Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 13, 2021
What does marketing have to do with ill-advised consumer behavior?
A biological account of human behavior can benefit human welfare and marketing can play a critical role in facilitating public understanding and acceptance of biological causation.

Families' remote learning experience during lockdown more positive than widely believed
The remote learning experience of parents who had their children at home in Spring 2020, as schools across the US closed during the United States' COVID-19 lockdown, was more positive than widely believed.

Northern lakes at risk of losing ice cover permanently, impacting drinking water
Close to 5,700 lakes in the Northern Hemisphere may permanently lose ice cover this century, 179 of them in the next decade, at current greenhouse gas emissions, despite a possible polar vortex this year, researchers at York University have found.

Scientists reveal mechanism that causes irritable bowel syndrome
KU Leuven researchers have identified the biological mechanism that explains why some people experience abdominal pain when they eat certain foods.

Energy harvesting made possible with skin temperature
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) announced that a collaborative research team led by Dr.

Ovarian cancer cells adapt to their surroundings to aid tumor growth
A description of how ovarian cancer cells adapt to survive and proliferate in the peritoneal cavity has been detailed by a new study.

Ukraine genome survey adds missing pieces to human diversity puzzle
The largest study of genetic diversity in Ukraine was published in the open science journal GigaScience. Led by researchers at Uzhhorod National University and Oakland University in the US, the work provides genetic understanding of the historic and pre-historic migration settlements in one of the key intersections of human trade and migration between the Eurasian peoples and identifies genetic variants of medical interest in the Ukrainian population that differ from other European populations.

A new study identifies possible biomarkers of severe malaria in African children
The analysis identified a series of small molecules called microRNAs that are released as a result of organ damage and are associated with disease severity

Evolution in a test tube: these bacteria survive on deadly copper surfaces
The descendants of regular wild-type bacteria can evolve to survive for a long time on metallic copper surfaces that would usually kill them within a few minutes.

'Ocean 100': Small group of companies dominate ocean economy
Dubbed the 'Ocean 100', the group of companies generated US$1.1 trillion in revenues in 2018, according to the research published in the journal Science Advances.

Do as the Romans: Power plant concrete strengthens with time
Nagoya University scientists find a rare mineral in nuclear power plant walls, significantly improving their strength following years of full operation.

Shine on: Avalanching nanoparticles break barriers to imaging cells in real time
A team of researchers co-led by Berkeley Lab and Columbia University has developed a new material called avalanching nanoparticles that, when used as a microscopic probe, offers a simpler approach to taking high-resolution, real-time snapshots of a cell's inner workings at the nanoscale.

Framework sheds light on nitrogen loss of producing common food items
Differences in nitrogen loss intensity between livestock and crops confirm the need for change.

Limits of atomic nuclei predicted
Novel calculations have enabled the study of nearly 700 isotopes between helium and iron, showing which nuclei can exist and which cannot.

New research in JNCCN highlights dangerous disparities for life-saving cancer screening
New research in the January 2021 issue of JNCCN--Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network finds more than a third of eligible people miss timely screening tests for colorectal cancer and at least a quarter appear to miss timely screening tests for breast and cervical cancers.

How to keep drones flying when a motor fails
Robotics researchers at the University of Zurich show how onboard cameras can be used to keep damaged quadcopters in the air and flying stably -- even without GPS.

Melting icebergs key to sequence of an ice age, scientists find
Scientists claim to have found the 'missing link' in the process that leads to an ice age on Earth.

Flashing plastic ash completes recycling
Rice University's flash graphene process, adapted to convert worthless pyrolyzed plastic ash, could be used to strengthen concrete and toughen plastics used in medicine, energy and packaging applications.

Weaker skin barrier leads to faster uptake of chemicals
The ability of our skin to protect us from chemicals is something we inherit.

CU Anschutz scientists reverse deadly impacts of asthma in mice
Excess mucus in the lungs can be fatal for asthma patients, but scientists at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have broken up those secretions at the molecular level and reversed their often deadly impacts.

A 'ghastly future' unless extraordinary action is taken soon on sustainability
Without immediate, drastic intervention, humans face a ''ghastly future'' -- including declining health, climate devastation, tens of millions of environmental migrants and more pandemics -- in the next several decades, according to an international team of 17 prominent scientists.

Getting romantic at home wearing an EEG cap
Research into the neuronal basis of emotion processing has so far mostly taken place in the laboratory, i.e. in unrealistic conditions.

