Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 05, 2021
AI algorithms detect diabetic eye disease inconsistently
In a paper published Jan. 5 in Diabetes Care, researchers compared seven algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy against the diagnostic expertise of retina specialists.

ADDF presents vision of a consortium to accelerate research into speech and language biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease
In a commentary in Exploration in Medicine, Alzheimer's experts lay out a vision for a worldwide research consortium that can give clinicians -- and patients -- the answers to which speech and language changes may signal Alzheimer's in the form of digital biomarkers.

University of Miami leads groundbreaking trial for COVID-19 treatment
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine researchers led a unique and groundbreaking randomized controlled trial showing umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell infusions safely reduce risk of death and quicken time to recovery for the severest COVID-19 patients, according to results published in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine in January 2021.

Eurasian eagle owl diet reveals new records of threatened giant bush-crickets
Bird diets provide a real treasure for research into the distribution and conservation of their prey, conclude scientists after studying the Eurasian Eagle Owl in southeastern Bulgaria.

UC-MSC transfusion helps repair COVID-19 damage in severe cases
The Cure Alliance reports results of a groundbreaking randomized controlled trial from a team led by Dr.

Machine learning improves particle accelerator diagnostics
Operators of Jefferson Lab's primary particle accelerator are getting a new tool to help them quickly address issues that can prevent it from running smoothly.

COVID-19 unmasked: math model suggests optimal treatment strategies
For older patients with COVID-19 infections, the clot-preventing drug heparin and immunity-enhancing drugs may improve outcomes.

New clues why gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder doesn't work for majority of patients
Lithium is considered the gold standard for treating bipolar disorder (BD), but nearly 70 percent of people with BD don't respond to it.

Sweat, bleach and gym air quality
One sweaty, huffing, exercising person emits as many chemicals from their body as up to five sedentary people, according to a new University of Colorado Boulder study.

New clues to prostate cancer
Australian research has identified a new mechanism in which prostate cancer cells can 'switch' character and become resistant to therapy.

Leaf fossils show severe end-Cretaceous plant extinction in southern Argentina
The asteroid impact 66 million years ago that ushered in a mass extinction and ended the dinosaurs also killed off many of the plants that they relied on for food.

Mid-term clinical trial results show similar outcomes in promising cell therapies for CLI
Mid-term results of the first clinical trial designed specifically to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two cell therapies that are showing early promise in treating angiitis-induced critical limb ischemia were released in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

Researchers uncover a potential treatment for an aggressive form of lung cancer
DALLAS - Jan. 5, 2021 - Researchers at the Children's Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern (CRI) have discovered a new metabolic vulnerability in a highly aggressive form of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Catalyst transforms plastic waste to valuable ingredients at low temperature
For the first time, researchers have used a novel catalyst process to recycle a type of plastic found in everything from grocery bags and food packaging to toys and electronics into liquid fuels and wax.

On the road to invisible solar panels: How tomorrow's windows will generate electricity
In a new study in Journal of Power Sources, an international team of researchers, led by Prof.

Anticoagulants reduce the number of brain metastases in mice
Brain metastases can only develop if cancer cells exit the capillaries and enter into the brain tissue.

Increase in pleasurable effects of alcohol over time can predict alcohol use disorder
A new study out of the University of Chicago Medicine following young adult drinkers for 10 years has found that individuals who reported the highest sensitivity to alcohol's pleasurable and rewarding effects at the start of the trial were more likely to develop an alcohol use disorder (AUD) over the course of the study.

Self-controlled children tend to be healthier middle-aged adults
Self-control of one's thoughts, feelings and behaviors is one of the personality traits that makes a child ready for school.

Pollen levels might trigger flares of urologic chronic pelvic pain
As anyone living with hay fever can attest, days with high pollen counts can bring attacks of sneezing, nasal congestion and other allergy symptoms.

Ibrutinib with rituximab in previously untreated CLL: indication of added benefit over FCR
Ibrutinib with rituximab in previously untreated CLL: indication of added benefit over FCR.

Uncovering how grasslands changed our climate
Grasslands are managed worldwide to support livestock production, while remaining natural or semi-natural ones provide critical services that contribute to the wellbeing of both people and the planet.

Mechanophores: Making polymer crystallization processes crystal clear
Scientists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have come up with a new technique to evaluate the mechanical forces generated in polymer crystallization as they cool down from their molten state.

Making therapeutic sense of antisense oligonucleotides
In a significant extension of their previous research work, researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and Ionis Pharmaceuticals, USA, have devised a molecular structural modification that boosts the efficacy of antisense oligonucleotide-based drugs by replacing the RNA strand of a heteroduplex oligonucleotide with DNA.

Magnets dim natural glow of human cells, may shed light on how animals migrate
New research shows how X-Men villain Magneto's super powers could really work.

New imaging method reveals if antibiotics reach bacteria hiding in tissues
Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute and the University of Western Australia have developed a new imaging method to see where antibiotics have reached bacteria within tissues.

