Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 19, 2021
Psychological well-being declined during second wave of the pandemic - especially for men
Our psychological well-being follows the rise and fall of the infection rate, but whereas psychological well-being fell most for women during the spring lockdown, it is men who are hardest hit during the second wave.

NAD+ can restore age-related muscle deterioration
Scientists at EPFL have discovered that Alzheimer's-like protein aggregates underly the muscle deterioration seen in aging.

Lack of physical exercise during COVID-19 confinement may lead to a rise in mortality
In a review article published in Frontiers of Endocrinology, Brazilian researchers estimate a reduction of 35% in levels of physical activity and a rise of 28% in sedentary behavior in the initial months of confinement imposed by the pandemic.

Dartmouth researchers pilot FLASH radiotherapy beam development for treatment of cancer
A team of researchers led by Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center has produced a 'FLASH' ultra-high-dose rate radiation therapy beam, demonstrating that such a beam can be achieved reversibly on a clinical linear accelerator and delivered to the patient treatment site.

General health checkups may detect early signs of Parkinson's disease
A research team led by Nagoya University in Japan has found that blood pressure, the hematocrit, and serum cholesterol levels change in patients with Parkinson's disease long before the onset of motor symptoms.

Eating habits partly down to your genetics, finds new study
Your food intake patterns are partly under genetic control, according to the latest research from researchers at King's College London, published today in the journal Twin Research and Human Genetics.

Cancer-related suicide declined in the US during the past two decades
Despite increases in overall suicide rates in the United States during the past two decades, cancer-related suicides declined by 2.8% per year, according to a new study by the American Cancer Society.

Youths with mood disorders who use marijuana at higher risk of death, self-harm
Youths with mood disorders who use and abuse cannabis (marijuana) have a higher risk for self-harm, death by all causes and death by unintentional overdose and homicide, according to research led by The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and The Ohio State University College of Medicine.

Drinking during COVID-19 up among people with anxiety and depression
People with anxiety and depression are more likely to report an increase in drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic than those without mental health issues, according to a new study by researchers at NYU School of Global Public Health.

A clinical trial provides encouraging results on ivermectin for reducing mild COVID-19
Results show a trend to lower viral loads and shorter duration of certain symptoms among treated patients, as compared to the placebo group

Childhood neglect leaves generational imprint
Early life experiences can have an outsized effect on brain development and neurobiological health.

New approach emerges to better classify, treat brain tumors
A look at RNA tells us what our genes are telling our cells to do, and scientists say looking directly at the RNA of brain tumor cells appears to provide objective, efficient evidence to better classify a tumor and the most effective treatments.

Semiconductor chip that detects exhaled gas with high sensitivity at room temperature
The research team at Toyohashi University of Technology developed a testing chip using semiconductor micro-machining that can detect volatile gasses in exhaled breath in ppm concentrations at room temperature.

Scientists to global policymakers: Treat fish as food to help solve world hunger
Fish provide 17% of the animal protein consumed globally and are rich in micronutrients and essential fatty acids.

Heart attack patients in England 'fearful' of seeking medical help amid COVID crisis
Data analysis is revealing a second sharp drop in the number of people admitted to hospital in England with acute heart failure or a heart attack.

Getting under your skin: Molecular research builds new understanding of skin regeneration
New research from Northwestern University has found new evidence deep within the skin about the mechanisms controlling skin repair and renewal.

Nano-thin piezoelectrics advance self-powered electronics
Researchers develop a flexible, printable and nano-thin material that can convert mechanical pressure into electrical energy.

Genetic rewiring behind spectacular evolutionary explosion in East Africa
Genetic rewiring could have driven an evolutionary explosion in the shapes, sizes and adaptations of cichlid fish, in East Africa's answer to Darwin's Galapagos finches.

Loneliness hits young people harder during lockdown
People under 30 and people with a history of mental illness experience the highest levels of loneliness and anxiety during COVID-19 lockdown.

