Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 29, 2021
Two ADAURA analyses support use of Osimertinib for patients with surgically resected, Stage IB to IIIA non-small cell lung cancer
Two presentations from the ADAURA clinical trial advanced previous research that demonstrated improved disease-fee survival (DFS) outcomes for patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving osimertinib.

Association between unemployment insurance, food insecurity among people who lost jobs during COVID-19 pandemic in US
This study investigated how unemployment insurance and a $600 per week federal supplement to unemployment insurance were associated with food insecurity among people in low- and middle-income households who lost jobs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Schoolchildren are learning about health through football (soccer)
Knowledge about health is a cornerstone in a child's development of physical and psychosocial health.

A computational approach to understanding how infants perceive language
A multi-institutional team of cognitive scientists and computational linguists have developed computationally-based modeling approach that opens the path toward a much deeper understanding of early language acquisition.

Threads that sense how and when you move? New technology makes it possible
Engineers have developed a thread-based sensor capable of monitoring the direction, angle of rotation and degree of displacement of the head.

New technology to detect bitter almonds in real time
Incorporating NIRS technology to almond analysis allows for quantifying amygdalin levels, the compound that causes the nut's bitter taste, on an industrial scale.

CCNY researchers demonstrate how to measure student attention during remote learning
The Covid-19 pandemic has made home offices, virtual meetings and remote learning the norm, and it is likely here to stay.

Novel therapy-resistance mechanism promoting the growth of breast cancer brain metastasis
SORLA is a protein trafficking receptor that has been mainly studied in neurons, but it also plays a role in cancer cells.

A potentially safer, more effective gene therapy vector for blood disorders
Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have developed a gene therapy vector for blood disorders like sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia that is potentially safer and more effective than those currently used in gene therapy trials for those conditions.

Obesity may exacerbate the effects of Alzheimer's disease, new study shows
New research from the University of Sheffield has found being overweight is an additional burden on brain health and it may exacerbate Alzheimer's disease.

Apps help integration and health of migrants
A new study has found that mobile apps can play a vital role in helping immigrants integrate into new cultures, as well as provide physical and mental health benefits.

Football and inclusion: It all comes down to the right motivational climate
Playing football has the potential to promote the inclusion of young people who are not from the predominant culture of a country, i.e. young migrants.

GSA Bulletin articles published ahead of print in January
Sixteen articles were published online ahead of print for GSA Bulletin in January.

Reindeer lichens are having more sex than expected
Scientists thought that reindeer lichens (moss-looking organisms that form a major part of reindeer diets) reproduced mainly asexually by cloning themselves.

Trauma surgeons and emergency surgeons positively impact patient satisfaction
A large study has found that effective and meaningful physician communication is a more important contributor to the overall satisfaction of trauma patients and those having emergency surgery than it is for patients admitted to the hospital for medical reasons or for elective procedures.

Researchers illustrate the need for anti-racism in kidney care, research
There is a growing awareness of systematic inequality and structural racism in American society.

Specific bacteria in the gut prompt mother mice to neglect their pups
As scientists learn more about the microorganisms that colonize the body--collectively called the microbiota--one area of intense interest is the effect that these microbes can have on the brain.

Constructing the first version of the Japanese reference genome
The Japanese now have their own reference genome thanks to researchers at Tohoku University who completed and released the first Japanese reference genome (JG1).

Genetic screening before prescribing could benefit millions
New research finds that millions of UK patients could benefit from genetic screening (cheek swab) before being prescribed common medications including antidepressants, stomach ulcer treatments and painkillers.

Production of 'post-lithium-ion batteries' requires new skills
Lithium-ion technology is expected to continue to dominate the market for rechargeable high-energy batteries over the next ten years.

'Weak' and 'strong' cells bonding boosts body's diabetes fight
Scientists have broadened our understanding of how 'weak' cells bond with their more mature cellular counterparts to boost the body's production of insulin, improving our knowledge of the processes leading to type 2 diabetes - a significant global health problem.

Tort claim could ensure doctors inform women of risk of stillbirth
As part of standard patient protocol, doctors inform women of the risks of pregnancy.

Biobased anti-thrombosis agent
Thrombosis, the clogging of blood vessels, is a major cause of heart attacks and embolism.

Iowa and Ohio team finds strategy to protect developing brain from prenatal stress in mice
New preclinical research from the University of Iowa and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center demonstrates that mice offspring can be protected from the effects of prenatal stress by administering a neuroprotective compound during pregnancy.

