a way to use a simple home aroma diffuser to test whether N95 and other types of sealing masks, such as KN95 and FFP2 masks, are properly fitted, a result which could be used to help protect healthcare workers and the public from contracting or transmitting COVID-19.

Patients don't receive recommended follow-up care after weight loss surgery
New research shows that patients don't receive the recommended follow-up care from their GPs after weight loss surgery - potentially leading to serious health consequences.

Two thirds of people with lupus would take COVID-19 vaccine, shows LRA survey
Two out of three people with lupus (64%) are willing to take a COVID-19 vaccine if it is free and determined safe by scientists according to results of a survey conducted by the Lupus Research Alliance (LRA).

Despite decrease in recent years, rate of sledding-related injuries still concerning
A new study conducted by researchers at the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital found that 220,488 patients were treated in U.S. emergency departments for injuries related to sledding from 2008 through 2017.

Ignoring CDC guidelines leads to fear, anger among employees
Companies not following the recommended safety protocols set by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic could have a significant impact on employee trust, loyalty and overall commitment, according to a new study.

Harvard Data Science Review explores reproducibility and replicability in science
The replication crisis potentially threatens to undermine the public's trust in science.

Pandemic has severely disrupted sleep, increasing stress and medication use
The COVID-19 pandemic is seriously affecting the sleep habits of half of those surveyed in a new study from The Royal Institute of Mental Health Research and the University of Ottawa, leading to further stress and anxiety plus further dependence on sleep medication.

Researchers identify neurons that control nausea-like responses in mice
Researchers have identified neurons that regulate nausea-like responses in mice.

The Lancet Global Health: Pregnant women excluded from three-quarters of COVID-19 treatment trials
Pregnant women are among those most in need of safe and effective therapies against COVID-19, but they are routinely excluded from the majority of clinical treatment trials, according to authors of an opinion piece based on a review of international trial registry data, published in The Lancet Global Health journal.

Individuals with high ADHD-traits are more vulnerable to insomnia
Individuals with high ADHD-traits that do not meet the criteria for a diagnosis are less able to perform tasks involving attentional regulation or emotional control after a sleepless night than individuals with low ADHD-traits, a new study from Karolinska Institutet published in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging reports.

Researchers expose power of enzyme on key immune cells
Communication, serendipity and an enzyme called DOT1L have all combined to produce some exciting findings into the immune system's B cells and T cells by two groups of Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) scientists.

Molecules derived from omega-3 can regenerate inflamed periodontal tissue
An in vitro study by a Brazilian researcher shows that maresin and resolvin synthesized from fatty acid stimulate periodontal ligament stem cells even in the presence of inflammation

Astronomers detect possible radio emission from exoplanet
By monitoring the cosmos with a radio telescope array, a Cornell University-led international team of scientists has detected radio bursts emanating from the constellation Boötes.

New screening platform leads to discovery of next-generation prodrugs for type 1 diabetes
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Broad Institute teamed up to design next-generation β-cell-targeting proliferators: zinc-binding prodrugs (ZnPD).

New use for an old drug: How does ketamine combat depression?
A group of proteins called 4E-BPs, involved in memory formation, is the key to unlocking the antidepressant effect of ketamine in the brain, according to researchers from three Canadian universities.

New in the Hastings Center Report, November-December 2020
Appealing to patient autonomy, bioethicists argue for making oral contraceptives, HIV-prevention medicines, statins, and many other prescription drugs available over the counter.

Oral hormone therapy shown to significantly alter metabolome of menopausal women
Groundbreaking research led by a team of scientists including a University of Massachusetts Amherst biostatistician shows that oral hormone therapy (HT) significantly alters the metabolome of postmenopausal women.

COVID-19 cuts into college students' drinking
When college campuses closed in the spring due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the quantity of alcohol consumed by students decreased significantly if they went from living with peers to living with parents, according to a new report in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Mandatory Biodiversity Net Gain may not deliver the desired outcomes for nature
England's proposed mandatory Biodiversity Net Gain requirement for new developments might not deliver on promises to increase biodiversity, according to research being presented at British Ecological Society's Festival of Ecology.

Giving cells an appetite for viruses
A team led by UT Southwestern researchers has identified a key gene necessary for cells to consume and destroy viruses.

Some neurons target tiny cerebral blood vessel dilation
Neurons control blood flow in tiny vessels in the brain, but researchers know little about this relationship.

TGen identifies gene that could explain disparity in COVID-19 effects
TGen identified a genetic target that could help explain the tremendous variation in how sick those infected with COVID-19 become.

CAN risk in diabetes reduced with intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), a frequent but underdiagnosed complication of diabetes that can be life-threatening.

The DNA regions in our brain that contribute to make us human
With only 1% difference, the human and chimpanzee protein-coding genomes are remarkably similar.

Oh so simple: Eight genes enough to convert mouse stem cells into oocyte-like cells
By activating just eight genes for transcription factors, researchers at Kyushu University have directly converted mouse stem cells into oocyte-like cells that mature and can even be fertilized like egg cells.