Bio-inspired: How lobsters can help make stronger 3D printed concrete
New research addresses some of the technical issues that still need to be solved for 3D printed concrete to be strong enough for use in more free-form structures.

How to find mutated sperm? Just go FISH
A test developed by Berkeley Lab scientists can quickly and easily detect whether sperm cells are carrying chromosomal defects, an advance that will help men who have undergone cancer treatment father healthy children.

TGen-NAU study: COVID-19 virus triggers antibodies from previous coronavirus infections
This knowledge could help researchers design new diagnostics, evaluate the healing powers of convalescent plasma, develop new therapeutic treatments, and -- importantly -- help design future vaccines or monoclonal antibody therapies capable of protecting against mutations that may occur in the COVID-19 virus.

Loss of smell is the best sign of COVID-19
Two international studies confirm that for the majority of patients with respiratory infections who lose the sense of smell, this is due to COVID-19.

Certain parenting behaviors associated with positive changes in well-being during COVID-19 pandemic
A new longitudinal study in Germany examined day-to-day parenting behavior during the restrictions and closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic from the end of March until the end of April 2020.

Online courses reinforce inequalities
With the global student community taking online courses, a study (UNIGE) reveals that online courses deepen inequalities between gifted and less gifted students by 5%.

Ultra-small nanomedicines which stably deliver oligonucleotides to refractory cancers
Ultra-small nanomedicines with a size of ca. 18 nm were fabricated by dynamic ion-pairing between Y-shaped block copolymers and oligonucleotide drugs.

With a little help from their friends, older birds breed successfully
The offspring of older animals often have a lower chance of survival because the parents are unable to take care of their young as well as they should.

New drug combination shows promise as powerful treatment for AML
Scientists have identified two drugs that are potent against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when combined, but only weakly effective when used alone.

Inflamed environment is C. diff paradise
A new study shows that the inflammation caused by Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) infection gives the pathogen a two-fold advantage: by both creating an inhospitable environment for competing bacteria and providing nutrients that enable C. diff to thrive.

Could "Power Walking" fuel the energy revolution? India is ready to step up
India has an energy problem. It currently relies heavily on coal and consumer demand is expected to double by 2040, making its green energy targets look out of reach.

Different types of neurons interact to make reaching-and-grasping tasks possible
Picking up that cup of coffee? New research from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University finds that one type of neuron is necessary for the early part of the movement, another for aiming for the cup.

Gene-editing 'scissor' tool may also be a 'dimmer switch'
In a series of experiments with laboratory-cultured bacteria, Johns Hopkins scientists have found evidence that there is a second role for the widely used gene-cutting system CRISPR-Cas9 -- as a genetic dimmer switch for CRISPR-Cas9 genes

DNA origami enables fabricating superconducting nanowires
In AIP Advances, researchers describe how to exploit DNA origami as a platform to build superconducting nanoarchitectures.

Mystery of Martian glaciers revealed
On Earth, glaciers covered wide swaths of the planet during the last Ice Age, which reached its peak about 20,000 years ago, before receding to the poles and leaving behind the rocks they pushed behind.

5G doesn't cause COVID-19, but the rumor it does spread like a virus
Research team investigated how COVID-19 misinformation proliferated using the same epidemiological techniques for modeling disease transmission.

How short circuits in lithium metal batteries can be prevented
There are high hopes for the next generation of high energy-density lithium metal batteries, but before they can be used in our vehicles, there are crucial problems to solve.

Decoding breast milk to make better baby formula (video)
What makes breast milk so good for babies? In this episode of Reactions, our host, Sam, chats with chemist Steven Townsend, Ph.D., who's trying to figure out which sugar molecules in breast milk make it so unique and difficult to mimic.

Land deals meant to improve food security may have hurt
Large-scale land acquisitions by foreign investors, intended to improve global food security, had little to no benefit, increasing crop production in some areas while simultaneously threatening local food security in others, according to Notre Dame researchers who studied their effects.

