Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 21, 2021
Taking sieving lessons from nature
Nanostructure-templated electrochemical polymerization enhances speed and selectivity in organic membrane-based processes.

Survey: Frequent reports of missed medical care in US adults during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic
Two out of five individuals delayed or missed medical care in the early phase of the pandemic--from March through mid-July 2020.

Study pins down number of Americans with most common form of lupus
Just over 200,000 Americans suffer from systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE, a condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy tissues, especially joints and skin, a new study shows.

Could lab-grown plant tissue ease the environmental toll of logging and agriculture?
MIT researchers have proposed a method for growing plant-based materials, like wood and fiber, in a lab.

Feral colonies provide clues for enhancing honey bee tolerance to pathogens
Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that enable some feral honey bee colonies to tolerate pathogens and survive the winter in the absence of beekeeping management may help lead to breeding stocks that would enhance survival of managed colonies, according to a study led by researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.

New eco-friendly way to make ammonia could be boon for agriculture, hydrogen economy
Ammonia has sustained humanity since the early 20th century, but its production leaves a huge carbon footprint.

Cancer can be precisely diagnosed using a urine test with artificial intelligence
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) announced that the collaborative research team led by Dr.

How cells 'eat' their own fluid components
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process by which cells capture and degrade their own dysfunctional or superfluous components for degradation and recycling.

Does where older US adults die affect their wellbeing at the end of life?
Where people die can affect the quality of their deaths and the end-of-life care that they receive.

Patients in cancer remission at high risk for severe COVID-19 illness
Patients with inactive cancer and not currently undergoing treatments also face a significantly higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19.

Dynamic, personalized treatment approach may improve outcomes in gastroesophageal cancers
A phase 2 clinical trial providing personalized treatments based on the genetic profile of metastatic tumors in gastroesophageal cancers has found that using customized treatment approaches, and adapting them over time as tumors become resistant, led to higher rates of survival compared to historical controls.

Vaccine produces long-lasting anti-tumor response in patients with melanoma
Patients treated with a vaccine tailored to mutated proteins on patients' own tumor cells, continue to have a strong immune response to the cancer four years after being vaccinated.

New study on the role of monocytes in sarcoidosis
The cause of the inflammatory lung disease sarcoidosis is unknown.

Designing customized "brains" for robots
MIT researchers have developed an automated way to design customized hardware that speeds up a robot's operation.

Social influence matters when it comes to following pandemic guidelines
New research published in the British Journal of Psychology indicates that social influence has a large impact on people's adherence to COVID-19 guidelines.

Detailed tumour profiling
As part of a clinical study involving patients from the University Hospitals in Zurich and Basel, researchers are conducting a thorough and highly precise investigation into the molecular and functional properties of tumours.

Suicide-related internet searches during early stages of COVID-19 pandemic
This study monitored suicide-related internet search rates during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and researchers report searches for suicide decreased during that time.

Association of obstructive sleep apnea with risk of male infertility
A large health insurance database in Taiwan was used to investigate whether obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor in male infertility and if treatment for sleep apnea is associated with risk.

Seeds transfer their microbes to the next generation
Scientists have been pondering if the microbiome of plants is due to nature or nurture.

Pre-surgery chemotherapy is possible for early stage pancreatic cancer patients
A first-of-its-kind randomized clinical trial found that patients with pancreatic cancer didn't live any longer than expected after receiving pre-operative chemotherapy from either of the two standard regimens, according to trial results published in JAMA Oncology.

CNIO participates in a study that defines the most important genes that increase breast cancer risk
* The study will help to improve prevention programmes since it ''defines the most useful genes'' for breast cancer risk prediction tests, the authors write * The study will be published in the 'New England Journal of Medicine' (NEJM) and is authored by 250 researchers from dozens of institutions in more than 25 countries * Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers today.