UV exposure, risk of melanoma in skin of color
The association between ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and the risk of melanoma in individuals with skin of color was examined with a review of the results of 13 studies.

Carbon capture's next top model
Creating accurate, detailed models is key to scaling up carbon capture technology.

Proenkephalin (penKid®) included in the ADQI consensus statements publication as functional kidney biomarker for the management of AKI patients
The Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) recommends the use of novel biomarkers for AKI management, including functional biomarkers as penKid®.

Fishing alters fish behaviour and features in exploited ecosystems
Not all specimens of the same species are the same: there is a marked variability within the same population and sometimes these morphological differences are translated into a different behaviour.

A pair of lonely planet-like objects born like stars
An international research team led by the University of Bern has discovered an exotic binary system composed of two young planet-like objects, orbiting around each other from a very large distance.

Additional analyses of pridopidine for HD
Positive results from additional analyses of PRIDE-HD and Open-HART trials with pridopidine published in peer-reviewed journal, The Journal of Huntington's Disease. Exploratory additional efficacy data show pridopidine (45 mg bid) to be first drug to exert a significant and clinically meaningful beneficial effect on Total Functional Capacity.

A well-rooted study
Spend time in any of the world's great forests and you'll start seeing the trees as immense pillars holding the heavens aloft while firmly anchored in the earth.

Patients with COVID-19 and obesity have poor outcomes not driven by inflammation
Obesity is associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes but a new study suggests this is not due to increased inflammation, but instead may be driven by respiratory issues or other factors.

Vaping could nearly triple the chance of smoking in teens
A new study offers strong evidence that kids who use e-cigarettes are more likely to take up smoking or smokeless tobacco, researchers say.

How the spread of the internet is changing migration
The spread of the Internet is shaping migration in profound ways.

New research could lead to better eyewitness recall in criminal investigations
A team of researchers, including faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York, explore ways to potentially improve the recall of eyewitnesses in a new paper in the Journal of Cognitive Psychology.

BAME babies at highest risk of Vitamin D deficiency
A third of all babies and half of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) babies are vitamin D deficient, a large study of 3000 newborn's in the West Midlands has shown.

Some states may lack facilities for administering COVID-19 vaccine to residents
As the biggest vaccination effort in US history gets underway, several states may not have a sufficient number of facilities in some areas to administer the COVID-19 vaccine to all residents who want it.

Successful pilot integrates PrEP and syringe exchange services
A new study shows that implementing PrEP distribution within a community-based syringe services program gets the medication into the hands of women who inject drugs -- a population disproportionately impacted by HIV.

COVID-19 turned parents into proxy educators; new research examines the stress it caused
When the emerging COVID-19 pandemic caused most U.S. schools to close and transition to distance learning last spring, many parents were forced into new roles as proxy educators for their children.

Most-distant galaxy helps elucidate the early universe
New work from an international team of astronomers improves our understanding of the most-distant known astrophysical object-- GN-z11, a galaxy 13.4 billion light-years from Earth.

All-cause excess mortality, COVID-19-related mortality among us adults
Researchers used publicly available data to examine all-cause excess mortality (the gap between observed and expected deaths) and COVID-19-related mortality during the early period of the pandemic among adults ages 25 to 44.

Elite soccer players help define normal heart measures in competitive athletes
Analyses of professional soccer players' heart test results provide insights on athletes' cardiac structure and function.

Aging journal fills knowledge gaps on race, mental health
A new special issue of the journal Innovation in Aging, titled ''Race and Mental Health Among Older Adults: Within- and Between-Group Comparisons,'' is expressly devoted to much-needed research on aging and mental health within racial and ethnic minority populations (e.g., African Americans, Latinx, and Asian Americans, as well as subgroups within these larger pan-ethnic categories).

Pandemic fears driving firearm purchases
Stress related to the coronavirus pandemic and the uncertainty of what the future holds is motivating people to purchase firearms, a trend that may be more prevalent in those who already own firearms, according to a Rutgers study.

Expect fewer, but more destructive landfalling tropical cyclones
A study based on new high-resolution supercomputer simulations, published in this week's issue of the journal Science Advances, reveals that global warming will intensify landfalling tropical cyclones of category 3 or higher in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, while suppressing the formation of weaker events.

The human helpers of SARS-CoV-2
Proteins are the functional units of the cell and enable the virus to enter the host cell or help the virus to replicate.

Female language style promotes visibility and influence online
A female-typical language style promotes the popularity of talks in the digital context and turns out to be an underappreciated but highly effective tool for social influence.

Dark storm on Neptune reverses direction, possibly shedding a fragment
Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope watched a mysterious dark vortex on Neptune abruptly steer away from a likely death on the giant blue planet.

Clowns may help children cope with the pain and anxiety of hospital treatment
Hospital clowns might help improve physical symptoms and psychological wellbeing in children and adolescents having treatment for acute or chronic conditions, finds a study in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.

Quantum insulators create multilane highways for electrons
A team of researchers from Penn State has experimentally realized a quantum phenomenon in a multilayered insulator, essentially producing a multilane highway for the transport of electrons that could increase the speed and efficiency of information transfer without energy loss.