Do children view punishment as rehabilitative? A new study takes a look
The United States incarcerates more residents than any other country, however there is limited research that examines how people view such punishment, and whether views about punishment change with development.

Brain cell network supplies neurons with energy
Until recently, oligodendrocytes were primarily thought to be a kind of cellular insulating tape that accelerates the transmission of electrical signals in the brain.

All-purpose dinosaur opening reconstructed for first time
For the first time ever, a team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, have described in detail a dinosaur's cloacal or vent -- the all-purpose opening used for defecation, urination and breeding.

Russian chemists developed polymer cathodes for ultrafast batteries
Russian researchers have synthesized and tested new polymer-based cathode materials for lithium dual-ion batteries.

New research finds connection: Inflammation, metabolism and scleroderma scarring
Study finds NAD+ break down leads to multi organ scarring, providing now a previously undiscovered pathogenic role of the enzyme CD38 in disease scarring.

ALS study reveals a unique population
The secrets long hidden in the DNA of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) living in Malta have been unlocked, according to a new study in the European Journal of Human Genetics by an international team of researchers led by the University of Malta.

Light-induced twisting of Weyl nodes switches on giant electron current
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and collaborators at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the University of Alabama at Birmingham have discovered a new light-induced switch that twists the crystal lattice of the material, switching on a giant electron current that appears to be nearly dissipationless.

Spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 relatives can evolve against immune responses
Scientists have shown that two species of seasonal human coronavirus related to SARS-CoV-2 can evolve in certain proteins to escape recognition by the immune system, according to a study published today in eLife.

Study identifies a nonhuman primate model that mimics severe COVID-19 similar to humans
Aged, wild-caught African green monkeys exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with clinical symptoms similar to those observed in the most serious human cases of COVID-19, report researchers in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier.

Rush researchers demonstrate success with new therapy for COVID-19
A new therapy developed by researchers at Rush University Medical Center is showing success as a way to prevent COVID-19 symptoms in mice.

One-dimensional quantum nanowires fertile ground for Majorana zero modes
One-dimensional quantum 'nanowires' - which have length, but no width or height - provide a unique environment for the formation and detection of a quasiparticle known as a Majorana zero mode, which are their own antimatter particle.

Ohio State-led support program suggests a reduction in preterm birth and infant mortality
New research suggests a unique program called Moms2B at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center shows a reduction in adverse pregnancy outcomes in communities disproportionately affected by these public health issues.

Improving long-term climate calculations
Climate researchers have found a simple but efficient way to improve estimations of ultimate global warming from complex climate models.

Story tips: Volcanic microbes, unbreakable bonds and flood mapping
ORNL story tips: Volcanic microbes, unbreakable bonds and flood mapping

Light-controlled Higgs modes found in superconductors; potential sensor, computing uses
Iowa State University's Jigang Wang and a team of researchers have discovered a short-lived form of the famous Higgs boson -- subject of a groundbreaking search at the Large Hadron Collider -- within an iron-based superconductor.

Research establishes antibiotic potential for cannabis molecule
The main nonpsychoactive component of cannabis has been shown to kill the bacteria responsible for gonorrhoea, meningitis and legionnaires disease, which could lead to the first new class of antibiotics for resistant bacteria in 60 years.

Research finds tiny bubbles tell tales of big volcanic eruptions
Microscopic bubbles can tell stories about Earth's biggest volcanic eruptions and geoscientists from Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin have discovered some of those stories are written in nanoparticles.

Study finds COVID-19 attack on brain, not lungs, triggers severe disease in mice
Georgia State University biology researchers have found that infecting the nasal passages of mice with the virus that causes COVID-19 led to a rapid, escalating attack on the brain that triggered severe illness, even after the lungs were successfully clearing themselves of the virus.

A little friction goes a long way toward stronger nanotube fibers
Carbon nanotube fibers are not nearly as strong as the nanotubes they contain, but Rice University researchers are working to close the gap with a computational model that shows nanotube length and the friction between them are equal contributors.