High-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Tohoku University, Toin University of Yokohama, and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) have succeeded in developing a scanless high-speed holographic fluorescence microscopy system with submicron resolution for a 3D space.

Alpine plants at risk of extinction following disappearing glaciers
Nearly a quarter of Italian alpine plant species are threatened by glacier retreat, according to a new study from Stanford University.

Territorial, expert navigators: The black howler monkeys of Mexico
New research published this week in the journal Animal Behaviour reveals the advanced navigation and memory skills of black howler monkeys.

Accurate drug dosages with proton traps
Researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, have developed a proton trap that makes organic electronic ion pumps more precise when delivering drugs.

Black or Hispanic kids receive less medical imaging than white kids
Large study publishing in JAMA Network Open shows Black and Hispanic children in hospital emergency departments are less likely to have imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, ordered for them compared to White children.

County by county, study shows social inequality's role in COVID-19's toll
A new study shows just how unevenly COVID-19 cases and deaths have played out across the country.

Remdesivir disrupts COVID-19 virus better than other similar drugs
New PME research shows how the COVID-19 drug remdesivir works at the molecular level, which could help scientists determine how best to use it to treat the disease.

Researchers use AI to help businesses understand Code of Federal Regs, other legal docs
Automated Legal Document Analytics (ALDA) provides tools for people, businesses, and other entities to understand highly complex, legally binding documents.

Arctic warming and diminishing sea ice are influencing the atmosphere
Researchers of the Institute for Atmospheric and Earth system research at the University of Helsinki have resolved for the first time, how the environment affects the formation of nanoparticles in the Arctic.

Imaging zebrafish movements in 3D to better understand ALS disease
An interdisciplinary team of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) used an innovative imaging technique for a better understanding of motor deficits in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

Methane emissions from coal mines are higher than previously thought
Methane emissions from coal mines are likely higher than previously calculated, because of emissions from abandoned mines and higher content in deep coal seams.

Researchers probe new territory in treating patients with lung cancer during pandemic
On February 27, 2020, the flagship journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the Journal of Thoracic Oncology, published a case study that described two patients from Wuhan, China who recently underwent lung lobectomies for adenocarcinoma and were retrospectively found to have had COVID-19 at the time of surgery.

Local emissions amplify regional haze and particle growth
A Finnish-Chinese research team performed simultaneous measurements of aerosol composition and particle number size distributions at ground level and at 260 m in central Beijing, China, during a total of 4 months in 2015-2017.

A small protein in bacteria overlooked up to now
Researchers identify an essential factor involved in the ordered recycling of phycobilisome light-harvesting structures

Scientists look to soils to learn how forests affect air quality, climate change
Two studies shed light on the complex relationships between tree types, forest soil nutrients and microbes, and their effect of affect air quality and climate change.

Scientists spotted RPS-12 protein as a potential target for anti-cancer therapy
Using the developing eye of the fruit fly as a test platform, researchers found that RPS-12 protein overproduction appears to trigger triple-negative breast cancer and possibly some other malignancies.

Robotic exoskeleton training expands options for stroke rehabilitation
Researchers are applying new technologies to gait training that may offer advantages over traditional labor intensive physical therapy.

Forty years of coral spawning captured in one place for the first time
Efforts to understand when corals reproduce have been given a boost thanks to a new resource that gives scientists open access to more than forty years' worth of information about coral spawning.

Childhood trauma could affect development, treatment of multiple sclerosis
Childhood trauma could affect the trajectory of multiple sclerosis development and response to treatment in adulthood, a new study in mice found.

Singles or pairs in cancer cells
An important receptor on the surface of cancer and immune cells prefers to remain noncommittal; sometimes it is present as a single, sometimes as a pair.

Reduced-dose RT with Cisplatin improves outcomes for HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma
A combination of reduced-dose radiotherapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with concurrent cisplatin met the threshold for disease control and quality of life compared to the standard of care for good-risk patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma on the NRG Oncology clinical trial NRG-HN002.

Past river activity in northern Africa reveals multiple Sahara greenings
The analysis of sediment cores from the Mediterranean Sea combined with Earth system models tells the story of major environmental changes in North Africa over the last 160,000 years.