A non-destructive method for analyzing Ancient Egyptian embalming materials
Ancient Egyptian mummies have many tales to tell, but unlocking their secrets without destroying delicate remains is challenging.

New guideline supports behavioral, psychological treatments for insomnia
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has published a new clinical practice guideline establishing recommendations for the use of behavioral and psychological treatments for chronic insomnia disorder in adults.

How much greenhouse gas emission comes from tropical deforestation and peatland loss?
New research papers provide better data for tropical countries on how land conversion -- in this case, the removal of tropical forests and peatland for agriculture -- leads to increased greenhouse gas emissions.

JILA's bigger and better 'tweezer clock' is super stable
JILA physicists have boosted the signal power of their atomic 'tweezer clock' and measured its performance in part for the first time, demonstrating high stability close to the best of the latest generation of atomic clocks.

Ultracold atoms reveal a new type of quantum magnetic behavior
An MIT experiment with ultracold atoms reveals new quantum magnetic behavior that may help in design of spintronic devices and magnetic materials.

Biodiversity collections, vital for pandemic preparedness, face drop in specimen deposits
While the importance of natural history museums to human health has never been higher, in recent years the number of specimens being deposited in biodiversity collections actually has been declining.

Neutralizing antibodies protect against severe COVID-19
Scientists at the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, publishing in the journal Cell, show that the potency of neutralizing antibodies which developed in COVID-19 patients was significantly reduced in those with severe or fatal disease compared to patients with milder infections.

Do the benefits of Christmas outweigh its harms?
The Christmas season is associated with preventable harms from cards, tree decorations, and presents, as well as overeating and overdrinking, so do the benefits of Christmas outweigh the harms?

What lessons can medicine learn from Father Christmas?
As Father Christmas gears up for the busiest 24 hours of his year, what skills does he use to get a seemingly impossible job done effectively and safely - and can they be applied to medicine?

University of Oregon researchers solve a Colorado River mystery
University of Oregon researchers have published two papers that provide new evidence that today's desert landscape of the Colorado River's lower valley was submerged roughly 5 million to 6 million years ago under shallow seas with strong, fluctuating tidal currents.

Suicide mortality in Maryland during COVID-19 pandemic
Differences in suicide deaths by race/ethnicity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Maryland were analyzed in this observational study.

COVID patterns
Scientists, policymakers and healthcare workers are eager to discern to what extent COVID-19 may be seasonal.

Crowdfunding can affect consumer product choices -- especially when the products do good
A new study from the UBC Sauder School of Business shows that people will pay far more for social good items when they're crowdfunded.

SUTD and MIT scientists first to simulate a large-scale virus, M13
Scientists from the Singapore University of Technology and Design and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a procedure that combines various resolution levels in a computer simulation of a biological virus.

New diagnostic isotope to enhance targeted alpha therapy for cancer
Researchers in the DOE Isotope Program have developed an effective radionuclide, cerium-134, as a paired analogue of actinium and thorium that can be imaged using positron emission tomography (PET).

SU2C research leads to FDA approval of new first-line treatment for colorectal cancer
The FDA recently approved the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment for patients with certain types of advanced colorectal cancer.

Method finds hidden warning signals in measurements collected over time
MIT researchers have developed a deep learning-based algorithm to detect anomalies in time series data.

Physicists quantum simulate a system in which fermions with multiple flavors behave like bosons
Quantum simulations show that boson-like behaviours, so-called bosonization, emerge from an ensemble of fermions in three-dimensional systems, despite that bosons and fermions are governed by distinct quantum statistics

New recipe for antibiotic could prevent deafness
Stanford Medicine scientists have discovered a simple method of reformulating gentamicin, a commonly used and highly effective antibiotic, that could prevent its toxic side effect of hearing loss.

Cells resistant to treatment already present before diagnosis of adult leukaemia
This work is a collaboration between Núria López-Bigas' lab at IRB Barcelona and the groups headed by Anna Bigas (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute) and Josep Maria Ribera (Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute).

Can mammogram screening be more effective?
MIT economists have identified an important challenge in designing age-related guidelines for when to start breast cancer screenings: Women who start getting mammograms at age 40 may be healthier than the population of 40-year-old women as a whole, with a lower incidence of breast cancer at that age.

Exercise for low back pain beneficial but no one agrees on why
A new UNSW evidence review has found there is still no consensus between researchers about why exercise works for low back pain patients - despite decades of studies on the topic.

Polariton interactions: Light matters
Why do 2D exciton-polaritons interact? This intriguing quasiparticle, which is part light (photon), and part matter (exciton), doesn't behave as predicted: continuing to interact with other particles when confined to two dimensions in extremely cold conditions.

Neuroregenerative gene therapy
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes disability and seriously compromises quality of life.

New therapeutic target pinpointed for stomach cancer
WEHI researchers have identified a key molecular regulator, TNF, which is involved in the progression and spread of stomach cancer, suggesting a potential new approach to treat this devastating disease.
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