3D-printed smart gel changes shape when exposed to light
Inspired by the color-changing skin of cuttlefish, octopuses and squids, Rutgers engineers have created a 3D-printed smart gel that changes shape when exposed to light, becomes ''artificial muscle'' and may lead to new military camouflage, soft robotics and flexible displays.

A plant's way to its favorite food
Nitrogen is one the most essential nutrients for plants. Its availability in the soil plays a major role in plant growth and development, thereby affecting agricultural productivity.

Impurities boost performance of organic solar cells
An electrochemical method for stabilizing a reactive molecule can help the development of higher efficiency solar cells.

In-utero exposures associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer
A recent study shows that thyroid cancer is related to in-utero exposures.

Remote sensing data sheds light on when and how asteroid Ryugu lost its water
Rocks on Ryugu, a 'rubble pile' near-Earth asteroid recently visited by Japan's Hayabusa2 spacecraft, appear to have lost much of their water before they came together to form the asteroid, new research suggests.

Bone fracture risk may increase when critical enzymatic processes decline
A loss of enzymatic processes within the body can increase a person's risk of bone fracture.

Danish and Chinese tongues taste broccoli and chocolate differently
Two studies from the University of Copenhagen show that Danes aren't quite as good as Chinese at discerning bitter tastes.

Retracted scientific paper persists in new citations, study finds
University of Illinois information sciences professor Jodi Schneider is leading an effort to prevent the spread of retracted research.

Natural products with potential efficacy against lethal viruses
Researchers describe the biology of three families of RNA viruses including Coronavirus, Ebola, and Zika and the natural products that have been shown to have capabilities to inhibit them.

Gum disease-causing bacteria borrow growth molecules from neighbors to thrive
The human body is filled with friendly bacteria. However, some of these microorganisms, such as Veillonella parvula, may be too nice.

Reopening Florida schools followed by uptick in COVID-19 infections, Ben-Gurion U. study
''Our analysis has implications for countries trying to determine whether to keep physical schools open as they battle rising infection rates,'' Miron says.

Heat treatment may make chemotherapy more effective
The study, published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry B, found that ''loading'' a chemotherapy drug on to tiny magnetic particles that can heat up the cancer cells at the same time as delivering the drug to them was up to 34% more effective at destroying the cancer cells than the chemotherapy drug without added heat.

Identifying Canada's key conservation hot spots highlights problem
To stop biodiversity loss, Canada recently committed to protecting 30% of its land and sea by 2030.

Routine eye scans may give clues to cognitive decline in diabetes
As they age, people with diabetes are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders than are people without diabetes.

Rare footage captured of jaguar killing ocelot at waterhole
In what may be a sign of climate-change-induced conflict, researchers have captured rare photographic evidence of a jaguar killing another predatory wild cat at an isolated waterhole in Guatemala.

Dental experts discover biological imbalance is the link between gum and kidney disease
An imbalance of the body's oxygen producing free radicals and its antioxidant cells could be the reason why gum disease and chronic kidney disease affect each other, a new study led by the University of Birmingham has found.

Neither liquid nor solid
Discovery of liquid glass sheds light on the old scientific problem of the glass transition: An interdisciplinary team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has uncovered a new state of matter, liquid glass, with previously unknown structural elements - new insights into the nature of glass and its transitions.

Diet and lifestyle guidelines can greatly reduce gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common condition affecting 30% of the US population and often controlled with medication.

Protecting the global food supply chain
The University of Delaware's Kyle Davis led a collaborative effort to research how to protect food chains from environmental shocks--everything from floods, droughts, and extreme heat to other phenomena like natural hazards, pests, disease, algal blooms, and coral bleaching.

Evolving the surgical microscope
Ma and Fei explain how surgical microscopes are modified into slightly different optical configurations and equipped with specific imaging modalities and platforms for different surgical applications.

Integrator: A guardian of the human transcriptome
In a joint collaboration, Danish and German researchers have characterized a cellular activity that protects our cells from potentially toxic by-products of gene expression.

Some English bulldogs thought to have cancer may have newly identified syndrome
Some English bulldogs diagnosed with a common cancer may instead have a newly described, non-cancerous syndrome called polyclonal B?cell lymphocytosis.

Imminent sudden stratospheric warming to occur, bringing increased risk of snow over coming weeks
A new study led by researchers at the Universities of Bristol, Exeter, and Bath helps to shed light on the winter weather we may soon have in store following a dramatic meteorological event currently unfolding high above the North Pole.

Novel method identifies areas most suitable for conservation of black lion tamarin
The researchers used modeling to show which areas are suitable in terms of forest cover and climate for occupation by the endangered species, which is endemic to the state of São Paulo.

Viewing upper gastrointestinal cancers in a new light
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) report the use of Linked Color Imaging, an innovative modality that specifically combines selected wavelengths of light for illumination in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Bedside EEG test can aid prognosis in unresponsive brain injury patients
Assessing the ability of unresponsive patients with severe brain injury to understand what is being said to them could yield important insights into how they might recover, according to new research.