Assessment of maternal, neonatal cord blood SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, placental transfer ratios
Maternally derived antibodies are a key element of neonatal immunity.

Association of social, demographic factors with COVID-19 cases, death rates in US
Researchers investigated the association between county-level social risk factors and COVID-19 cases and deaths, as well as weekly changes in cumulative cases and mortality, using publicly available data sets as of July 29, 2020.

Human activity caused the long-term growth of greenhouse gas methane
Decadal growth rate of methane in the atmosphere varied dramatically over the past 30 yeas with three distinct periods of slowed (1988-1998), quasi-stationary (1999-2006) and renewed (2007-2016) phases.

Prosopis juliflora acutely reduces water resources in Ethiopia, costing rural livelihoods
New research has revealed how an invasion of the alien evergreen tree, Prosopis juliflora seriously diminishes water resources in the Afar Region of Ethiopia, consuming enough of this already scarce resource to irrigate cotton and sugarcane generating some US$ 320 million and US$ 470 million net benefits per year.

Researchers map heart recovery after heart attack with great detail
Researchers from the Hubrecht Institute mapped the recovery of the heart after a heart attack with great detail.

Women who develop high blood pressure after birth at greater risk of chronic hypertension
In a new study to be presented today at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's (SMFM) annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh will unveil findings that suggest that women who develop high blood pressure during pregnancy and who continue to have elevated blood pressure postpartum are at an increased risk for developing chronic hypertension.

Dewdrops on a spiderweb reveal the physics behind cell structures
Researchers in the laboratories of Princeton University scientists Joshua Shaevitz, Howard Stone, and Sabine Petry have discovered that surface tension drives the liquid-like protein TPX2 to form globules that nucleate the formation of branching microtubules during cell division.

Scientists solve long-standing mystery by a whisker
A team of neuroscientists at the University of California, Riverside, has experimented on mice to identify the brain region that functions beyond sensory encoding and motor encoding, potentially opening up new directions to studying the cellular and circuit mechanisms of sensory-motor transformations.

Medicaid expansion in New York has improved maternal health, study finds
A new Columbia University study has found that Medicaid expansion in 2014 in New York State was associated with a statistically significant reduction in severe maternal morbidity in low-income women during delivery hospitalizations compared with high-income women.

Turning on the switch for plasticity in the human brain
Shigeki Watanabe and colleagues describe how glutamate signals are transmitted across synapses to turn on the switch for synapatic plasticity, the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

Racial, ethnic differences in diagnostic imaging at children's hospitals emergency departments
Researchers examined if the use of diagnostic imaging for children receiving care in pediatric emergency departments in the United States differs by race and ethnicity.

Islands without structure inside metal alloys could lead to tougher materials
An international team of researchers produced islands of amorphous, non-crystalline material inside a class of new metal alloys known as high-entropy alloys.

New research about emerging 'COVID-19 personality types'
New research just published identifies and explores the impacts of salient viral or COVID-19 behavioural identities that are emerging.

UArizona researchers develop smartphone-based COVID-19 test
The team is adapting a smartphone-based method -- originally designed to detect the presence of norovirus -- for COVID-19 testing.

Yangtze River observational system to improve East Asian rainy season forecasting
A major observation effort deploying airplanes, satellites and ground-based tracking systems was mounted in 2020 along the Yangtze River in China to better describe the physical processes that cause the mei-yu, an intense rainy season that occurs during East Asia's summer monsoon.

Scientists identify locations of early prion protein deposition in retina
The earliest eye damage from prion disease takes place in the cone photoreceptor cells, specifically in the cilia and the ribbon synapses, according to a new study of prion protein accumulation in the eye by National Institutes of Health scientists.

Automated AI algorithm uses routine imaging to predict cardiovascular risk
Investigators teamed up to develop and evaluate a deep learning system that may help change this.

A third of Americans say they are unlikely or hesitant to get COVID-19 vaccine
A University of California, Davis, study found that more than a third of people nationwide are either unlikely or at least hesitant to get a COVID-19 vaccine when it becomes available to them.

Forecast :125,000 fewer U.S. COVID deaths if 50% initiate vaccination by March 1
A new report combining forecasting and expert prediction data, predicts that 125,000 lives could be saved by the end of 2021 if 50% or more of the U.S. population initiated COVID vaccination by March 1, 2021.