The meat of the matter: Environmental dissemination of beef cattle agrochemicals
A recent Point of Reference article, ''The meat of the matter: Environmental dissemination of beef cattle agrochemicals,'' published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, points at synthetic chemical cocktails being emitted from cattle feed yards into the environment and how they can impact our ecosystem and our health.

The cancer microbiome reveals which bacteria live in tumors
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have devised an algorithm to remove contaminated microbial genetic information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

Mathematics explains how giant whirlpools form in developing egg cells
Cell-spanning whirlpools in the immature egg cells of animals such as mice, zebrafish and fruit flies quickly mix the cells' innards, but scientists didn't know how these flows form.

Study looks at how land acquisitions affect climate change
In a newly published study in the journal Nature Food, researchers looked at what drives large-scale land acquisitions and how the implementation of large-scale land acquisitions for agricultural development affect carbon emissions, and in turn, climate change.

Astronomers find signature of magnetar outbursts in nearby galaxies
Magnetars in the Milky Way have a distinctive X-ray signature, which allowed astronomers to associate rare giant gamma-ray bursts with these neutron stars.

Earth to reach temperature tipping point in next 20 to 30 years, new NAU study finds
Postdoc Katharyn Duffy led an international team that looked at 20 years of data from throughout the world and found that record-breaking temperatures are contributing to a significant decrease in plants' ability to absorb human-caused carbon emissions.

Inpatient mammograms can reduce disparities in breast cancer screening rates
Inpatient mammograms are a feasible approach to deliver preventive care to hospitalized women who may face significant barriers to completing the test in the outpatient setting.

New study suggests that college campuses are COVID-19 superspreaders
College campuses are at risk of becoming COVID-19 superspreaders for their entire county, according to a new vast study which shows the striking danger of the first two weeks of school in particular.

What are the links between violence and mental illness? Update from Harvard Review of Psychiatry
When there is news of a violent attack, we sometimes hear that it could be related to mental illness - which may make us ask whether the violence could have been predicted or prevented.

Study: Colleges can prevent 96% of COVID-19 infections with common measures
The combined effectiveness of three COVID-prevention strategies on college campuses--mask-wearing, social distancing, and routine testing--are as effective in preventing coronavirus infections as the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines approved by US FDA, according to a new study from Case Western Reserve University.

Temple researchers identify cardiac protein that causes different types of heart failure
Heart damage typically progresses, owing to oxidative stress and toxic lipids that alter heart cell energetics and the heart's ability to function normally.

Red and green snow algae increase snowmelt in the Antarctic Peninsula
Red and green algae that grow on snow in the Antarctic Peninsula cause significant extra snowmelt on par with melt from dust on snow in the Rocky Mountains, according to a first-of-its-kind scientific research study.

NASA missions unmask magnetar eruptions in nearby galaxies
On April 15, 2020, a brief burst of high-energy light swept through the solar system, triggering instruments on many NASA spacecraft.

Tiny molecules with a big impact
In an international study, scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin joined forces with colleagues from the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States and discovered hundreds of previously unknown variations in genes that have a sometimes drastic impact on the concentration of these small molecules in the blood.

Research reveals how teeth functioned and evolved in giant mega-sharks
A pioneering study by University of Bristol researchers finds that the evolution of teeth in the giant prehistoric shark Megalodon and its relatives was a by-product of becoming huge, rather than an adaptation to new feeding habits.

How will we achieve carbon-neutral flight in future?
Carbon-neutral aviation is possible, but in future, aircraft are likely to continue to be powered by fossil fuels.

Lipid biomarkers in urine can determine the type of asthma
In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have used a urine test to identify and verify a patient's type of asthma.

Asian butterfly populations show different mimicry patterns thanks to genetic 'switch'
A new study by researchers at the University of Chicago and the City College of New York (CCNY) has identified a unique, genetic ''mimicry switch'' that determines whether or not male and female Elymnias hypermnestra palmflies mimic the same or different species of butterflies.

KU studies show breakfast can improve basketball shooting performance
In a pair of studies, University of Kansas sport science researchers have found that consuming breakfast can improve basketball shooting performance, significantly in some cases.

Pollinators not getting the 'buzz' they need in news coverage
A dramatic decline in pollinating insects threatens the global food supply, yet it's getting ''vanishingly low levels of attention'' in mainstream news, even compared to coverage of climate change.

Wetland methane cycling increased during ancient global warming event
Wetland methane cycling increased during a rapid global warming event 56 million years ago and could foreshadow changes the methane cycle will experience in the future, according to new research led by the University of Bristol.

