Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (November 2019)

Science news and science current events archive November, 2019.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from November 2019

Nearly 40% of species are very rare and are vulnerable to climate change
Almost 40 percent of global flora is categorized as 'exceedingly rare,' and these species are most at risk of extinction by human development and as the climate continues to change, according to new University of Arizona-led research.

Receiving care in a multidisciplinary prostate cancer clinic increases discussion about treatment options and adherence to national guidelines
Newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients have multiple standard-of-care treatment options available, but many are not fully informed of their choices. A study led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found men who seek treatment at a multidisciplinary (MultiD) prostate cancer clinic are more likely to be advised about treatment choices and to receive care that complies with evidence-based treatment guidelines.

Zooming into cilia sheds light into blinding diseases
A new study reveals an unprecedented close-up view of cilia linked to blindness.

Study: Sepsis survivors require follow-up support
Survivors of sepsis -- a life-threatening response to an infection -- have expressed a need for advocacy and follow-up support, according to a study authored by professors at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, and published in Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing.

The heat is on
Climate change is reorganizing the life in our oceans in a big way: as waters warm, cold-loving species, from plankton to fish, leave the area and warm water species become more successful. So say an international group of scientists in the most comprehensive assessment of the effects of ocean warming on the distribution fish communities.

Talk to the hand
Fans of the blockbuster movie 'Iron Man 3' might remember the characters step inside the digital projection of a 'big brain' and watch as groups of neurons are 'lit up' along the brain's neural 'map' in response to physical touch. Now, much like that scene, researchers at the University of Missouri have discovered a new insight into how the complex neural map of the human brain operates.

Oligomerix and Feinstein Institutes publish in vivo Alzheimer's disease treatment data
Results published in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease show Tau Oligomer Inhibitor prevents downstream Alzheimer's disease events.

Global climate change concerns for Africa's Lake Victoria
UH Researcher and team developed a model to project lake levels in world's largest tropical lake

U of M research discovers subcellular computations within the brain during decision-making
New University of Minnesota Medical School research suggests that during decision-making, neurons in the brain are capable of much more complex processing than previously thought.

Discovery reveals mechanism that turns herpes virus on and off
New research from Dr. Luis M. Schang and his group at the Baker Institute for Animal Health has identified a new mechanism that plays a role in controlling how the herpes virus alternates between dormant and active stages of infection.

Secretome of pleural effusions associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant meso
Cryopreserved cell-free PE fluid from 101 NSCLC patients, 8 mesothelioma and 13 with benign PE was assayed for a panel of 40 cytokines/chemokines using the Luminex system.

Quantum computers learn to mark their own work
A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realised.

Inflammatory processes drive progression of Alzheimer's and other brain diseases
Inflammation drives the progression of neurodegenerative brain diseases and plays a major role in the accumulation of tau proteins within neurons. An international research team led by the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the University of Bonn comes to this conclusion in the journal Nature. The results indicate that inflammatory processes represent a potential target for future therapies.

Flatland light
Harvard researchers have developed rewritable optical components for surface light waves.

Stuck in a Polish nuclear weapon bunker cannibal wood ants found the way home
Coming back to their 2016 study of a wood ant colony of workers trapped in a post-Soviet nuclear weapon bunker in Poland, a research team, led by Prof. Wojciech Czechowski from the Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, sought to determine how exactly the unexpected colony managed to survive for so long. As a result, their new paper, also published in the open-access Journal of Hymenoptera Research, reports cannibalism within the colony.

Increased exercise over the age of 60 reduces risk of heart disease and stroke
People over the age of 60 should do more exercise not less in order to prevent heart disease and stroke, according to findings from a study of over 1.1 million elderly people published in the European Heart Journal.

Skipping breakfast linked to lower GCSE grades
Students who rarely ate breakfast on school days achieved lower GCSE grades than those who ate breakfast frequently, according to a new study in Yorkshire.

Go with the flow: Scientists design new grid batteries for renewable energy
Scientists at Berkeley Lab have designed an affordable 'flow battery' membrane that could accelerate renewable energy for the electrical grid.

How the Aztecs could improve modern urban farming
Highly intensive production systems with low resource demand are a strategic goal of urban agriculture developers. Research was conducted to determine the extent to which an ancient Aztec agricultural technique could benefit 21st century horticultural needs.