Study results show COVID-19 virus triggers antibodies from previous coronavirus infections
The results of a study led by Northern Arizona University and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope, suggest the immune systems of people infected with COVID-19 may rely on antibodies created during infections from earlier coronaviruses to help fight the disease.

Screening tool may help diagnose mental disorders in early pregnancy
A recent study published in Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica found that questions typically asked to new mothers to screen for depression after giving birth can also help to detect depressive symptoms and other mental disorders during early pregnancy.

The important role of pharmacists for older adults' health
Pharmacists play an important role in managing medication-based therapies for older community-dwelling patients, according to a study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

Antibiotic resistance may spread even more easily than expected
Pathogenic bacteria in humans are developing resistance to antibiotics much faster than expected.

New technique to fast-track pain research
Scientists have for the first time established a sensory neuron model able to mass-reproduce two key sensory neuron types involved in pain sensation, enabling the easy generation of large numbers of the cells to fast-track chronic pain research.

Pain-relief regimen treats trauma patients with fewer opioid drugs
A multimodal pain regimen (MMPR) designed to minimize opioid exposure and relieve acute pain associated with traumatic injury kept patient self-reported pain scores low while also reducing the daily and total amount of opioid drugs given to trauma patients.

Abandoned cropland should produce biofuels
More biofuels are needed to counteract climate change. But producing them shouldn't diminish food production or wilderness areas.

Study finds especially high rates of lupus in certain racial/ethnic groups
The US prevalence of the autoimmune disease lupus is 72.8 cases per 100,000 individuals, according to an analysis of population-based registries.

Producing green hydrogen through the exposure of nanomaterials to sunlight
A research team from the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) has joined forces with French researchers from the The Institute of Chemistry and Processes for Energy, Environment and Health (ICPEES), a CNRS-University of Strasbourg joint research lab, to pave the way towards the production of green hydrogen.

COVID-19 virus helps block host immunity
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, blocks the processes of innate immune activation that normally direct the production and/or signaling of type I interferon (IFN-I) by the infected cell and tissues.

Turbulence model could help design aircraft capable of handling extreme scenarios
To help build aircraft that can better handle violent turbulence, Purdue University researchers developed a new model that allows engineers to incorporate the physics of an entire vortex collision into their design codes.

New, simplified genetic test effectively screens for hereditary cancers
Researchers have developed a new integrated genetic/epigenetic DNA-sequencing protocol known as MultiMMR that can identify the presence and cause of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in a single test from a small sample of DNA in colon, endometrial, and other cancers.

Mechanism that produces rapid acceleration in clicking beetles identified
Snap-through unbending movement of the body is the main reason for the clicking beetle's fast acceleration.

Embedded counseling services can improve accessibility for students, MU study finds
Kerry Karaffa is the first MU Counseling Center psychologist to be embedded specifically within the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine, where he provides tailored counseling services for professional students training to become veterinarians.

Personalizing cancer care with improved tumor models
While decades of research have resulted in substantial improvements in surviving cancer, a key challenge remains in identifying new drugs that improve outcomes for patients.

Research finds people more likely to follow Covid rules when friends and family do
New research has shown that people are more likely to follow Covid-19 restrictions based on what their friends do, rather than their own principles.

Smooth touchdown: novel camera-based system for automated landing of drone on a fixed spot
While autonomous drones can greatly assist with difficult rescue missions, they require a safe landing procedure.

Diamonds need voltage
Diamonds are fascinating - as jewellery but also because of the extreme hardness of the material.

Randomized trials could help to return children safely to schools - study
Schools are closing again in response to surging levels of COVID-19 infection, but staging randomized trials when students eventually return could help to clarify uncertainties around when we should send children back to the classroom, according to a new study.

When a story is breaking, AI can help consumers identify fake news
Warnings about misinformation are now regularly posted on Twitter, Facebook, and other social media platforms, but not all of these cautions are created equal.

Ten suggestions for female faculty and staff during the pandemic
''Ten simple rules for women principal investigators during a pandemic'' was published recently in PLOS Computational Biology. It's perhaps important to note that despite its title, the article is careful to say that the cardinal rule is that there are no rules.

