Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (September 2018)

Science news and science current events archive September, 2018.

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Top Science News & Current Event Articles from September 2018

Eight of 10 people with cancer risk genes don't know it
Genomic screening of more than 50,000 people shows that more than 80 percent of those who carry an identifiable genetic risk for breast, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancer don't know it despite frequent interaction with the healthcare system.

Talking with the doctor makes it easier to deal with grief and bereavement
In a comprehensive study, researchers from Aarhus University show that grieving patients who receive what is known as talk therapy at the general practitioner shortly after a relative's death, have a lower risk of suicide and psychiatric illness than others. Data from 207,000 million Danes is included in the register-based study, which can contribute to new practices in the preventative area.

Algorithm accurately predicts how electromagnetic waves and magnetic materials interact
UCLA Samueli engineers have developed a new tool to model how magnetic materials, which are used in smartphones and other communications devices, interact with incoming radio signals that carry data. It accurately predicts these interactions down to the nanometer scales required to build state-of-the-art communications technologies.

How slick water and black shale in fracking combine to produce radioactive waste
Study explains how radioactive radium transfers to wastewater in the widely-used method to extract oil and gas.

Eating foods with low nutritional quality ratings linked to cancer risk in large European cohort
The consumption of foods with higher scores on the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), reflecting a lower nutritional quality, is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine.

Big data studies scrutinize links between fatty liver disease and how cells make energy
Three recent studies investigate changes in mitochondria, the cell's energy producers, as fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses to steatohepatosis (NASH). The first two studies illuminate how mitochondrial energy production stutters and fails; the third describes how changes to the liver during disease progression affect the organ's use of nutrients to produce energy.

Zika vaccine shows promise for treating deadly brain cancer
An international team of researchers has successfully deployed a Zika virus vaccine to target and kill human glioblastoma brain cancer stem cells, which had been transplanted into mice. In a study published this week in mBio®, the team shows that a live, attenuated version of the Zika virus could form the basis of a new treatment option for this fatal brain cancer.

New tool developed by UBC researchers helps conservationists make smarter decisions
A new tool developed by University of British Columbia researchers could help ensure limited conservation dollars are well spent by determining which actions would save the most species per dollar.

Creating 3D printed 'motion sculptures' from 2D videos
The new system uses an algorithm that can take D videos and turn them into 3D printed 'motion sculptures' that show how a human body moves through space. In addition to being an intriguing aesthetic visualization of shape and time, the team envisions that their 'MoSculp' system could enable a much more detailed study of motion for professional athletes, dancers, or anyone who wants to improve their physical skills.

New sensors track dopamine in the brain for more than year
MIT neuroscientists devised a way to measure dopamine in the brain for up to a year, which they believe will teach them much more about its role in key brain functions and in disorders such as depression and Parkinson's disease.

Virtual reality motion sickness may be predicted and counteracted
Researchers at the University of Waterloo have made progress towards predicting who is likely to feel sick from virtual reality technology.

New screening tool can improve the quality of life for epilepsy patients with sleep apnea
Rutgers researchers have developed a tool to help neurologists screen for obstructive sleep apnea in people with epilepsy whose seizures can be magnified by sleep disorders.

Smart technology to help diagnose sepsis in children in Canada
Smart technology and artificial intelligence could be used to improve detection of sepsis in children in Canada, write authors of a commentary in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Robot can pick up any object after inspecting it
MIT CSAIL system suggests that robots could one day be able to 'see' well enough to be in people's homes and offices.

Scientists developing new blood test to screen for secondary heart attack
A blood test that quickly and easily detects whether a person is at risk of a secondary heart attack is being developed by scientists at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute. The Baker Institute's head of metabolomics, Professor Peter Meikle and his team have identified plasma lipid biomarkers (fats in the blood) that improve upon traditional risk factors in predicting heart disease and stroke.

Tiny soft robot with multilegs paves way for drugs delivery in human body
A novel tiny, soft robot with caterpillar-like legs capable of carrying heavy loads and adaptable to adverse environment was developed from a research led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU). This mini delivery-robot could pave way for medical technology advancement such as drugs delivery in human body.

