Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (November 2018)

Science news and science current events archive November, 2018.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from November 2018

Automated technique for anime colorization using deep learning
Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology, IMAGICA GROUP Inc. and OLM Digital, Inc. report the world's first technique for automatic colorization focused on Japanese anime production. The new technique is expected to promote efficiency and automation in anime production.

New material cleans and splits water
Researchers at EPFL's Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering have developed a photocatalytic system based on a material in the class of metal-organic frameworks. The system can be used to degrade pollutants present in water while simultaneously producing hydrogen that can be captured and used further.

Researchers use MRI to predict Alzheimer's disease
MRI brain scans perform better than common clinical tests at predicting which people will go on to develop Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study.

Computer model more accurate at identifying sources of foodborne illnesses than traditional
A new computer model that uses machine learning and de-identified and aggregated search and location data from logged-in Google users was significantly more accurate in identifying potentially unsafe restaurants when compared with existing methods of consumer complaints and routine inspections, according to new research led by Google and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Surgery & combination therapy optimizes results in aggressive prostate cancer management
Results published today in JAMA Oncology suggest post-operative radiation and hormone therapy, before cancer recurrence, as a new prostate cancer treatment option for men with a Gleason Score of 9 or 10.

Researchers aim to prevent medical imaging cyberattacks
Researchers and cybersecurity experts have begun to examine ways to mitigate the risk of cyberattacks in medical imaging before they become a real danger.

Natural solutions reduce global warming: Clark University + The Nature Conservancy
Christopher A. Williams, associate professor in Clark University's Graduate School of Geography and postdoctoral research scientist Huan Gu, Ph.D., worked with The Nature Conservancy and close to two dozen institutional partners on 'Natural Climate Solutions for the United States,' published today in Science Advances. The new study highlights natural solutions in the United States that offer the most promise to help limit warming to 1.5 degrees Centigrade (approximately 3 degrees Fahrenheit).

Researchers have created a virtual reality simulation of a supermassive black hole
The black hole at the centre of our galaxy, Sagittarius A*, has been visualised in virtual reality for the first time. The details are described in an article published in the open access journal Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology.

Artificial intelligence may help reduce gadolinium dose in MRI
Researchers are using artificial intelligence to reduce the dose of a contrast agent that may be left behind in the body after MRI exams, according to a new study.

Reproducing paintings that make an impression
MIT CSAIL's new system can faithfully remake your favorite paintings via 3D printing and deep learning.

People in Canada have good health, are living longer: Global Burden of Disease Study trends
Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study shows that the overall health of Canadians is good and is consistent with other similar countries, and people are living longer with diseases, according to a study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Cellphone technology developed to detect HIV
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have designed a portable and affordable mobile diagnostic tool, utilizing a cellphone and nanotechnology, with the ability to detect HIV viruses and monitor its management in resource-limited regions.

Scalpel-free surgery enhances quality of life for Parkinson's patients, study finds
A high-tech form of brain surgery that replaces scalpels with sound waves improved quality of life for people with Parkinson's disease that has resisted other forms of treatment, a new study has found.

New transgenic rat model may enable better understanding of amyloid buildup in cerebral blood vessels
In a report in The American Journal of Pathology investigators describe the generation of a successful novel transgenic rat model that accumulates amyloid specifically in brain blood vessels and strongly mimics many of the associated detrimental changes that are observed in humans - a condition known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), which is also commonly observed in Alzheimer disease.

Color vision variation in guppies influences female mate preference
A variety of animals have male-specific ornament traits and these ornaments are favored by female choice. Which male traits are preferred by females often varies among females. Genetic mechanisms that create and maintain variations in female preference has been one of the central questions in evolutionary ecology.

Artificial intelligence may fall short when analyzing data across multiple health systems
Study shows deep learning models must be carefully tested across multiple environments before being put into clinical practice.

Salmonella found to be resistant to different classes of antibiotics
Common bacteria that cause foodborne diseases are resistant to antibiotics used to treat infections, according to research that identified 39 genes responsible for this resistance.

Medical equipment hacking and defensive solutions presentation by Ben-Gurion U. researcher
The Ben Gurion University proposed system learns to recognize typical imaging scan protocols and to predict if a new, unseen command is legitimate or not. If an attacker sends a malicious command to the device, the system will detect it and alert the operator before the command is executed. Mahler notes that the system is not yet finished, but that the results are a significant milestone on the path to securing medical imaging devices.

Oncologists' LGBT-related knowledge & practices improved after cultural competency training
An interactive online LGBT cultural competency training program for oncologists may be acceptable, feasible, and improve LGBT-related knowledge and clinical practices.