Does aspirin lower colorectal cancer risk in older adults? It depends on when they start.
A new study has found that there is no protection against colorectal cancer if people begin taking aspirin regularly after age 70.

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in cornea of patients with COVID-19
Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human corneas was examined in this study.

Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis after receipt of 1st dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
This JAMA Insights review provides clinical details of anaphylactic reactions reported to and verified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the first week of use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in the United States.

Researchers demonstrate snake venom evolution for defensive purposes
Researchers from LSTM's Centre for Snakebite Research and Interventions (CSRI) have led an international team investigating the evolutionary origins of a novel defensive trait by snakes - venom spitting - and demonstrated that defensive selection pressures can influence venom composition in snakes in a repeatable manner.

Opiate overdoses spike in black Philadelphians, but drop in white residents since COVID-19
New research into opioid overdoses that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted new disparities along racial lines that are likely fueled by existing inequality

Common pesticides stop bees and flies from getting a good night's sleep
Just like us, many insects need a decent night's sleep to function properly, but this might not be possible if they have been exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides, the most common form of insecticide used worldwide, suggests research by academics at the University of Bristol.

Researchers develop new graphene nanochannel water filters
Brown University researchers have shown that tiny channels between graphene sheets can be aligned in a way that makes them ideal for water filtration.

Giant sand worm discovery proves truth is stranger than fiction
Simon Fraser University researchers have found evidence that large ambush-predatory worms--some as long as two metres--roamed the ocean floor near Taiwan over 20 million years ago.

Counting patients social determinants of health may help doctors avert fatal heart attacks
Doctors may be able to predict their patients' risks of fatal coronary heart disease more accurately by taking into account the number of adverse social factors affecting them, according to a new study led by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian.

Internet and freedom of speech, when metaphors give too much power
Since 1997, when the US supreme court metaphorically called the Internet the free market of ideas, attempts at regulation have been blocked by the 1st amendment.

The idea of an environmental tax is finally gaining strength
In 2020, the political implementation of Arthur Cecil Pigou's insight has gained strength, important objections are being invalidated, and carbon pricing appears more efficient than regulations and bans according to a study by PIK and MCC.

Age-based COVID-19 vaccine strategy that saves most lives prioritizes elderly, modeling shows
Vaccinating people over 60 is the most effective way to mitigate mortality from COVID-19, a new age-based modeling study suggests.

Study reveals new insights into the link between sunlight exposure and kidney damage
A new collaborative study from researchers at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and the University of Washington and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), reveals unexpected insights into how skin exposure to ultraviolet light can worsen clinical symptoms in autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

Fish sex organs boosted under high-CO2
Research from Australia has found that some species of fish will have higher reproductive capacity because of larger sex organs, under the more acidic oceans of the future.

Important cause of preeclampsia discovered
New findings show that cholesterol crystals in the uterine wall are the villain that researchers have been looking for.

Creating a safe CAR T-Cell therapy to fight solid tumors in children
Scientists modify CAR T-Cell therapy, making it more effective and less toxic, for possible use in solid tumors such as neuroblastoma.

Having plants at home improved psychological well-being during lockdown
This was agreed by 74% of the more than 4,200 respondents in 46 countries.

Whole body imaging detects myeloma in more patients, treatment initiated earlier
Researchers from King's College London have shown that whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) not only detects more myeloma-defining disease than positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) but that it also allows critical treatment to be initiated earlier.

Antarctica: the ocean cools at the surface but warms up at depth
Scientists from the CNRS, CNES, IRD, Sorbonne Université, l'Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier and their Australian colleagues, with the support of the IPEV, have concluded that the slight cooling observed at the surface of the Southern Ocean hides a rapid and marked warming of the waters, to a depth of up to 800 metres.