New research reveals early warning sign for heart disease
The build-up of calcium in a major artery outside of the heart could predict future heart attack or stroke, a new Edith Cowan University led study has demonstrated.

Asian butterfly mimics other species to defend against predators
Many animal and insect species use Batesian mimicry -- mimicking a poisonous species -- as a defense against predators.

Discovery of 'adolescent' skeletal stem cells might someday help prevent osteoporosis
A new study reported in STEM CELLS reveals a unique population of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) that function during the transitional period between rapid bone growth and bone maintenance.

Blue-light stride in perovskite-based LEDs
Researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, have developed efficient blue light-emitting diodes based on halide perovskites.

Workaholism leads to mental and physical health problems
Workaholism or work addiction risk is a growing public health concern that can lead to many negative mental and physical health outcomes such as depression, anxiety or sleep disorder.

Catalysts: worth taking a closer look
Metal surfaces play a role as catalysts for many important applications - from fuel cells to the purification of car exhaust gases.

Researchers at Brazil's space institute discover why lightning branches and flickers
Analysis of the first super slow motion recordings of upward flashes suggests a possible explanation for the formation of luminous structures after electrical discharges split in the atmosphere.

Study: Many summer camps don't require childhood immunizations
Nearly half of summer camps surveyed by researchers didn't have official policies requiring campers be vaccinated, and just 39% mandated staffers be vaccinated.

Disagreeing takes up a lot of brain real estate
In a new study Yale scientists looked into the brains of individuals engaged in conversation.

Upper ocean temperatures hit record high in 2020
The ocean temperatures continued a trend of breaking records in 2020.

Study finds neglected mutations may play important role in autism spectrum disorder
Mutations that occur in certain DNA regions, called tandem repeats, may play a significant role in autism spectrum disorders, according to research led by Melissa Gymrek, assistant professor in the UC San Diego Department of Computer Science and Engineering and School of Medicine.

Imaging technique proves effective in measuring mitochondrial dysfunction in motor neuron disease (MND)
Non-invasive imaging technique called 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy used to measure mitochondrial function in patients with motor neuron disease (MND)

Medication shows promise for weight loss in patients with obesity, diabetes
A new study confirms that treatment with Bimagrumab, an antibody that blocks activin type II receptors and stimulates skeletal muscle growth, is safe and effective for treating excess adiposity and metabolic disturbances of adult patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Infection biology: How one pathogen evades the immune system
A research team of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munch led by Nicolai Siegel has uncovered a mechanism that enables the parasite that causes sleeping sickness in humans to escape the attention of the immune system.

Expert prognosis for the planet - we're on track for a ghastly future
An international group of 17 leading scientists have produced a comprehensive yet concise assessment of the state of civilization, warning that the outlook is more dire and dangerous than is generally understood.

Superheroes, foods and apps bring a modern twist to the periodic table
Many students, especially non-science majors, dread chemistry. The first lesson in an introductory chemistry course typically deals with how to interpret the periodic table of elements, but its complexity can be overwhelming to students with little or no previous exposure.

Rare star's giant gamma-ray burst GRB 204015A captured close to our home galaxy
Earth gets blasted by mild gamma ray bursts most days.

'Ocean 100': Small group of companies dominates ocean economy
Most of the revenues extracted from use of the world's oceans is concentrated among 100 transnational corporations.

Need to reduce work-related stress? It's a walk in the park
Research from the University of Tsukuba examined the relationship between ''sense of coherence'' (a quality indicative of stress-coping ability) and frequency of walking in forests or greenspaces.

New molecular structures associated with ALS
Researchers from the University of Seville and the University of Pavia have identified a link between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids in the genome.

Could we harness energy from black holes?
Physicists have found a new way to extract energy from black holes by breaking and rejoining magnetic field lines near the event horizon.

Scientists find antibody that blocks dengue virus
The research team used the Advanced Photon Source to confirm an effective antibody that prevents the dengue virus from infecting cells in mice, and may lead to treatments for this and similar diseases.

Age matters in identifying maltreatment in infants and young children with fractures
Among children who were not in an independently verified incident, evaluation for child abuse should be done by specialty consultation in children aged less than three-years old presenting with rib fractures and children aged less than 18-months presenting with humeral or femoral fractures.

Can menopause be blamed for increased forgetfulness and lack of attention?
If you're a bit more forgetful or having more difficulty processing complex concepts than in the past, the problem may be your menopause stage.

