Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 07, 2021
Black people with type 1 diabetes, COVID-19 are four times more likely to be hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis
Black and Hispanic people with COVID-19 and diabetes are more likely than Caucasians to die or have serious complications, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Intelligence deficit: Conclusion from the mouse to the human being
Impaired intelligence, movement disorders and developmental delays are typical for a group of rare diseases that belong to GPI anchor deficiencies.

Tech giant technology is 'open source' for the pandemic, so why does it feel so closed?
COVID-19 has seen hardware developers pledge to make their technology 'open source' to support frontline services, but their designs are still far from open.

New research reveals how one antibody blocks dangerous effects of dengue virus infection, offering a potential path to prevention
A team of researchers has discovered an antibody that blocks the ability of the dengue virus to cause disease in mice.

A brain mechanism underlying 'vision' in the blind is revealed
Researchers observed slow spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's visual centers that preceded visual hallucinations in blind people.

How to mitigate the impact of a lockdown on mental health
The Covid-19 pandemic is impacting people's mental health. But what helps and hinders people in getting through a lockdown?

New hard disk write head analytical technology can increase hard disk capacities
Using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8 - a large-scale synchrotron radiation facility - Tohoku University, Toshiba Corporation, and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) have successfully imaged the magnetization dynamics of a hard disk drive (HDD) write head for the first time, with a precision of one ten-billionth of a second.

Harbor porpoises on the decline in the German North Sea
The harbor porpoise population is declining in the German North Sea, according to a recent study which surveyed the species over a 20-year time period.

Birmingham research paves the way for new anti-fibrotic therapy for glaucoma
Researchers showed that novel low molecular weight dextran-sulphate, ILB®, can normalise matrix deposition inside the eye and lower IOP in a pre-clinical model of human glaucoma, paving the way for new anti-fibrotic therapies to be developed for the disease.

Stem cell therapy corrects skull, brain function in mouse model of childhood disorder
Using stem cells to regenerate parts of the skull, scientists corrected skull shape and reversed learning and memory deficits in young mice with craniosynostosis, a condition estimated to affect 1 in every 2,500 infants born in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Study reveals structure of protein and permits search for drugs against neglected diseases
Discovery by Brazilian scientists paves the way for the study of more potent molecules capable of directly destroying parasites underlying elephantiasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, with fewer adverse side-effects.

Power, water and climate
As the planet continues to warm, the twin challenges of diminishing water supply and growing energy demand will intensify.

Proteogenomics offers insight to treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
A new study identifies three molecular subtypes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that could be used to better determine appropriate treatment.

Researchers create comprehensive database of head and neck cancers
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins departments of pathology and oncology, the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and 18 other centers around the U.S. and Poland have clarified the contribution of key cancer-associated genes, proteins and signaling pathways in these cancers, while proposing possible new treatment avenues.

Chemists invent shape-shifting nanomaterial with biomedical potential
Made of synthetic collagen, the new nanomaterial may have a range of biomedical applications, from controlled-release drug delivery to tissue engineering.

Peeking inside 'mini-brains' could boost understanding of the human brain
Revealing details of the internal structure of 'mini-brains' could help accelerate drug studies and may offer alternatives to some animal testing

Human migration patterns connected to vitamin D deficiencies today
A new study in the Oxford Economic Papers finds that migration flows the last 500 years from high sunlight regions to low sunlight regions influence contemporary health outcomes in destination countries.

A subtle change in the DNA may predispose to polyneuropathy after gut infection
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) identified a novel genetic variant associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).

Response to infection therapy better understood thanks to a new technique
A sequencing-based solution can be utilised to determine infection clearance and microbiota recovery.

How medical schools can transform curriculums to undo racial biases
Medical school curriculums may misuse race and play a role in perpetuating physician bias, a team led by Penn Medicine researchers found in an analysis of curriculum from the preclinical phase of medical education.

Simple bioreactor makes 'gut check' more practical
Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine researchers develop lab tool to mimic conditions in intestines, giving them a mechanical model for the real-time growth of bacterial infections.