Study in twins identifies fecal microbiome differences in food allergies
A new study out of the University of Chicago and Stanford University on pairs of twins with and without food allergies has identified potential microbial players in this condition.

Individual and organizational capacity to change can reduce health care workforce burnout
New George Mason University Study finds that health care professionals with a greater personal ability to respond to change experienced lower rates of burnout when their work environments offered strong communication, teamwork, and leadership support.

Automakers delay recalls to minimize stock penalties, avoid being the first safety issue in news
An initial recall by one firm prompts clusters of additional recalls in close proximity by competitor firms, according to 'Hiding in the Herd: The Product Recall Clustering Phenomenon,' forthcoming in Manufacturing and Service Operations Management from Kaitlin Wowak, assistant professor of IT, analytics, and operations at Notre Dame's Mendoza College of Business.

Single-cell test can reveal precisely how drugs kill cancer cells
Researchers from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed a method named D2O-probed CANcer Susceptibility Test Ramanometry (D2O-CANST-R) to see, at single-cell/organelle level, how pharmaceuticals induce cancer cell death and how cancer cells adapt.

New biodegradable polyurethane foams are developed from wheat straw
The polyurethane foams have several industrial uses. Now, a new paper, published on the front page of Polymers, was able to obtain them from biomass in order to avoid using petroleum by-products in their manufacturing

Researchers discover mechanism behind most severe cases of a common blood disorder
G6PD deficiency affects about 400M people worldwide and can pose serious health risks.

Specific genes increase the risk of bedwetting
In a large-scale study of Danish children and young people, researchers from Aarhus University have for the first time found genetic variants that increase the risk of nocturnal enuresis - commonly known as bedwetting or nighttime incontinence.

Moffitt researchers identify how cancer cells adapt to survive harsh tumor microenvironments
To better understand the conditions that select for the Warburg Effect and the mechanisms where cells can express this metabolic adaptation, Moffitt researchers subjected nonmalignant cells to the harsh tumor microenvironment that is present during early carcinogenesis, known as ductal carcinoma in situ.

Appreciating a flower's texture, color, and shape leads to better drone landings
A team of TU Delft and the Westphalian University of Applied Sciences researchers present an optical flow-based learning process that allows robots to estimate distances through the visual appearance (shape, color, texture) of the objects in view.

NIH study compares low-fat, plant-based diet to low-carb, animal-based diet
People on a low-fat, plant-based diet ate fewer daily calories but had higher insulin and blood glucose levels, compared to when they ate a low-carbohydrate, animal-based diet, according to a small but highly controlled study at the National Institutes of Health.

Blockchain technology to optimize P2P energy trading
A research team of Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, has developed a new technology an original blockchain technology that can optimize peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading.

Geisinger researchers find sex is not an independent risk factor for stroke mortality
An analysis of data collected from patients treated for ischemic stroke at Geisinger shows no disparity in outcomes based solely on sex.

New clues help explain why PFAS chemicals resist remediation
Chemicals used in firefighting foam and other products can last for decades in the environment, resisting efforts to remove them.

Protected areas vulnerable to growing emphasis on food security
New study shows croplands are prevalent in protected areas, challenging their efficacy in meeting conservation goals.

Dinosaur-era sea lizard had teeth like a shark
New study identifies a bizarre new species suggesting that giant marine lizards thrived before the asteroid wiped them out 66 million years ago.

Scientists present novel approach for monitoring freshwater health
Researchers have used the world's smallest, smartphone-sized DNA sequencing device to monitor hundreds of different bacteria in a river ecosystem.

New method heals skeletal injuries with synthetic bone
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden, in collaboration with colleagues in Dresden, Germany, have developed a way of combining a bone substitute and drugs to regenerate bone and heal severe fractures in the thigh or shin bone.

Aphids suck: Invasive aphid found on Danish apple trees
The spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola, an invasive pest, has been discovered for the first time in Denmark by University of Copenhagen researchers.