Alpha particles lurk at the surface of neutron-rich nuclei
Scientists from an international collaboration have found evidence of alpha particles at the surface of neutron-rich heavy nuclei, providing new insights into the structure of neutron stars, as well as the process of alpha decay.

Six-fold rise in brain pressure disorder that affects mostly women
A brain pressure disorder that especially affects women, causing severe headaches and sometimes permanent sight loss, has risen six-fold in 15 years, and is linked to obesity and deprivation, a new study by Swansea University researchers has shown.

SHEA releases COVID-19 research agenda identifying gaps in knowledge
Massive amounts of COVID-19 research has been published since the pandemic began, but much more study is needed to understand how to prevent, identify, and treat the virus.

'Aging well' greatly affected by hopes and fears for later life, OSU study finds
If you believe you are capable of becoming the healthy, engaged person you want to be in old age, you are much more likely to experience that outcome, a recent Oregon State University study shows.

Sloan Kettering Institute scientists solve a 100-year-old mystery about cancer
A long-standing mystery is why fast-growing cells, like cancer cells and immune cells, rely on a seemingly inefficient form of metabolizing glucose to power their activities.

Crystal close up
Two novel techniques, atomic-resolution real-time video and conical carbon nanotube confinement, allow researchers to view never-before-seen details about crystal formation.

Reports of forgone medical care among US adults during initial phase of COVID-19 pandemic
This study estimated the frequency of reported forgone medical care because of the COVID-19 pandemic from March to mid-July 2020, including missed doses of prescription medications, forgone preventive and other general medical care, mental health care and elective surgeries, as well as reasons for forgoing care.

A display that completely blocks off counterfeits
POSTECH research team led by Professor Junsuk Rho develops nanostructures capable of polarized optical encryption.

Neuronal recycling: This is how our brain allows us to read
Is there an area and cognitive mechanism in our brain specifically devoted to reading?

COVID-19 infection in immunodeficient patient cured by infusing convalescent plasma
Under FDA emergency-use authorization, doctors successfully resolved COVID-19 in a seriously ill, immunodeficient woman using a very high-neutralizing antibody-titer convalescent plasma from a recovered COVID-19 patient.

Study defines small-cell lung cancer subtypes and distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities for each type
Researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have developed the first comprehensive framework to classify small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) into four unique subtypes, based on gene expression, and have identified potential therapeutic targets for each type in a study published today in Cancer Cell.

Squeezing a rock-star material could make it stable enough for solar cells
A promising lead halide perovskite is great at converting sunlight to electricity, but it breaks down at room temperature.

A new study shows the relationship between surgery and Alzheimer's disease
Amsterdam, January 21, 2021 - A new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease carried out by researchers at the Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL University Hospital, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Bonn Medical Center, proposes that major surgery is a promoter or accelerator of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Abnormal hyperactivation in the brain may be an early sign of Alzheimer's
A research team led by UdeM psychology and neuroscience professor Sylvie Belleville has just targeted an early biomarker of the disease.

Astronomers discover first cloudless, Jupiter-like planet
Astronomers at the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian have detected the first Jupiter-like planet without clouds or haze in its observable atmosphere.

COVID-19, influenza and suicide fuel increase in deaths among ICE detainees
Thirty-five people have died in the custody of US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) since April 2018, with a seven-fold increase in deaths even as the average daily population decreased by nearly a third between 2019 and 2020, a new USC study shows.

Palaeontology: Fossil burrows point to ancient seafloor colonization by giant marine worms
Giant ambush-predator worms, possible ancestors of the 'bobbit worm', may have colonized the seafloor of the Eurasian continent around 20 million years ago.

Burial practices point to an interconnected early Medieval Europe
Changes in Western European burial practices spread rapidly during the 6th - 8th centuries AD, providing strong evidence that early Medieval Europe was a well-connected place with a shared culture.

Study suggests that gut fungi are not associated with Parkinson's disease
The bacterial gut microbiome is strongly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), but no studies had previously investigated he role of fungi in the gut.