Deep learning helps predicting occult peritoneal metastasis in stomach cancer
A new study led by the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences shows that deep learning can help predicting the occult peritoneal metastasis in stomach cancer.

Tracking the formation of the early heart, cell by cell
Richard Tyser and colleagues have mapped the origins of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution, helping to define the cell types that make up the heart in the earliest days of development.

Keeping sperm cells on track
Researchers point to a new mechanism underlying male infertility.

Want to diagnose brain diseases? A mass spectrometry imaging may one day help you
Researchers from Osaka University used mass spectrometry imaging to quantitate the distribution of fat molecules in mouse brain sections.

Alternative cancer cell fuel source targeted as therapeutic approach for breast cancer
Wistar scientists characterized an inhibitor that targets acetate metabolism in cancer cells.

Where antibiotic resistance comes from
By comparing thousands of bacterial genomes, scientists in Gothenburg, Sweden have traced back the evolutionary history of antibiotic resistance genes.

Treating an autoimmune disease in mice with an mRNA vaccine
Christina Krienke and colleagues have designed an mRNA vaccine that delayed the onset of and reduced the severity of multiple sclerosis-like disease in mice.

Cooling vests alleviate perceptual heat strain perceived by COVID-19 nurses
Wearing cooling vests during a COVID-19 shift ensures that nurses experience less heat during their work.

Focused ultrasound shows promise for Parkinson's disease
A scalpel-free alternative to brain surgery has the potential to benefit people with Parkinson's disease symptoms that are much more severe on one side of the body, new research suggests.

Researchers synthesize bio-based Methylcyclopentadiene with 3-Methylcyclopent-2-enone
Scientists from DICP synthesized bio-based MCPD via direct hydrodeoxygenation of 3-methylcyclopent-2-enone (MCP) derived from cellulose.

Archaeology: sharing leftover meat may have contributed to early dog domestication
Humans feeding leftover lean meat to wolves during harsh winters may have had a role in the early domestication of dogs, towards the end of the last ice age (14,000 to 29,000 years ago), according to a study published in Scientific Reports.

New defense against dengue and emerging mosquito-borne viruses
New treatments to cut the global death rate from dengue, Zika and West Nile viruses could result from research led by The University of Queensland.

Virtual care at cancer center during COVID-19
The outcomes of a cancer center-wide virtual care program launched in response to the COVID-19 pandemic were examined in this study.

Oldest hominins of Olduvai Gorge persisted across changing environments
Olduvai (now Oldupai) Gorge, known as the Cradle of Humankind, is a UNESCO World Heritage site in Tanzania, made famous by Louis and Mary Leakey.

'hail to the queen' - saving the Caribbean queen conch
Second only to the spiny lobster, the queen conch is a prized delicacy long harvested for food and is revered for its beautiful shell.

Genomes reveal insights into much-loved Aussie animals
Researchers have brought together expertise in bioinformatics, cytogenetics, developmental and molecular biology to produce and analyse the first ever echidna genome and a greatly improved, high quality platypus genome sequence.

Assessment of duplicate evidence in systematic reviews of imaging findings of children with COVID-19
This cross-sectional study maps a coronavirus research question to illustrate the overlap and shortcomings of the evidence syntheses in this area.

Paper: Emotionally appealing ads may not always help consumer memory
Emotional appeals in advertisements may not always help improve consumers' immediate recall of a product, says a new paper co-written by Hayden Noel, a clinical associate professor of business administration at the Gies College of Business at Illinois.

Cancer cells hibernate like bears to evade harsh chemotherapy
Dr. Catherine O'Brien's study is the first to identify that cancer cells hijack an evolutionary conserved program to survive chemotherapy.

Seafood strategies
The ''Executive Order on Promoting American Seafood Competitiveness and Economic Growth,'' issued by the Trump administration in May 2020, lays out a plan to expand the U.S. seafood industry, especially aquaculture, and enhance American seafood competitiveness in the global market.