New biomaterials can be 'fine-tuned' for medical applications
Researchers in the UK and the United States have succeeded in 'fine tuning' a new thermoplastic biomaterial to enable both the rate at which it degrades in the body and its mechanical properties to be controlled independently.

Set clear rules for vaccinating health care workers against SARS-CoV-2
Provincial and territorial governments should set clear rules for vaccinating health care workers against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in public and private settings, and should not leave this task to employers, according to an analysis in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) https://www.cmaj.ca/content/cmaj/early/2021/01/19/cmaj.202755.full.pdf.

Fatty acid may help combat multiple sclerosis
The abnormal immune system response that causes multiple sclerosis (MS) by attacking and damaging the central nervous system can be triggered by the lack of a specific fatty acid in fat tissue, according to a new Yale study.

Mental health conditions alarmingly high among children with autism
Nearly 78 per cent of children with autism have at least one mental health condition and nearly half have more than that.

Routine thoracic surgery safe during COVID-19 pandemic
A study in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology (JTO) comparing surgeries performed at one Chinese hospital in 2019 with a similar date range during the COVID-19 pandemic found that routine thoracic surgery and invasive examinations were performed safely.

Scientists reveal structure of plants' energy generators
Researchers have revealed the first atomic structures of the respiratory apparatus that plants use to generate energy, according to a study published today in eLife.

Solar activity reconstructed over a millennium
An international team of researchers led by ETH Zurich has reconstructed solar activity back to the year 969 using measurements of radioactive carbon in tree rings.

Benvitimod cream: a new topical treatment for plaque psoriasis
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by skin plaques and itching.

Fishing out the bad apples: Novel quantitative method to assess the safety of food
Histamine is a dangerous compound that occurs in spoiled food, such as mackerel, left at room temperature for too long.

Alcohols exhibit quantum effects
Skoltech scientists and their colleagues from the Russian Quantum Center revealed a significant role of nuclear quantum effects in the polarization of alcohol in an external electric field.

Nonsurgical treatment for cerebral infarction using wearable wireless ultrasound devices
Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) announced that the research team at the Center for Bionics, led by Dr.

Optical data transmission speed increased by a factor of at least 10,000
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) announced that able to generate laser pulses at a rate at least 10,000 times higher than the state of the art.

Clumsy kids can be fit too
Clumsy kids can be as aerobically fit as their peers with better motor skills, a new Finnish study shows.

Clocking electron movements inside an atom
Hard X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have delivered intense, ultrashort X-ray pulses for over a decade.

How dietary choice influences lifespan in fruit flies
Having a choice of foods may accelerate aging and shorten the lifespan of fruit flies, according to a study published today in the open-access eLife journal.

Fastener with microscopic mushroom design holds promise
A fastener with a microscopic design that looks like tiny mushrooms could mean advances for everyday consumers and scientific fields.

How to train a robot (using AI and supercomputers)
Computer scientists from UT Arlington developed a deep learning method to create realistic objects for virtual environments that can be used to train robots.

Do simulations represent the real world at the atomic scale?
A multidisciplinary research team has developed a strategy to validate computer simulations of oxide/water interfaces at the atomic scale using X-ray reflectivity experiments.

How drain flies dodge a washout
Shower spray is like water off a duck's back to bathroom flies.

Report shows alcohol consumption linked to portion of cancer incidence and mortality
A new study finds that alcohol consumption accounts for a considerable portion of cancer incidence and mortality in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

State responses, not federal, influenced rise in unemployment claims early in the pandemic
Early in the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic, unemployment claims were largely driven by state shutdown orders and the nature of a state's economy and not by the virus, according a new article by Georgia State University economists.

Constructing termite turrets without a blueprint
Following a series of studies on termite mound physiology and morphogenesis over the past decade, researchers at the Harvard John A.