Study finds racial disparities in breast cancer prognosis testing
Women with hormone-dependent breast cancer typically have a favorable prognosis, but new research has found that even after adjusting for age at diagnosis, tumor stage and treatment, there is still a significant mortality gap between Black and non-Hispanic white women with axillary node-negative, hormone-dependent tumors that have a comparable Oncotype Recurrence Score.

Racial/ethnic disparities in unintentional EMS-attended opioid overdoses during COVID-19 pandemic
Associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with overdoses among racial/ethnic groups in Philadelphia are described in this observational study.

Electrons caught in the act
Tsukuba University scientists create movies of the ultrafast motion of electrons traveling through an organic semiconductor with atomic-level resolution.

Scientists make pivotal discovery on mechanism of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection
Wistar Researchers have discovered a new enzymatic function of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) protein EBNA1, a critical factor in EBV's ability to transform human cells and cause cancer.

A closer look at T cells reveals big differences in mild vs. severe COVID-19 cases
A big question on people's minds these days: how long does immunity to SARS-CoV-2 last following infection?

Why older adults must go to the front of the vaccine line
A new global, mathematical modeling study pubilshed in the journal Science shows that in most cases prioritizing older adults for COVID-19 vaccines saves the most lives.

Combining best of both worlds for cancer modeling
Treatment options for many types of cancers remain limited, due partly to the in vitro tools used to model cancers and that results from animal studies do not always translate well to human disease.

Study shows number and variety of issues experienced by staff wearing
A new study analysing the impact of PPE staff shows that the number and variety of issues they experience increases as their time in PPE without a break increases, ranging from tiredness and headaches in the first hour to nausea, vomiting and dizziness as they head towards four hours continuously in PPE.

School-made lunch 'better' for children
Packing a lunchbox with fruit, sandwiches, and snacks is common practice for most Australian families.

How to get more electric cars on the road
MIT researchers reveal the kinds of infrastructure improvements that would make the biggest difference in increasing the number of electric cars on the road, a key step toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation.

Study suggests coffee temporarily counteracts effect of sleep loss on cognitive function
A new study exploring the impact of repeated sleep loss during a simulated working week has found that consuming caffeinated coffee during the day helps to reduce impacts to people's vigilance, alertness, reaction-time, accuracy, working memory, attention and cognitive function, compared to decaffeinated coffee.

Immunology - Functionality of immune cells in early life
A study by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers shows that putatively immature dendritic cells found in young children are able to induce robust immune responses.

Novel effector biology research provides insights into devastating citrus greening disease
Ma and her colleagues at the University of California and the University of Florida used molecular plant pathology approaches to dissect the mechanisms of the ongoing tug-of-war between the citrus host and the bacterial pathogen that causes citrus greening disease.

NUI Galway contribute to significant breast cancer risk genes study
Breast cancer investigators in the Lambe Institute at NUI Galway have collaborated on a pivotal international study into breast cancer risk which was published in the New England Journal of Medicine today.

COVID-19 is dangerous for middle-aged adults, not just the elderly
COVID-19 has been spreading rapidly over the past several months, and the U.S. death toll has now reached 400,000.

Investigational combo therapy shows benefit for TP53 mutant MDS and AML patients
Moffitt Cancer Center is leading a national, multicenter clinical trial investigating a new therapy option for this group of patients.

RUDN University neurosurgeon created a method to collect mental activity data of software developers
A neurosurgeon from RUDN University studied the mental activity of developers at work.

Vegan diet significantly remodels metabolism in young children
University of Helsinki researchers report a comprehensive pilot study on the metabolic effects of full vegan diet on young children.

Study says friends are most valued in cultures where they may be needed most
Researchers from Michigan State University reveal cultural and health benefits of close human relationships in a new study.

Natural hazard events and national risk reduction measures unconnected
Countries where massive natural hazard events occur frequently are not more likely than others to make changes to reduce risks from future disasters.