'High-yield' farming costs the environment less than previously thought -- and could help spare habitats
New findings suggest that more intensive agriculture might be the 'least bad' option for feeding the world while saving its species -- provided use of such 'land-efficient' systems prevents further conversion of wilderness to farmland.

Study: Widely used nonprofit efficiency tool doesn't work
A recent study finds that the tool most often used to assess the efficiency of nonprofit organizations isn't just inaccurate -- it is negatively correlated with efficiency.

One in three college freshmen worldwide reports mental health disorder
As if college were not difficult enough, more than one-third of first-year university students in eight industrialized countries around the globe report symptoms consistent with a diagnosable mental health disorder, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

Lifestyle changes reduce the need for blood pressure medications
Men and women with high blood pressure reduced the need for antihypertensive medications by making lifestyle changes. A 16-week program, focused on the DASH diet, weight management and exercise, resulted in the most dramatic declines in blood pressure.

Scientists develop new drug treatment for TB
Scientists at The University of Manchester have developed the first non-antibiotic drug to successfully treat tuberculosis in animals. The team hope the compound -developed after 10 years of painstaking research will be trialled on humans within three to four years.

Decoding robotic surgery skills
Researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC are looking to technology to help deconstruct expert surgeons' robotic surgery skills so they can create an objective, standardized way to train the next generation of surgeons.

Can a novel high-density EEG approach disentangle the differences of visual event related potential (N170), elicited by negative facial stimuli, in people with subjective cognitive impairment?
Thessaloniki- Macedonia, Greece -- Sept. 14, 2018 -- Greek researchers investigated whether specific brain regions, which have been found to be highly activated after negative facial stimulus, are also activated in different groups of people with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) compared to healthy controls (HC).

Space-related start-up technology companies create synergistic innovation
Researchers have developed innovative business models underlying the successful launch of space-related start-up technology companies in Costa Rica.

MSU-Spectrum Health researchers identify new genetic disorder
Researchers from Michigan State University College of Human Medicine and physicians from Spectrum Health have identified for the first time in a human patient a genetic disorder only previously described in animal models.

Spying on the virus: Development to increase effectiveness of viral cancer therapy
Scientists have learned how to observe the processes of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells in real time. For the first time ever, a group of scientists from NUST MISIS and the University of Calgary (Canada) has managed to apply the technique of intravital microscopy to study the interaction of oncolytic viruses with both tumor and healthy cells of the body.

Study finds that a lifestyle intervention may mitigate PFAS-related weight gain
A new study finds that perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are associated with increases in weight, but exercise and diet may reduce the obesogenic effects of these environmental contaminants. The study, entitled Association of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances with Adiposity, led by researchers from the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and the Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health (HSPH) was published on Aug. 31 in JAMA Network Open.

Is the key to sparking climate action a game?
New research led by UMass Lowell and published by PLoS ONE found that 81 percent of participants in the World Climate Simulation, a role-playing game of the UN climate talks, showed increased motivation to combat climate change, even among Americans who are free market proponents, a belief strongly linked to denial of human-caused climate change in the United States.

Advancing life sciences research with the internet of things
The internet of things (IoT) is allowing scientists to optimize laboratory operations and combine instruments to measure and respond to complex experimental conditions. As a result, IoT is enabling more detailed and more complex experimental designs.

DNA technology provides novel strategy for delivery of complex anti-HIV agent
Scientists at The Wistar Institute have applied their synthetic DNA technology to engineer a novel eCD4-Ig anti-HIV agent and to enhance its potency in vivo, providing a new simple strategy for constructing complex therapeutics for infectious agents as well as for diverse implications in therapeutic delivery.

Researchers outline game-theory approach to better understand genetics
Principles of game theory offer new ways of understanding genetic behavior, a pair of researchers has concluded in a new analysis.

NASA finds Typhoon Mangkhut lashing Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of Typhoon Mangkhut lashing Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands.