Looking forwards rather than backwards safeguards wellbeing during Covid-19 lockdowns
Practicing gratitude and looking to the future will help safeguard our mental wellbeing during Covid-19 lockdowns, a new study in the Journal of Positive Psychology reports.

Breaking through the resolution barrier with quantum-limited precision
Researchers at Paderborn University have developed a new method of distance measurement for systems such as GPS, which achieves more precise results than ever before.

Story tips: Nanoscale commuting, easy driver and defect detection
ORNL story tips: Nanoscale commuting, easy driver and defect detection.

DeepTFactor predicts transcription factors
A joint research team from KAIST and UCSD has developed a deep neural network named DeepTFactor that predicts transcription factors from protein sequences.

Non-immigrant kids respond differently when immigrant children are bullied
A recent study finds that, while youth think all bullying is bad, non-immigrant adolescents object less to bullying when the victim is an immigrant.

Estimation of US SARS-CoV-2 infections, symptomatic infections, hospitalizations, deaths
Data from public health surveillance of reported COVID-19 cases and seroprevalence surveys were used in this observational study that reports an estimated 46.9 million SARS-CoV-2 infections, 28.1 million symptomatic infections, 956,174 hospitalizations and 304,915 deaths occurred in the U.S. through November 15, 2020.

Repeated ketamine infusions reduce PTSD symptom severity
Study offers a key finding in the development of a promising treatment

Journal article reviews century of data showing COVID-19 likely to impact the brain
Decades of data paint a compelling case for why COVID-19 survivors, even those with few symptoms, could experience long-term effects on the brain and central nervous system.

New bacterial culture methods could result in the discovery of new species
A new microbial study explored the bacterial diversity of the Tabernas Desert located in the south-eastern Spain.

Climate change caused mangrove collapse in Oman
Most of the mangrove forests on the coasts of Oman disappeared about 6,000 years ago.

Understanding disease-induced microbial shifts may reveal new crop management strategies
Currently, the only thing citrus growers can do to protect their crops from HLB is control the insect vector.

Drought of the century in the Middle Ages -- with parallels to climate change today?
The transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age was apparently accompanied by severe droughts between 1302 and 1307 in Europe.

Advanced materials in a snap
A research team at Sandia National Laboratories has successfully used machine learning -- computer algorithms that improve themselves by learning patterns in data -- to complete cumbersome materials science calculations more than 40,000 times faster than normal.

Experts agree on new global definition of 'fermented foods'
Interdisciplinary scientists have come together to create the first international consensus definition of fermented foods.

Dungeness crab fishing industry response to climate shock
Fishermen contend with regulations, natural disasters, and the ups and downs of the stocks they fish, along with many other changes.

Facebook posts help facilitate belief that HPV vaccine is dangerous to health
Social media has a history of being a popular place for sexual health discussions, and the HPV vaccine is one of the most discussed vaccines on the internet.

Low genetic diversity in two manatee species off South America
A new study finds low genetic diversity in the Antillean manatee off the coast of South America between Venezuela and Brazil.

Hotels that promote women perceived as fairer, less discriminatory
New research led by the University of Houston Conrad N.

Researchers featured in Medical Research Journal for Artificial Intelligence Studies
A paper written by Arash Shaban-Nejad, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor, and Nariman Ammar, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow, both at the Center for Biomedical Informatics in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, was recently published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research - Medical Informatics.

Majority of media stories fail to label 'preprint' COVID-19 research -- study
A new SFU-led study finds that less than half of media stories in early 2020 featuring COVID-19 ''preprint'' research--research that has not yet been peer-reviewed--accurately framed the studies as being preprints or unverified research.

HKUST researchers discover a novel mechanism of recruiting ARF family proteins to specific subcellul
Researchers of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) recently uncovered a novel molecular mechanism that regulates the subcellular localizations of Arf proteins, shedding light on the mechanism underlying various inherited diseases and offering new insight to the treatment of them.

New work provides insight into the relationship between complexity and diversity
Parts of the planet that are diverse biologically and culturally are even more diverse than you'd expect.

COVID-19 generally 'mild' in young children: Evidence review
Babies and asymptomatic cases account for up to half of COVID-19 infections in the under-five age group, which has implications for vaccination programs, a new UNSW study has found.

2D CaCl crystals with +1 calcium ions displaying unexpected metallicity and ferromagnetism
Counter to conventional wisdom that the only valence state of Ca ions under ambient conditions is +2 and corresponding crystals are insulating and nonferromagnetic, scientists in China made exciting discoveries of two-dimensional CaCl crystals with +1 calcium ions, which have unexpected metallicity, room-temperature ferromagnetism, heterojunction, piezoelectricity-like property, and distinct hydrogen storage and release capability, showing great potential applications of such abnormal material in designing novel electric and magnetic devices with a size down to atomic scale.
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