How the brain learns that earmuffs are not valuable at the beach
A collaboration between the University of Tsukuba and the NEI in the US has discovered that fast-spiking neurons in the basal ganglia allow monkeys to associate different values with the same objects based on the surrounding environment.

Strange colon discovery explains racial disparities in colorectal cancer
The colons of African-Americans and people of European descent age differently, new research reveals, helping explain racial disparities in colorectal cancer - the cancer that killed beloved 'Black Panther' star Chadwick Boseman at only 43.

Adaptive optics with cascading corrective elements
As reported in Advanced Photonics, researchers from the University of Freiburg, Germany, have made a significant advance in AO microscopy through the demonstration of a new AO module comprising two deformable phase plates (DPPs).

Developmental origins of eczema and psoriasis discovered
Scientists have created a highly detailed map of skin, which reveals that cellular processes from development are re-activated in cells from patients with eczema and psoriasis inflammatory skin diseases.

New study: nine out of ten US infants experience gut microbiome deficiency
A new peer-reviewed study reveals that the vast majority of US infants may be suffering from a substantial deficiency in an important bacterium key to breast milk utilization and immune system development, as well as protection against gut pathogens linked to common newborn conditions such as colic and diaper rash.

The Lancet and The Lancet Oncology: Global demand for cancer surgery set to grow by almost 5 million procedures within 20 years, with greatest burden in low-income countries
Demand for cancer surgery is expected to increase from 9.1 million to 13.8 million procedures over the next twenty years, requiring a huge increase in the workforce including nearly 200,000 additional surgeons and 87,000 anaesthetists globally.

Gold nanoparticles more stable by putting rings on them
Hokkaido University scientists have found a way to prevent gold nanoparticles from clumping, which could help towards their use as an anti-cancer therapy.

Effect of bamlanivimab as monotherapy or in combination with etesevimab on viral load in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19
This randomized clinical trial compares the effects of three doses of bamlanivimab monotherapy (700 vs 2,800 vs 7,000 mg) vs combination bamlanivimab and etesevimab vs placebo on change in day 11 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.

Scientists discover how the potentially oldest coral reefs in the Mediterranean developed
A new study from the Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC, Spain) and the National Oceanography Centre brings unprecedented insights into the environmental constraints and climatic events that controlled the formation of the potentially oldest coral reefs in the Mediterranean.

Electron transfer discovery is a step toward viable grid-scale batteries
The way to boost electron transfer in grid-scale batteries is different than researchers had believed, a new study from the University of Michigan has shown.

Fans of less successful football clubs are more loyal to one another
Research led by the universities of Kent and Oxford has found that fans of the least successful Premier League football teams have a stronger bond with fellow fans and are more 'fused' with their club than supporters of the most successful teams.

Modified pain management strategy reduces opioid exposure to trauma patients, study shows
A pain management regimen comprised mostly of over-the-counter medication reduced opioid exposure in trauma patients while achieving equal levels of pain control, according to a new study by physician-researchers at UTHealth.

Study finds bilateral agreements help developing economies spur foreign investment
Developing economies suffer from a paradox: they don't receive investment flows from developed economies because they lack stability and high-quality financial and lawmaking institutions, but they can't develop those institutions without foreign funds.

How clicks on a job platform can reveal bias
Scientists at ETH Zurich have leveraged big data from recruitment platforms and machine learning to study hiring discrimination.

Teamwork in a molecule
Chemists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena have demonstrated the value of 'teamwork' by successfully harnessing the interaction between two gallium atoms in a novel compound to split the particularly strong bond between fluorine and carbon.

Climate change puts hundreds of coastal airports at risk of flooding
Newcastle University scientists have found that 269 airports are at risk of coastal flooding now.

OSU researchers prove fish-friendly detection method more sensitive than electrofishing
Delivering a minor electric shock into a stream to reveal any fish lurking nearby may be the gold standard for detecting fish populations, but it's not much fun for the trout.