Sequencing of wastewater useful for control of SARS-CoV-2
Viral genome sequencing of wastewater can detect new SARS-CoV-2 variants before they are detected by local clinical sequencing, according to a new study reported in mBio, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

Testing the waters: Analyzing different solid states of water on other planets and moons
Aside from regular ice, water can exist in the form of peculiar solids called clathrate hydrates, which trap small gaseous molecules.

50 million-year-old fossil assassin bug has unusually well-preserved genitalia
The fossilized insect is tiny and its genital capsule, called a pygophore, is roughly the length of a grain of rice.

Eye tests predict Parkinson's-linked cognitive decline 18 months ahead
Simple vision tests can predict which people with Parkinson's disease will develop cognitive impairment and possible dementia 18 months later, according to a new study by UCL researchers.

New heat method kills pathogens with minimal damage to plants
Turechek and colleagues set out to develop a new heat-based treatment that would kill pathogens without hurting the plant.

Obese, snoring mini pigs show how air flows through the throat during sleep apnea
A study appearing January 19 in the journal Heliyon found that obese Yucatan mini pigs have naturally occurring sleep apnea and that MRI scans taken while they're in sedated sleep can be used to gain new insights into what happens in the airways during sleep apnea episodes via computational flow dynamic (CFD) analysis.

Disease threatens to decimate western bats
A four-year study recently published in Ecology and Evolution concludes that the fungal disease, white-nose syndrome, poses a severe threat to many western North American bats.

Male butterflies mark their mates with repulsive smell during sex to 'turn off' other suitors
Butterflies have evolved to produce a strongly scented chemical in their genitals that they leave behind after sex to deter other males from pursuing their women - scientists have found.

A neuronal cocktail for motivation
'A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step' is a popular adage that talks about the initial thrust required to embark on a task.

New study shows correlation between teen obesity and mental health issues
Half of all young people treated for severe obesity have neuropsychiatric problems, according to a new study by researchers from Lund University and Gothenburg, Sweden, among others.

Experimental evidence of an intermediate state of matter between a crystal and a liquid
Scientists from the Joint Institute for High Temperatures Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS) and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have experimentally confirmed the presence of an intermediate phase between the crystalline and liquid states in a monolayer dusty plasma system.

Acidification impedes shell development of plankton off the US West Coast
Results from a 2016 research cruise show ocean acidification has interfered with shell development of zooplankton that are a critical part of the marine food web.

A new carbon budget framework provides a clearer view of our climate deadlines
Nature's Communications Earth and Environment just published a paper by a group of researchers led by Damon Matthews in which they present a new framework for calculating the remaining carbon budget that is able to generate a much narrower estimate and its uncertainty.

Unlocking 'the shape of water' in mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Researchers captured and comparted hi-res images of ribosome structures from sensitive and resistant bacteria and report that a water molecule needed for antibiotic binding was not present in the ribosomes from the drug-resistant bugs.

New negative pressure ventilator requiring fewer staffing resources developed in fight against COVID-19
A new negative pressure ventilator which could provide additional treatment options for patients with respiratory failure, including those with COVID-19 - and whose design can be easily adapted to developing countries - has been created by a team that includes anaesthetists, nurses and engineers.

A biological strategy reveals how efficient brain circuitry develops spontaneously
Researchers have explained how the regularly structured topographic maps in the visual cortex of the brain could arise spontaneously to efficiently process visual information.

Using ancient fossils and gravitational-wave science to predict earth's future
New research on predicting the earth's future climate: Using gravitational-wave science, a group of international scientists, including Australian OzGrav astrophysicist Ilya Mandel, studied ancient marine fossils as a predictor of climate change.

Prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to the male bias of autism spectrum disorder
Autism has a higher prevalence in males than females. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common chemical found in plastics, our food, and even the human placenta.

Rescuers at risk: emergency personnel face trauma and post traumatic stress symptoms
Researchers at the University of Bern's Hospital of Psychiatry have for the first time, demonstrated varying levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in emergency personnel and rescue workers, with emergency department and psychiatry department staff demonstrating the highest levels of PTSS, suicidal thoughts and dysfunctional coping strategies.