Free all non-violent criminals jailed on minor drug offences, say experts
Non-violent offenders serving time for drug use or possession should be freed immediately and their convictions erased, according to research published in the peer-reviewed The American Journal of Bioethics.

Significant number of patients with sudden loss of consciousness need pre-hospital critical care
Research from life-saving charity Air Ambulance Kent Surrey Sussex (KSS) in partnership with the University of Surrey has shown the benefits of dispatching HEMS to patients with a sudden, unexplained LOC of medical origin and a high prevalence of acute neurological pathology.

Research shows rising lizard temperatures may change predator-prey relationship with snakes
Researchers from the University of Hong Kong and Toho University have discovered that predation by snakes is pushing lizards to be active at warmer body temperatures on islands where snakes are present, in comparison to islands free from snakes.

New challenges for wolf conservation
The predator's growing population could cause conflict with keepers of grazing animals and risk several conservation goals.

NYUAD study informs research of child development and learning in conflict-affected areas
To provide effective aid to children who live in areas of conflict it is necessary to understand precisely how they have been impacted by the crises around them.

Research explains why crocodiles have changed so little since the age of the dinosaurs
New research by scientists at the University of Bristol explains how a 'stop-start' pattern of evolution, governed by environmental change, could explain why crocodiles have changed so little since the age of the dinosaurs.

When galaxies collide: Hubble showcases six beautiful galaxy mergers
To celebrate a new year, the NASA/ESA Space Telescope has published a montage of six beautiful galaxy mergers.

SARS-CoV-2 transmission from people without COVID-19 symptoms
Under a range of assumptions of presymptomatic transmission and transmission from individuals with infection who never develop symptoms, the model presented here estimated that more than half of transmission comes from asymptomatic individuals.

Unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and duck
Three studies uncovered the unusual sex chromosomes of platypus, emu and Peking duck.

What happens when your brain can't tell which way is up or down?
What feels like up may actually be some other direction depending on how our brains process our orientation, according to psychology researchers at York University's Faculty of Health.

Protein that can be toxic in the heart and nerves may help prevent Alzheimer's
A protein that wreaks havoc in the nerves and heart when it clumps together can prevent the formation of toxic protein clumps associated with Alzheimer's disease, a new study led by a UT Southwestern researcher shows.

Study: e-cigarettes trigger inflammation in the gut
Chemicals used for vaping break down zipper-like junctions between cells in the gut, leading to chronic inflammation and potential for other health concerns.

Drug combination increases susceptibility to chemotherapy in cases of severe neuroblastoma
Researchers at the University of Gothenburg now suggest a possible cure for children with hard-to-treat forms of neuroblastoma using a new combination of drugs.

Faulty metabolism of Parkinson's medication in the brain linked to severe side effects
Until now, the reason why the drug levodopa (L-Dopa), which reduces the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, declines in efficacy after a few years' use has been unknown.

Delivering the news with humor makes young adults more likely to remember and share
Could the merging of humor and news actually help inform the public?

Study explains role of bone-conducted speech transmission in speech production and hearing
The perception of our own voice depends on sound transmission through air (air-conducted) as well as through the skull bone (bone-conducted or BC).

Native biodiversity collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean
An international team led by Paolo G. Albano from the Department of Palaeontology at the University of Vienna quantified a dramatic biodiversity collapse of up to 95 per cent of native species in the Eastern Mediterranean.

COVID-19 outcomes for patients on immunosuppressive drugs on par with non- immunosuppressed patients
People taking immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ transplant rejection or to treat inflammatory or autoimmune diseases do not fare worse than others on average when they are hospitalized with COVID-19.

Machine-learning models of matter beyond interatomic potentials
The calculation of machine learning models that can predict properties beyond the interactions between atoms might eventually allow integrated ML models to replace costly electronic structure calculations entirely.

NHGRI proposes an action agenda for building a diverse genomics workforce
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has released a new action agenda for a diverse genomics workforce.

Energy sorghum may combine best of annual, perennial bioenergy crops
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation (CABBI) found that energy sorghum, an annual crop, behaves more like the perennial grass miscanthus in the way it efficiently captures light and uses water to produce abundant biomass.