Bringing atoms to a standstill: NIST miniaturizes laser cooling
Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems.

Memory fail controlled by dopamine circuit, study finds
Distraction can make you momentarily forget things. But how? Davis lab at Scripps Research, Florida uncovers a mechanism in fruit flies.

Suicide deaths during COVID-19 stay-at-home advisory in Massachusetts
Researchers assembled suicide death data for people 10 and older from January 2015 through May 2020 in this observational study and they report stable rates of suicide deaths during the COVID-19 stay-at-home advisory in Massachusetts, a finding that paralleles others following ecological disasters.

Much of Earth's nitrogen was locally sourced
Scientists show evidence that nitrogen acquired during Earth's formation came from both the inner and outer regions of the protoplanetary disk.

Researchers make domestic high-performance bipolar membranes possible
A team led by Prof. XU Tongwen and Prof WU Liang from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) adopted an in-situ growth idea to construct a stable and efficient membrane

Search for axions from nearby star Betelgeuse comes up empty
An MIT-led search for axions from nearby star Betelgeuse has come up empty, significantly narrowing the search for hypothetical dark matter particle.

The interconnection of global pandemics -- Obesity, impaired metabolic health and COVID-19
In a Nature Reviews Endocrinology article authors from the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) highlight the interconnection of #obesity and impaired metabolic health with the severity of #COVID19.

Pioneering new technique could revolutionise super-resolution imaging systems
Scientists have developed a pioneering new technique that could revolutionise the accuracy, precision and clarity of super-resolution imaging systems.

Addiction researchers recount creating virtual recovery meetings during pandemic
Researchers at the Cofrin Logan Center for Addiction Research and Treatment at the University of Kansas Life Span Institute have published their experience making SMART Recovery groups available via computer and telephone to the community in Douglas County.

'Attitude of gratitude' keeps older people in Japan feeling hopeful as they age
Older people in Japan have an 'attitude of gratitude' which keeps them feeling hopeful despite the challenges of aging, a new study says.

Snake sex chromosomes say less about sex and more about survival
A new study looks to snakes to broaden our understanding of what makes a gene able to survive on a sex-specific chromosome.

Rethink immigration policy for STEM doctorates
A streamlined process for awarding green cards to international STEM doctoral students graduating from U.S. universities could benefit American innovation and competitiveness, including leveling the field for startups eager to attract such highly skilled workers, according to a new study by researchers from Cornell University and the University of California, San Diego.

Medicated drops may help close macular holes, helping some patients avoid surgery
Medicated drops may help close small macular holes over a two- to eight-week period, allowing some people to avoid surgery to fix the vision problem, a new study suggests.

Study finds genetic clues to pneumonia risk and COVID-19 disparities
Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and colleagues have identified genetic factors that increase the risk for developing pneumonia and its severe, life-threatening consequences.

Food insecurity spiked during early months of pandemic
Food insecurity grew by nearly 80 percent in two African American neighborhoods during the early months of the coronavirus pandemic, erasing nearly a decade of progress in closing disparities between the communities and the national at large.

Children 'not scared' by PPE, says study
A new study from one of the UK's leading children's hospitals -Alder Hey Children's Hospital in Liverpool - shows that children are not scared by PPE, and can in fact feel reassured by it.

Hand sanitizer-induced ocular injury
The cases of two children with eye injuries after unintentional contact between alcohol-based hand rubs and the eye are described in this observation.

When it comes to eyewitness accounts of earthquake shaking, representation matters
As scientists increasingly rely on eyewitness accounts of earthquake shaking reported through online systems, they should consider whether those accounts are societally and spatially representative for an event, according to a new paper published in Seismological Research Letters.

Hair aging differs by race, ethnicity
While aging is an unavoidable biological process with many influencing factors that results in visible changes to the hair, there is limited literature examining the characteristics of hair aging across the races.