Where do our minds wander? Brain waves can point the way
Anyone who has tried and failed to meditate knows that our minds are rarely still.

New COVID-19 model shows little benefit in vaccinating high-risk individuals first
Maurizio Porfiri, Institute Professor at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering, led a team that developed a novel theory and simulation platform for modeling COVID spread over the entire town of New Rochelle, located in Westchester County in New York State.

Even a small amount of gender bias in hiring can be costly to employers
Tiny amounts of gender bias in employee hiring decisions contribute to concerning rates of discrimination and productivity losses that together represent significant costs, financial and otherwise, for employers.

Worker safety goes beyond human error
Disasters in high-risk industries can have catastrophic environmental, financial and human safety consequences.

Who's writing open access articles?
Open access (OA) democratizes access to research literature, but OA authors are more likely to be males in STEM fields at wealthier institutions.

A sea of rubbish: ocean floor landfills
The Messina Strait, a submarine bridge separating the island of Sicily from the Italian Peninsula, is the area with the largest marine litter density worldwide -more than a million objects per square kilometre in some parts-, as reported in a new review paper published in the journal Environmental Research Letters.

Eggs reveal what may happen to brain on impact
Our brains consist of soft matter bathed in watery cerebrospinal fluid inside a hard skull, and in Physics of Fluids, researchers describe studying another system with the same features, an egg, to search for answers about concussions.

Geisinger research identifies genetic risk factor for stroke
A team of Geisinger researchers has identified a common genetic variant as a risk factor for stroke, especially in patients older than 65.

Exploration of toxic Tiger Rattlesnake venom advances use of genetic science techniques
A team of researchers led by the University of South Florida has decoded the genome of the Tiger Rattlesnake, which has venom 40 times more toxic than that of Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes, the largest venomous snake in North America.

Canadian researchers create new form of cultivated meat
Researchers at Canada's McMaster University have developed a new form of cultivated meat using a method that promises more natural flavour and texture than other alternatives to traditional meat from animals.

Astronomers dissect the anatomy of planetary nebulae using Hubble Space Telescope images
Images of two iconic planetary nebulae taken by the Hubble Space Telescope are revealing new information about how they develop their dramatic features.

New insights into wound healing process
Biomedical engineers developed a technique to observe wound healing in real time, discovering a central role for cells known as fibroblasts.

NASA explores solar wind with new view of small sun structures
Scientists have combined NASA data and cutting-edge image processing to gain new insight into the solar structures that create the Sun's flow of high-speed solar wind, detailed in new research published today in The Astrophysical Journal.

Counting elephants from space
For the first time, scientists have successfully used satellite cameras coupled with deep learning to count animals in complex geographical landscapes, taking conservationists an important step forward in monitoring populations of endangered species.

Genome editing to treat human retinal degeneration
Gene editing therapies, including CRISPR-Cas systems, offer the potential to correct mutations causing inherited retinal degenerations, a leading cause of blindness.

Appearance, social norms keep students off Zoom cameras
University researchers surveyed the 312 students found that while some students had concerns about the lack of privacy or their home environment, 41% of the 276 respondents cited their appearance, as their reason not to switch on their cameras on zoom.

Well-built muscles underlie athletic performance in birds
Muscle structure and body size predict the athletic performance of Olympic athletes, such as sprinters.

Methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells underestimated
A recent McGill study published in Environmental Science and Technology finds that annual methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas (AOG) wells in Canada and the US have been greatly underestimated - by as much as 150% in Canada, and by 20% in the US.

As oceans warm, large fish struggle
Warming ocean waters could reduce the ability of fish, especially large ones, to extract the oxygen they need from their environment.

Discovery of new praying mantis species from the time of the dinosaurs
A McGill-led research team has identified a new species of praying mantis thanks to imprints of its fossilized wings.
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.