Recurrent GBM brain tumors with few mutations respond best to immunotherapy
New insights from a team led by Duke's Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center provide potential answers about why immunotherapies have limited success against brain tumors.

Seawater as an electrical cable !? Wireless power transfers in the ocean
Toyohashi University of Technology research team has successfully transferred power and data wirelessly through seawater by using a power transmitter/receiver with four layers of ultra-thin, flat electrodes.

TalTech's neuroscientists investigate the causes of a widespread eye disease
Fuchs' corneal dystrophy is one of the most common eye diseases diagnosed in almost 5% of the population of Europe aged 40 years or over.

New studies support blood test for early detection of Alzheimer's disease
In three recent publications in Molecular Psychiatry, Brain and JAMA Neurology researchers from the University of Gothenburg provide convincing evidence that an in-house developed blood test for Alzheimer's disease can detect the disease early and track its course, which has major implications for a potential use in clinical practice and treatment trials.

Ancient DNA reveals secrets of Game of Thrones wolves
Extinct dire wolves split off from other wolves nearly six million years ago and were only a distant relative of today's wolves, according to new research published in Nature.

Raman spectroscopy shows promise for diagnosing oral cancer
In a new study, researchers show that a light-based analytical technique known as Raman spectroscopy could aid in early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

High insulin levels during childhood a risk for mental health problems in adulthood, study suggests
Researchers have shown that the link between physical and mental illness is closer than previously thought.

Rare quadruple-helix DNA found in living human cells with glowing probes
New probes allow scientists to see four-stranded DNA interacting with molecules inside living human cells, unravelling its role in cellular processes.

A niche for the eye
What if the degenerative eye conditions that lead to glaucoma, corneal dystrophy, and cataracts could be detected and treated before vision is impaired?

Robotic swarm swims like a school of fish
A team of Harvard researchers have developed fish-inspired robots that can synchronize their movements like a real school of fish, without any external control.

New insights into the control of inflammation
Wistar scientists discovered that EGR1inhibits expression of pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages.

Nanotechnology prevents premature birth in mouse studies
In a study in mice and human cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say that they have developed a tiny, yet effective method for preventing premature birth.

Scientists discover new 'spectacular' bat from West Africa
A group of scientists led by the American Museum of Natural History and Bat Conservation International have discovered a new species of a striking orange and black bat in a mountain range in West Africa.

High-sensitivity nanophotonic sensors with passive trapping of analyte molecules in hot-spots
Optical sensing which captures fingerprint information of chemical or biological substances with light, plays a crucial role in many areas including environmental sensing, medical diagnostics and homeland security.

Inferring human genomes at a fraction of the cost promises to boost biomedical research
A new method, developed by Olivier Delaneau's group at the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the University of Lausanne, offers game-changing possibilities for genetic association studies and biomedical research.

Columbia engineers first to observe avalanches in nanoparticles
Columbia Engineering researchers report the first nanomaterial that demonstrates ''photon avalanching,'' a process that is unrivaled in its combination of extreme nonlinear optical behavior and efficiency.

MIND and Mediterranean diets associated with later onset of Parkinson's disease
A new study from UBC researchers suggests a strong correlation between following the MIND and Mediterranean diets and later onset of Parkinson's disease (PD).

Resilience to climate change?
A recent study examined the effects of acidic water on octopuses, potentially bringing new insight into both how our activities impact the world around us, and the way that world is adapting in response.

The compound that makes chili peppers spicy also boosts perovskite solar cell performance
Research publishing January 13 in the journal Joule, determined that sprinkling capsaicin, the compound that makes peppers spicy, into the precursor of methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) perovskite during the manufacturing process led to a greater abundance of electrons (instead of empty placeholders) to conduct current at the semiconductor's surface.

GSA publishes seven new research articles on COVID-19 and aging
The Gerontological Society of America's highly cited, peer-reviewed journals are continuing to publish scientific articles on COVID-19.

Spilling the beans on coffee's true identity
People worldwide want their coffee to be both satisfying and reasonably priced.

Aggressive video games: Effects on mental health and behaviors in young people
Aggressive video games are not a risk factor for mental health problems, according to a new study of more than 3,000 youth

Density of marijuana retailers linked to higher use among young adults
Researchers have begun to examine how the number of marijuana outlets influence use of the drug, but most of the work thus far has examined medical marijuana dispensaries prior to the opening of recreational retail outlets.

Earth's terrestrial ecosystems may transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources within decades
Rising temperatures could trigger Earth's terrestrial ecosystems to transition from carbon sinks to carbon sources in the next 20 to 30 years, according to data from the world's largest continuous carbon monitoring network.