Sleep is irreplaceable for the recovery of the brain
Researchers at the Medical Center - University of Freiburg demonstrate, for the first time directly, that active recovery processes take place in the brain during sleep that cannot be replaced by rest / Findings relevant for optimal performance

Researchers question fundamental study on the Kondo effect
In 1998, spectroscopic studies on the Kondo effect using scanning tunnelling microscopy were published, which are considered ground-breaking and have triggered countless others of a similar kind.

Fatal health threat to young African children reduced by innovative artistic intervention
The fatal threat from diarrhoea and pneumonia to young children in the world's poorer countries can be drastically reduced by using traditional performing arts to encourage mothers to provide youngsters with safe food and water, a new study reveals.

Noncognitive skills -- distinct from cognitive abilities -- are important to success across the life
Noncognitive skills and cognitive abilities are both important contributors to educational attainment and lead to success across the life course, according to a new study from an international team.

Nanodroplets and ultrasound 'drills' prove effective at tackling tough blood clots
Engineering researchers have developed a new technique for eliminating particularly tough blood clots, using engineered nanodroplets and an ultrasound ''drill'' to break up the clots from the inside out.

Autoimmune diseases: similar molecular signatures in target tissues
A study conducted by Professor Decio L. Eizirik's group - ULB Center for Diabetes Research - and published in Sciences Advances shows that autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, must be studied in their entirety, taking into account not only the immune system but also the target tissues.

Speech recognition changes after cochlear implant
Researchers compared changes in preoperative aided speech recognition with postoperative speech recognition among individuals who received cochlear implants.

Ancient DNA analysis reveals Asian migration and plague
Ancient DNA reveals a history of migrations, continuity, and diseases in northeastern Asia.

Mediterranean diet may decrease risk of prostate cancer progression
In a study to examine a Mediterranean diet in relation to prostate cancer progression in men on active surveillance, researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found that men with localized prostate cancer who reported a baseline dietary pattern that more closely follows the key principles of a Mediterranean-style diet fared better over the course of their disease.

Functional seizures associated with stroke, psychiatric disorders in EHR study
In a large-scale study of electronic health records reported in JAMA Network Open, Vanderbilt University Medical Center investigators determined the prevalence of functional seizures and characterized comorbidities associated with them.

New discovery sheds light on the mysterious family life of notorious sabre-toothed tiger
New research indicates adolescent offspring of the menacing sabre-toothed predator, Smilodon fatalis, were more momma's cubs than independent warriors.

COVID-19 accelerates cancer virtual care with quality, convenience and cost savings
Patients and healthcare providers at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre rated virtual care during COVID-19 as highly satisfactory overall for quality of care and convenience, while at the same time saving patients millions in costs.

Researchers repurpose 'damaged' polymer optical fibers to precisely measure magnetic fields
Optical fiber sensors can measure strain, temperature, pressure, and many other physical parameters along the fibers, but they are currently immune to electromagnetic noise -- interference from other external electric or magnetic interactions.

Examining association of age, household dysfunction, outcomes in early adulthood
Population data from Denmark were used to examine whether age at exposure to negative experiences in childhood and adolescence (parents' unemployment, incarceration, mental disorders, death and divorce, and the child's foster care experiences) was associated with outcomes in early adulthood.

Adapting to COVID-19 with outdoor intraocular pressure monitoring
To adapt to broader public health initiatives around COVID-19, researchers developed a drive-through intraocular pressure (IOP) screening clinic to minimize COVID-19 exposure for patients and clinicians by measuring eye pressure in the unconventional setting of a clinic parking lot.

Mount Sinai researchers identify and characterize 3 molecular subtypes of Alzheimer's
Critical step toward developing precision medicine treatments

MRI frequently underestimates tumor size in prostate cancer
Improving imaging processes will lead to more successful treatments and help reduce morbidity in men with the disease.

Striped or spotted? Winds and jet streams found on the closest brown dwarf
Using high-precision brightness measurements from NASA's TESS space telescope, astronomers found that the nearby brown dwarf Luhman 16B's atmosphere is dominated by high-speed, global winds akin to Earth's jet stream system.