Bigger doesn't mean better for hatchery-released salmon
A recent study in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecosphere examines hatchery practices in regards to how Chinook salmon hatcheries in the PNW are affecting wild populations over the past decades.

DNA technology as a novel strategy for delivery of anti-HIV antibodies
Wistar scientists applied synthetic DNA-based technology to drive in vivo production of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies in small and large-animal models, providing proof of concept for a simple and effective next generation approach to HIV prevention and therapy. These results were published online in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Direct-to-patient telemedicine cardiology follow-ups may safely save families time, cost
Health provider follow-ups delivered via computer or smartphone is a feasible alternative to in-person patient follow-ups for some pediatric cardiac conditions, according to the findings of a pilot study presented at the AHA Scientific Sessions this week.

Ancient Rome: a 12,000-year history of genetic flux, migrations and diversity
Scholars have been all over Rome for hundreds of years, but it still holds some secrets - for instance, relatively little is known about where the city's denizens actually came from. Now, an international team led by Researchers from the University of Vienna, Stanford University and Sapienza University of Rome, is filling in the gaps with a genetic history that shows just how much the Eternal City's populace mirrored its sometimes tumultuous history.

Artificial intelligence-based algorithm for intensive care of traumatic brain injury
A recent Finnish study, published in Scientific Reports, presents the first artificial intelligence (AI) based algorithm that may be utilized in the intensive care unit for treating patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The project is a collaborative project between three Finnish university hospitals: Helsinki University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital and Turku University Hospital.

Observing changes in the chirality of molecules in real time
Chiral molecules - compounds that are mirror images of each other - play an important role in biological processes and in chemical synthesis. Chemists at ETH Zurich have now succeeded for the first time in using ultrafast laser pulses to observe changes in chirality during a chemical reaction in real time.

Quality over quantity! Interval walking training improves fitness and health in elderly individuals
Interval Walking Training is a method that is effective in increasing overall fitness and decreasing healthcare costs associated with lifestyle-related diseases of the middle-aged and elderly. High-intensity walking time is the key. Participants who walk longer at 70% or more of their maximum capacity see improvements in health and fitness. 50 minutes a week is what one needs to see peak aerobic capacity improve, as well as other blood work levels.

Financial therapy can aid well-being, stability
Financial therapy could help couples navigate disagreements, money concerns and financial conflicts before these issues tear relationships apart.

70% of teens surveyed engaged with food and beverage brands on social media in 2017
70% of teens surveyed report engaging with food and beverage brands on social media and 35 percent engaged with at least five brands, according to a new study from the UConn Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. The study found that 93% of the brands that teens reported engaging with on social media were fast food, unhealthy snack foods, candy, and sugary drinks, which are primarily the brands that target them with traditional forms of advertising.

Technique identifies T cells primed for certain allergies or infections
MIT researchers can now identify T cells reactive to a particular target from a patient's cells, and to perform high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing of those cells.

Parity law improved medicaid acceptance at substance use disorder treatment centers
A 2008 federal parity law succeeded in expanding Medicaid acceptance by treatment facilities for substance use disorders (SUDs), according to a study by University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers.

Disordered proteins become stable, 'super-sticky' materials
Biomedical engineers from Duke University have demonstrated that they can create stable materials from engineered disordered proteins by altering the environmental triggers that cause them to undergo phase transitions. This discovery shines a light on previously unexplored behaviors of disordered proteins and allows researchers to create novel materials for applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and biotechnology.

LGBTQ beauty vloggers draw on queer culture to stand out
New Cornell research explores how a racially diverse group of LGBTQ beauty vloggers navigates seemingly contradictory roles: masculine and feminine; authentic and heavily made up.

CUHK Faculty of Engineering develops novel imaging approach
By combining a compressive sensing algorithm with a digital holographic microscope, Prof. Shih-Chi CHEN of the Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) and his research team have developed a high-speed imaging method. The new approach is able to produce two-photon microscopy images of a 3D sample in one second, which is at a speed three to five times that of the conventional point-scanning method.