COVID-19 vaccine creates incentive to improve our health
While we wait for our turn to get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, we could - and probably should - use the time to make sure we bring our healthiest emotional and physical selves to the treatment, a new review of previous research suggests.

Pulsed ultraviolet light technology to improve egg safety, help poultry industry
Pulsed ultraviolet light can be an effective alternative to some of the antimicrobial technologies now used by the poultry industry to kill pathogens on eggshells, according to Penn State researchers, who simulated production conditions to test the technology.

Copper-indium oxide: A faster and cooler way to reduce our carbon footprint
Emergent e-fuel technologies often employ the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction to convert atmospheric CO2 to CO.

Evolution: Speciation in the presence of gene flow
Spatial isolation is known to promote speciation -- but researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have now shown that, at least in yeast, the opposite is also true.

Approximately half of AD dementia cases are mild, one-fifth are severe
What percent of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) currently have severe dementia?

Mothers of children with Autism found to have significantly different metabolite levels
Blood sample analysis showed that, two to five years after they gave birth, mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had several significantly different metabolite levels compared to mothers of typically developing children.

In new Skoltech research, 'e-nose' and computer vision help cook the perfect chicken
Skoltech researchers have found a way to use chemical sensors and computer vision to determine when grilled chicken is cooked just right.

Studying chaos with one of the world's fastest cameras
Lihong Wang demonstrates how his ultrafast camera technology might aid in the study of unpredictable systems.

Bacteria carried by mosquitos may protect them against pesticides
Mosquitoes are transmitters of several diseases and pesticides are used to control their numbers in many countries.

CVIA publishes selected abstracts from the 31st GW-ICC Conference
Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications, publishes selected abstracts from the 31st Great Wall International Cardiology (GW-ICC) Conference, October 19 - 25, 2020 Beijing, January 13, 2021: Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA), in its role as the official journal of the Great Wall International Cardiology Conference (GW-ICC), has published selected abstracts from the 31st GW-ICC.

BU researchers uncover viral small RNAs in mosquito cells
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) provide a new genomics resource that details the small RNA transcriptomes (gene expression) of four bio-medically important mosquito species.

Error protected quantum bits entangled
For the first time, physicists from the University of Innsbruck have entangled two quantum bits distributed over several quantum objects and successfully transmitted their quantum properties.

Early COVID-19 lockdowns had less impact on urban air quality than first believed
The first COVID-19 lockdowns led to significant changes in urban air pollution levels around the world, but the changes were smaller than expected - a new study reveals.

Saver or spender? People are not as financially responsible as they may think, study shows
According to new research from the University of Notre Dame, people think they are more financially responsible than they actually are.

Study suggests compound protects myelin, nerve fibers
A compound developed at Oregon Health & Science University appears to protect nerve fibers and the fatty sheath, called myelin, that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.

Wielding a laser beam deep inside the body
Robotic engineers led by Wyss Associate Faculty member Robert Wood, Ph.D., and postdoctoral fellow Peter York, Ph.D., at Harvard University's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and John A.

Changes in political administration come with increased danger of international conflict
A new paper including faculty at Binghamton University suggests that when democratic publics vote out an administration, this change comes with an increase in the danger of undesirable conflict.

How does your computer smell?
A keen sense of smell is a powerful ability shared by many organisms.

Pivotal discovery in quantum and classical information processing
Researchers have achieved, for the first time, electronically adjustable interactions between microwaves and a phenomenon in certain magnetic materials called spin waves.

Shedding light on the secret reproductive lives of honey bees
Research at NC State and the University of British Columbia shows that there are trade-offs between sperm viability and the expression of a protein involved in the insect's immune response.

The dire wolf was a distinct species, different from the gray wolf, biologists discover
The iconic, prehistoric dire wolf, which prowled through the Americas over 11 millennia ago, was a distinct species from the smaller gray wolf, an international team of scientists reports today in the journal Nature.

Compound from medicinal herb kills brain-eating amoebae in lab studies
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a deadly disease caused by the ''brain-eating amoeba'' Naegleria fowleri, is becoming more common in some areas of the world, and it has no effective treatment.

OR Medicaid expansion helped more women access insurance coverage for abortion services
A recent study from Oregon State University found that after Oregon expanded Medicaid in 2014, more women were able to receive insurance coverage for abortion services, rather than paying out of pocket.