Radiation Oncology trials using PET with FDG uptake among NSCLC patients
Two radiation oncology trials presented at the IALSC World Conference on Lung Cancer Singapore highlight how some researchers are exploring use of higher radiation boost doses to only PET-positive regions in locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Synthesizing valuable chemicals from contaminated soil
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and ETH Zurich have developed a process to produce commodity chemicals in a much less hazardous way than was previously possible.

Coiling them up: Synthesizing organic molecules with a long helical structure
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology produced and extensively characterized novel organic molecules with a long helical structure.

Hurricanes and typhoons moving 30km closer to coasts every decade
High-intensity tropical cyclones have been moving closer to coasts over the past 40 years, potentially causing more destruction than before.

New technique identifies important mutations behind Lynch Syndrome
A Michigan Medicine team describes a method for screening so-called genetic variants of uncertain significance in the hopes of identifying those mutations that could cause cancer.

Our gut-brain connection
MIT researchers developed an 'organs-on-a-chip' system that replicates interactions between the brain, liver, and colon.

Current issue articles for Geosphere posted online in January
GSA's dynamic online journal, Geosphere, posts articles online regularly. Topics for articles posted for Geosphere this month include feldspar recycling in Yosemite National Park; the Ragged Mountain Fault, Alaska; the Khao Khwang Fold and Thrust Belt, Thailand; the northern Sierra Nevada; and the Queen Charlotte Fault.

Adding ipilimumab to pembrolizumab does not improve efficacy in patients with NSCLC
Adding ipilimumab to pembrolizumab does not improve efficacy and is associated with greater toxicity than pembrolizumab alone as first-line therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for patients with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score of greater than or equal to 50% and no targetable EGFR or ALK aberrations.

New study investigates photonics for artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing
Scientists have given a fascinating new insight into the next steps to develop fast, energy-efficient, future computing systems that use light instead of electrons to process and store information - incorporating hardware inspired directly by the functioning of the human brain.

How is human behavior impacting wildlife movement?
For species to survive in the wild, maintaining connectivity between populations is critical.

By changing their shape, some bacteria can grow more resilient to antibiotics
New research led by Carnegie Mellon University Assistant Professor of Physics Shiladitya Banerjee demonstrates how certain types of bacteria can adapt to long-term exposure to antibiotics by changing their shape.

COVID unemployment assistance puts food on the table: BU study
Another wave of COVID-19 is putting millions out of work, while tens of millions more remain unemployed, and Congress debates aid.

BioNTech-Pfizer mRNA vaccine largely effective against UK variant, Sera from 40 patients show
In a study evaluating the BioNTech-Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine's ability to neutralize the B.1.1.7 ('UK') viral variant, researchers found no loss of immune protection compared to that against the original Wuhan reference strain.

How lipids distribute proteins within cells
Researchers have observed how lipids distribute proteins within cells, a discovery that could open the door to understanding the causes of protein transport related diseases, such as cancer or neurodegenerative diseases

How vitamins, steroids and potential antivirals might affect SARS-CoV-2
Evidence is emerging that vitamin D -- and possibly vitamins K and A -- might help combat COVID-19.

Genes that dance to the circadian rhythm
Scientists at EPFL have made breakthrough discoveries on the circadian clock and how it affects gene expression.

COVID-19 pandemic led to decreased school meal access for children in need across Maryland
School closures during COVID-19 have decreased access to school meals, which is likely to increase the risk for food insecurity among children in Maryland, according to a new report issued by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM).

Americans like sports, but heterosexual men especially do
Nearly nine out of 10 Americans say they enjoy sports at least a little, but heterosexual men more commonly identify as passionate sports fans, a new study suggests.

Explaining to your child why behavior is wrong may not always work
Parents know the scenario all too well: their child misbehaves and it comes time for discipline.

Black lung cancer patients die sooner than white counterparts
Structural racism thwarts a large proportion of black patients from receiving appropriate lung cancer care, resulting in worse outcomes and shorter lifespans than white patients with the disease.

Family's our focus during pandemic, study finds
More fully appreciating family and engaging in more conflict are among the heightened experiences during the coronavirus pandemic, according to a new UC Riverside study.

Firearm deaths increasing in U.S. children younger than 5, study says
OHSU-led research notes that the rate of unintentional firearm deaths in children under the age of 5, increased exponentially at an average annual percent of 4.9 between 1999 and 2018.

The spillover effect
You can't have your cake and eat it too, as the saying goes.
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.