Nature-inspired crystal structure predictor
Scientists from Russia found a way of improving the crystal structure prediction algorithms, making the discovery of new compounds multiple times faster.

Growing number of state laws limit local government control over food and nutrition
In recent years, more than a dozen states have passed laws limiting local governments' ability to create food and nutrition policies and more than two dozen states previously enacted laws preventing obesity-related lawsuits against food businesses, finds a new analysis led by NYU College of Global Public Health. These laws are examples of preemption, a legal mechanism in which a higher level of government withdraws or limits the ability of a lower level of government to act on an issue.

Tiny pacemakers aim to make infant heart surgeries less invasive, while cutting operating costs and time
Rohan Kumthekar, M.D., a cardiology fellow at Children's National, presents a prototype for a miniature pacemaker, about the size of an almond, which aims to make pacemaker procedures for infants less invasive, less painful, and more efficient, measured by shorter surgeries, faster recovery times and reduced medical costs.

Ancient human population histories revealed in Central and South America
The first high quality ancient DNA data from Central and South America -- 49 individuals some as old as 11,000 years -- has revealed a major and previously unknown exchanges between populations. For the first time, researchers have archaeological and genetic evidence linking some of the oldest humans in Central America to the earliest known populations to arrive in the New World.

Defective DNA damage repair leads to chaos in the genome
Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have now found a cause for the frequent catastrophic events in the genetic material of cancer cells that have only been known for a few years: If an important DNA repair system of the cells has failed, this promotes fragmentation and defective assembly of the genetic material. Cancer cells with such a repair defect can now possibly be treated by a specific group of drugs.

Diabetic foot ulcers heal quickly with nitric oxide technology
Around the world, 425 million people live with diabetes and upwards of 15 percent develop foot ulcers, which increases their risk of death 2.5 times. A new nitric oxide-releasing technology has the potential to cut down the healing time of diabetic foot ulcers from 120 days to 21 days.

Skin ages when the main cells in the dermis lose their identity and function
A study in mice done at IRB Barcelona and CNAG-CRG explains that dermal fibroblasts lose their cell identify over time and with it their capacity to produce and secrete collagen and other proteins.

Researchers discover key gene in cells associated with age-related hearing loss
An international group of researchers, led by Ronna Hertzano, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Anatomy and Neurobiology, at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM), and Michael Bowl, Ph.D., Programme Leader Track Scientist, Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell Institute, UK, have identified the gene that acts as a key regulator for special cells needed in hearing.

How exercise could help fight drug addiction
The siren call of addictive drugs can be hard to resist, and returning to the environment where drugs were previously taken can make resistance that much harder. However, addicts who exercise appear to be less vulnerable to the impact of these environmental cues. Now, research with mice suggests that exercise might strengthen a drug user's resolve by altering the production of peptides in the brain, according to a study in the journal ACS Omega.

A new study shows what makes humans look older or younger using artificial intelligence
There are many factors that influence the aging process. Unlocking these factors can lead to valuable insights into what impacts the condition and health of the human body and reveal how to minimize these impacts. Researchers from Haut.AI and Insilico Medicine have developed a simple and accurate predictor of chronological age called the PhotoAgeClock. The new research shows that the corners of the eye are the most important area for age prediction.

Undergraduate biology textbooks fail to teach how science can improve industry practice
Undergraduate biology textbooks do little to teach students how science can contribute to successful careers in industry or improved business practices at a time when some fear that science is under attack by corporate interests. A new study from the Center for Integration of Science and Industry at Bentley University shows that textbooks for first-year, undergraduate biology fail to provide context for applications of science in business and instead perpetuate a negative stereotype of industry and its relationship with science.

Mental health diagnoses among US children, youth continue to rise at alarming rate
The number of children and adolescents visiting the nation's emergency departments due to mental health concerns continued to rise at an alarming rate from 2012 through 2016, with mental health diagnoses for non-Latino blacks outpacing such diagnoses among youth of other racial/ethnic groups, according to a retrospective cross-sectional study presented during the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition.

How the Atlantic Ocean became part of the global circulation at a climatic tipping point
A team of scientists, led by Dr Sietske Batenburg at the University of Oxford's Department of Earth Sciences, in close collaboration with German and UK institutions, have discovered that the exchange of water between the North and South Atlantic became significantly larger fifty-nine million years ago.

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD accumulate in children with poor aerobic fitness
Risk factors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease accumulate in children who have poor aerobic fitness, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows. The study also found that the traditional way of expressing aerobic fitness in proportion to total body mass overestimates the role of aerobic fitness in identifying children at an increased risk of these diseases.