Researchers identify nanoparticles that could deliver therapeutic mRNA before birth
Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Pennsylvania have identified ionizable lipid nanoparticles that could be used to deliver mRNA as part of fetal therapy.

Scoring system to redefine how U.S. patients prioritized for liver transplant
Researchers with Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine are collaborating with faculty at the University of Pennsylvania to develop a risk score that more comprehensively prioritizes liver cancer patients for transplantation.

NIH scientists study salmonella swimming behavior as clues to infection
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria (S. Typhimurium) commonly cause human gastroenteritis, inflammation of the lining of the intestines.

Study find physical weathering of rock breakdown more important than previously recognized
Anisovolumetric weathering is much more common than previously thought, and variations in this process can be explained by climate and erosion.

A fly's eye view of evolution
The fascinating compound eyes of insects consist of hundreds of individual eyes known as ''facets''.

Taking the lab into the ocean: A fleet of robots tracks and monitors microbial communities
A new paper describes how researchers at MBARI, the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UH Mānoa), and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, enabled a trio of self-driving robots to locate, follow, and sample a layer of oceanic microbes as they drifted in an open-ocean eddy north of the Hawaiian islands.

Stats on HIV among men who have sex with men could help resolve China's epidemic
China has been dealing with an HIV epidemic and seeing rising infections among male college students who practice sex with men.

Scientists modeled protein behavior of archaeal viruses to crack protein folding mystery
Scientists from the Pacific Quantum Center of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) figured out how the AFV3-109 protein with slipknot structure folds and unfolds depending on temperature.

Depression and stress could dampen efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines
Health behaviors and emotional stressors can alter the body's ability to develop an immune response to vaccines, including--potentially--the new COVID-19 vaccines.

Expanding the biosynthetic pathway via retrobiosynthesis
KAIST metabolic engineers presented the bio-based production of multiple short-chain primary amines that have a wide range of applications in chemical industries for the first time.

Short term low carbohydrate diet linked to remission of type 2 diabetes
Patients with type 2 diabetes who follow a strict low carbohydrate diet for six months may experience greater rates of remission compared with other recommended diets without adverse effects, suggests a study published by The BMJ today.

Researchers identify promising model for studying human aging
The research team plans to study how the changes observed in animal models mimic the deterioration of muscle function in aging humans.

Giant map of the sky sets stage for ambitious DESI survey
Astronomers using images from Kitt Peak National Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory have created the largest ever map of the sky, comprising over a billion galaxies.

Smithsonian scientists reduce uncertainty in forest carbon storage calculations
Helene Muller-Landau, staff scientist was invited to write an authoritative review about carbon storage in forests.

600-year-old marine sponge holds centuries-old climate records
Scientists used a 600-year-old marine sponge to reconstruct a record of ocean temperature in the North Atlantic revealing past volcanic activity as well as the current global warming trend from the release of carbon dioxide and other heat trapping gasses into Earth's atmosphere and absorbed by the oceans.

Illinois residents value strategies to improve water quality
Illinois residents value efforts to reduce watershed pollution, and they are willing to pay for environmental improvements, according to a new study from agricultural economists at the University of Illinois.

Study gauges psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on university students
More than half of all university students in the United States have experienced high levels of psychological impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new study published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Matthew Browning of Clemson University, US, and colleagues.

Scientists are a step closer to developing 'smart' stem cells - made from human fat
These new, adaptive stem cells can lie dormant until needed, a new animal study using human cells shows.

Doubling the number of known gravitational lenses
Data from the DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) Legacy Imaging Surveys have revealed over 1200 new gravitational lenses, approximately doubling the number of known lenses.

Diffractive networks light the way for optical image classification
There is renewed interest in optical computing due to its potential advantages, including parallelization, power-efficiency, and computation speed.

New insights into pancreatitis
Acute Pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases around the world.

Males of all ages more affected by COVID-19 than females, study finds
Males are more likely to test positive for COVID-19, more likely to have complications and more likely to die from the virus than females, independent of age, according to a new study published this week in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Farhaan Vahidy of Houston Methodist Research Institute, US, and colleagues.

Penned release of green geckos has potential to help preserve threatened native species
In a paper just published in the New Zealand Journal of Ecology, the Department of Zoology researchers outlined how they translocated 19 barking geckos to Mana Island, using the method of penned release - enclosing them in a 100m² pen for three months so they get used to the site and hopefully establish a breeding population.

Eastern and central China become brighter due to clean air action
A new study finds that the air pollution control actions can lead to not only considerable environmental and health improvements, but also increases in solar photovoltaic energy production.
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