Discriminating diets of meat-eating dinosaurs
A big problem with dinosaurs is that there seem to be too many meat-eaters. From studies of modern animals, there is a feeding pyramid, with plants at the bottom, then plant-eaters, and then meat-eaters at the top.

Combination of immunotherapy and VEGF inhibitor improves survival in HCC
Combination therapy with the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab and the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab significantly improves overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to standard of care, showed results from a phase 3 study to be reported at the ESMO Asia 2019 Congress.

New health insurance benefit at U-M led to increased rates of IVF
In a new research letter appearing in JAMA detailing a first-of-its-kind study, a University of Michigan team compared the use of IVF among university employees before and after the addition of an insurance coverage benefit, finding a marked increase in the rate of use.

Studies find nurse-led program improves care of older adults
An analysis of research on the Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) program finds that it improves older adult care, including preventing falls, improving patient safety and quality of care, reducing potentially inappropriate medications, and helping healthcare providers to care for patients with dementia. The study is published in the journal The Gerontologist.

Artificial intelligence technology may improve care for patients needing dialysis
A machine learning model boosted rates of patients who started dialysis under optimal conditions. Results from the study will be presented at ASN Kidney Week 2019 Nov. 5-10 at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in Washington, D.C.

NASA-NOAA satellite finds a weaker, transitioning Tropical Storm Halong
Halong continued to weaken and is transitioning into an extra-tropical cyclone. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided a visible image of the less organized storm.

Research to make (fun) multi-player gaming an educational experience
A new video game framework brings together two well-studied approaches to educational software in order to keep multiple players engrossed in the learning experience while fostering collaboration and problem solving. The framework is one of the first to integrate narrative-centered learning and collaborative learning techniques, laying the groundwork for future efforts in the field.

Study: Student attitudes toward cheating may spill over into their careers
A study co-authored by an SF State marketing professor finds that students who tolerate cheating in the classroom may also turn a blind eye to unethical behavior in the workplace.

Harvard Wyss Institute researchers demonstrate machine-guided engineering of AAV capsids
Taking a more systematic approach to the capsid protein-engineering problem, Harvard researchers mutated one by one each of the 735 amino acids within the AAV2 capsid, the best-known member of the AAV family, including all possible codon substitutions, insertions and deletions at each position. They generated a virus library containing about 200,000 variants and identified capsid changes that both maintained AAV2's viability and improved its 'homing' potential (tropism) to specific organs in mice.

University of Cincinnati finds new option for liver transplant patients
Budesonide, a drug commonly used to treat Crohn's Disease, may offer fewer side effects and work at least as well as prednisone as an anti-organ rejection medication in liver transplant patients.

New transmission model for Ebola predicted Uganda cases
A new risk assessment model for the transmission of Ebola accurately predicted its spread into the Republic of Uganda, according to the Kansas State University researchers who developed it.

Pesticide management is failing Australian and Great Barrier Reef waterways
Scientists say a failure of Australian management means excessive amounts of harmful chemicals -- many now banned in countries such as the EU, USA and Canada -- are damaging the country's waterways and the Great Barrier Reef.

Newly developed nanoparticles help fight lung cancer in animal model
Scientists have reported a new approach to treating lung cancer with inhaled nanoparticles developed at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health.

KIER Identified Ion Transfer Principles of Salinity Gradient Power Generation Technology
Dr. Kim Hanki of Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) developed a mathematical analysis model that can identify the ion transfer principle of salinity gradient power technology. The result was published in 'Water Research,' which is the top authority in the field of water resources.

Trinity scientists engineer 'Venus flytrap' bio-sensors to snare pollutants
The biological sensors change color once they have successfully snared a target molecule, and will soon have a host of important environmental, medical and security applications.

Vietnam-era women veterans continue to experience wartime stress
Vietnam-era women veterans suffer with stress-related mental health conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and generalized anxiety disorder, more than four decades after their service.

Neural compass
Harvard Medical School neuroscientists have decoded how visual cues can rapidly reorganize the activity of compass neurons in fruit flies to maintain an accurate sense of direction. By tracking individual neurons as flies navigate a virtual reality environment, the researchers shed light on neural mechanisms that allow organisms to build a spatial map of their world, as well as processes involved in short-term memory.

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