Heading outdoors keeps lockdown blues at bay
A new study has found that spending time outdoors and switching off devices, such as smartphones, is associated with higher levels of happiness during a period of COVID-19 restrictions.

School nutrition professionals' employee safety experiences during onset of the COVID-19 pandemic
A new study in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, published by Elsevier, explores real-time personal and employee safety experiences and perspectives of school nutrition professionals ranging from frontline staff to state leadership across the United States during the early weeks of the coronavirus pandemic.

COVID-19 likely lingered longer than reported in Wuhan
Wuhan City in China was the first place to report COVID-19 in the world and--between December 2019 and May 2020--caused nearly two-thirds of all COVID-19 cases in China.

High-flux table-top source for femtosecond hard X-ray pulses
Researchers at the Max Born Institute (MBI) in Berlin have now accomplished a breakthrough in table-top generation of femtosecond X-ray pulses by demonstrating a stable pulse train at kilohertz repetition rate with a total flux of some 10^12 X-ray photons per second.

Experts tap into behavioral research to promote COVID-19 vaccination in the US
Behavioral science and marketing researchers are laying out a range of strategies to help convince people to get vaccinated.

Policymakers draw heavily from highly cited COVID-19 science
Policymakers around the world tend to reference new and highly cited COVID-19 research papers in their policy documents regarding the pandemic, Yian Yin and colleagues conclude after analyzing publications of both types from the first half of 2020.

Study examines attitudes toward long-acting injectable HIV therapy among women
A study led by Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health researchers examines attitudes toward long-acting injectable (LAI) HIV therapies, among women with a history of injection--including medical purposes and substance use.

Selfish elements turn embryos into a battlefield
New toxin-antidote pairs discovered in nematode species - researchers from the Burga lab at IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences discover selfish elements that could facilitate populations becoming distinct species.

Cell Press papers to highlight research teams' inclusion and diversity efforts
Scientists who publish in Cell Press research journals will now have the option to include a short statement that highlights elements of the study design and/or author characteristics that are relevant to inclusion and diversity.

COVID-19 and dental and dental hygiene students' career plans
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted dental education and training.

Cutting COVID-19 infectious period could prevent millions of cases
A new computational analysis suggests that a vaccine or medication that could shorten the infectious period of COVID-19 may potentially prevent millions of cases and save billions of dollars.

Study finds commonly used blood pressure medications safe for COVID-19 patients
Medications to treat high blood pressure did not affect outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

IU research findings could reduce treatment-related complication for blood cancer patients
Researchers at the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center published promising findings today in the New England Journal of Medicine on preventing a common complication to lifesaving blood stem cell transplantation in leukemia.

For the right employees, even standard information technology can spur creativity
In a money-saving revelation for organizations inclined to invest in specialized information technology to support the process of idea generation, new research suggests that even non-specialized, everyday organizational IT can encourage employees' creativity.

Research confirms increase in river flooding and droughts in US, Canada
Research demonstrates that increases in the frequency of both high- and low-flow extreme streamflow events 'are, in fact, widespread.'

What is surgical smoke and what can be done about it?
Surgical smoke poses a health risk to everyone in the operating room.

Patterns in primordial germ cell migration
Biologists and mathematicians at the Universities of Münster and Erlangen-Nürnberg investigated how primordial germ cells behave in zebrafish embryos when not influenced by a guidance cue and developed software that merges 3D microscopy images of multiple organisms.

Social transmission of pain, fear has different targets in mouse brain
Social contact can transfer the feeling of pain or fear in several animal species, including humans, but the exact neural mechanisms for this transmission are still being studied.

Insights into the Yellowstone hotspot
The Yellowstone hotspot is well known for generating supereruptions in the geologic past that are far more explosive than historic examples.

Perception of palliative care in South Asian populations
The results showed that seventy per cent of participants in the study had a lack of understanding of palliative care and forty-four per cent thought that palliative care went against their values and beliefs.
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