Is throwing rice at weddings bad for birds? (video)
Many people believe that throwing rice at weddings is harmful to wild birds. Supposedly, the rice expands in the birds' digestive systems and injures them. This myth has become widespread after appearing in places as varied as an 'Ann Landers' column and an episode of 'The Simpsons.' In this video, Reactions uses some hands-on chemistry to demonstrate that rice is no more harmful than other grains and that this misconception is for the birds.

Researchers stop 'sneaky' cancer cells in their tracks
A new study by University of Minnesota biomedical engineers shows how they stopped cancer cells from moving and spreading, even when the cells changed their movements.

Family dinners improve teens' eating habits no matter how well family functions, study finds
More frequent family dinners were associated with more healthful eating by adolescents and young adults, regardless of the level of family functioning in managing daily routines, communicating and connecting emotionally. This study used data from 2,728 teens and young adult living at home with their parents. Frequent family meals were associated with eating more fruits and vegetables and less fast food and takeout food for young people in both high-functioning and low-functioning families.

Nature of immune cells in the human brain disclosed
Researchers from the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience and Amsterdam UMC have disclosed the nature of how T cells protect the brain against harmful viruses. The results of the study, which are published in Nature Communications, are important for investigating the role of the immune system in numerous brain disorders.

Patients with untreated hearing loss incur higher health care costs over time
Older adults with untreated hearing loss incur substantially higher total health care costs compared to those who don't have hearing loss -- an average of 46 percent, totaling $22,434 per person over a decade, according to a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

New way to study swallowing could one day lead to improved treatments for ALS
There is no cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease, but new findings from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine are deepening researchers' understanding of a common ALS symptom: swallowing problems.

Health surrogates for older adults often don't know their care preferences
When it comes to making health decisions for an older adult, what health surrogates don't know can be harmful, according to new research. While 75 percent of surrogates feel extremely confident in their knowledge of a loved one's preferences, only 21 percent of them actually know what the older patient would want in the event of a serious illness, the researchers said.

COPD patients rarely receive pulmonary rehabilitation despite its health benefits
Only a tiny fraction of patients hospitalized for COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, participate in a pulmonary rehabilitation program following hospitalization, even though such programs are recommended and Medicare covers their cost, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

Weight likely cause for one-fourth of asthma cases in kids with obesity
A study including health data for more than 500,000 children in the US suggests obesity might be to blame for about a quarter (23 to 27 percent) of asthma in children who are obese. This could mean about 10 percent of all kids ages 2 to 17 with asthma -- almost 1 million children in the US -- might have avoided the illness by maintaining a healthy weight, according to researchers at Duke University and collaborators with the National Pediatric Learning Health System (PEDSnet).

Being overweight likely to cause depression, even without health complications
A largescale genomic analysis has found the strongest evidence yet that being overweight causes depression, even in the absence of other health problems.

Exposure to police violence reported often, associated with mental health issues
Exposure to police violence is increasingly recognized as a public health issue in the United States. In this survey study of 1,000 adults in Baltimore, Md., and New York, N.Y., exposure to police violence was reported by many residents, especially those who were racial/ethnic and sexual minorities.

Sucking your baby's pacifier may benefit their health
Many parents probably think nothing of sucking on their baby's pacifier to clean it after it falls to the ground. Turns out, doing so may benefit their child's health. A Henry Ford Health System study found that babies whose parents sucked on their pacifier to clean it had a lower level of the antibody that is linked to the development of allergies and asthma.

Breast cancer cells become invasive by changing their identity
Researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have identified a protein that determines the identity and invasive properties of breast cancer cells. The finding could lead to the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies to target breast cancer invasion and metastasis. The study is published in the scientific journal Cancer Research.

Study predicts decreasing brown bear habitat due to climate change
A recent analysis of data related to the brown bear (Ursus arctos) estimates that suitable habitat will be reduced by 11 percent across Central Asia and the Asian Highlands by 2050 due to climate change, predominantly due to the changes in temperature and precipitation. The findings are published in Ecology and Evolution.

A prognostic model may predict survival in African-American women with breast cancer
A prognostic model developed using a machine learning approach could identify African-American breast cancer patients with increased risk of death.

Resiliency in NICU parents may be linked to lower depression and anxiety
Parents of vulnerable newborns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) who feel less resilient may experience more symptoms of psychological distress, including depression and anxiety. A snapshot from an ongoing cross-sectional study exploring this relationship was presented during the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition.

Eat your vegetables (and fish): Another reason why they may promote heart health
Elevated levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) -- a compound linked with the consumption of fish, seafood and a primarily vegetarian diet -- may reduce hypertension-related heart disease symptoms. New research in rats finds that low-dose treatment with TMAO reduced heart thickening (cardiac fibrosis) and markers of heart failure in an animal model of hypertension.

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