Study updates breast cancer risk estimates for women with no family history
A new multi-institution study led by Fergus Couch, Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic pathologist, provides more accurate estimates of breast cancer risk for U.S. women who harbor inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes.

The downward trend: Nature's decline risks our quality of life
Scientists conducted a sweeping review of nature's contributions to humans in order to present a clear breakdown of global trends since 1970.

Mitochondrial mutation increases the risk of diabetes in Japanese men
A new study of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Japanese populations has uncovered a previously uncharacterized genetic variant that puts male carriers at greater risk for the disease, as well as the mechanism by which it does so.

Fighting respiratory virus outbreaks through 'nano-popcorn' sensor-based rapid detection
Respiratory diseases like influenza can spread rapidly and escalate to global health crises.

Tough childhood damages life prospects
An adverse upbringing often impairs people's circumstances and health in their adult years, especially for couples who have both had similar experiences.

Size of connections between nerve cells determines their signaling strength
Nerve cells communicate with one another via synapses. Neuroscientists at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich have now found that these connections seem to be much more powerful than previously thought.

New biochemical clues in cell receptors help explain how SARS-CoV-2 may hijack human cells
The SARS-CoV-2 virus may enter and replicate in human cells by exploiting newly-identified sequences within cell receptors, according to work from two teams of scientists.

New combination of immunotherapies shows great promise for treating lung cancer
McMaster University researchers have established in lab settings that a novel combination of two forms of immunotherapy can be highly effective for treating lung cancer, which causes more deaths than any other form of cancer.

Safe, efficient performance of open tracheostomies in patients with COVID-19
Researchers demonstrate a technique of tracheostomy that minimizes aerosolization risks while creating a tight seal around the tracheostomy tube.

Estrogen receptors in mom's placenta critical during viral infection
A team of Duke and Mt. Sinai researchers has found a mechanism that protects a fetus from harm when the mother's innate immune system responds to a viral infection.

Stanford: forecasting coastal water quality
Using water samples and environmental data gathered over 48 hours or less, Stanford engineers develop a new predictive technique for forecasting coastal water quality, a critical step in protecting public health and the ocean economy.

PTSD link to pandemic panic
Even at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic last year, people around the world became more fearful of what could happen to them or their family.

Pediatric eye injuries, hand sanitizers during COVID-19 pandemic
An increase in pediatric cases of alcohol-based hand sanitizer eye exposure was assessed in this study, which also described the severity of ocular lesions and their management.

Methods in studying cycad leaf nutrition found to be inconsistent and incomplete
Collective research to date regarding nutrients found in the leaves of contemporary cycad species has been inconsistent as far as data collection and narrow in scope, according to a University of Guam-led literature review published on Nov.

Positive messaging plays a key role in increasing COVID-19 mask compliance
Among his first acts, President Joe Biden is asking Americans to wear a mask to help curb coronavirus.

Advances in modeling and sensors can help farmers and insurers manage risk
A review of index insurance for smallholder farmers shows the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery to help poor farmers be compensated for potentially devastating losses.

Gastrointestinal surgery can be a cure for type 2 diabetes finds new long-term study
The results of a randomised clinical trial with the longest follow up to date show that metabolic surgery is more effective than medications and lifestyle interventions in the long-term control of severe type 2 diabetes.

Highly functional membrane developed for producing freshwater from seawater
Researchers at Kobe University's Research Center for Membrane and Film Technology have successfully developed a new desalination membrane by laminating a two-dimensional carbon material on to the surface of a porous polymer membrane.

Defects may help scientists understand the exotic physics of topology
Real-world materials are usually messier than the idealized scenarios found in textbooks.

Making protein 'superfood' from marine algae
Marine microalgae-based cellular agriculture is a promising new way to sustainably produce plant-based 'meat' and healthy 'superfoods' for the future.

Geoscientists reconstruct 6.5 million years of sea level stands
The geological features in caves from Mallorca provide scientific insights for understanding modern-day sea level changes.
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