Evaluation of fitness for transport of cull cows varies
In a test to see how farmers, livestock drivers and veterinarians assess the fitness for transport of cull cows based on lameness there were different opinions.

Holography, light-field technology combo could deliver practical 3-D displays
Researchers in Japan and Belgium has begun to explore a combination of holography and light field technologies as a way to reduce the size and cost of more people-friendly AR/VR devices.

Opioid controlled substance agreements safely reduce health care visits, Mayo study finds
The medical community has long known that patients on long-term opioid therapy often have significantly more health care visits. But adhering to a standardized care process model for opioid prescriptions appears to reduce the overall number of health care visits for these patients while maintaining safety, shows new research published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

Mixed chemicals in beauty products may harm women's hormones
A new study published in Environment International by George Mason University Assistant Professor of Global and Community Health Dr. Anna Pollack and colleagues discovered links between chemicals that are widely used in cosmetic and personal care products and changes in reproductive hormones.

Cooking with wood or coal is linked to increased risk of respiratory illness and death
Burning wood or coal to cook food is associated with increased risk of hospitalization or dying from respiratory diseases, according to new research conducted in China and published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Study examines law enforcement-inflicted injuries using California hospital data
An analysis of hospital visits in California shows trends in injuries inflicted by law enforcement officers in the line of duty and how those injuries were associated with the race and ethnicity of individuals they encountered.

Unveiling the mechanism protecting replicated DNA from degradation
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University and the FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM) in Italy have succeeded in depleting AND-1, a key protein for DNA replication, by using a recently developed conditional protein degradation system. Consequently, they were able to gain unprecedented access to the mechanism behind how AND-1 works during DNA replication and cell proliferation in vertebrate cells, demonstrating that AND-1 has two different functions during DNA replication mediated by different domains of AND-1.

Purdue develops 'augmented reality' tools to help health care workers in war zones
Purdue University researchers have developed a unique approach using augmented reality tools to help less-experienced doctors in war zones, natural disasters and in rural areas perform complicated procedures.

Research shows that busy people make healthier choices
A busy mindset can be leveraged to promote better self-control.

Household cleaning products may contribute to kids' overweight by altering their gut microbiota
Commonly used household cleaners could be making children overweight by altering their gut microbiota, suggests a Canadian study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

California Academy of Sciences discovers new species of dazzling, neon-colored fish
Named for Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love and beauty, a new species of dazzling, neon-colored fish from the twilight zone enchants Academy scientists. It's only known home is the remote Brazilian archipelago of St. Paul's Rocks.

Low fitness may indicate poor arterial health in adolescents
A recent Finnish study conducted at the University of Jyväskylä showed that adolescents with better aerobic fitness have more compliant arteries than their lower fit peers do. The study also suggests that a higher anaerobic threshold is linked to better arterial health. The results were published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology.

Brief psychotherapy benefits women caring for children with severe health issues
Brief cognitive behavioral therapy significantly improved the mental health of women overwhelmed by caring for children with severe chronic health conditions, researchers at the University of Louisville have found. After five therapy sessions, study participants reported significantly decreased depressive symptoms, negative thinking and chronic stressors, and experienced improved sleep quality, according to Lynne Hall, Dr.P.H., R.N., associate dean of research and professor at the UofL School of Nursing.

Why some human genes are more popular with researchers than others
Historical bias is a key reason why biomedical researchers continue to study the same 10 percent of all human genes while ignoring many genes known to play roles in disease, according to a study publishing Sept. 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, led by Thomas Stoeger and Luís Amaral of Northwestern University, and colleagues. This bias is bolstered by research funding mechanisms and social forces.

Journal of Dairy Science® presents collection on calf health and management
The United States Department of Agriculture-National Animal Health Monitoring System (USDA-NAHMS) conducted a survey of 2,545 preweaned heifer calves across 104 dairy operations in 2014. The study, which took place in 13 states over 18 months, covered a large cross-section of management of preweaned heifer calves in the United States, and the results have been published in six new articles in the October issue of the Journal of Dairy Science.

ORNL-developed technology streamlines computational science projects
An ORNL research team led by Jay Jay Billings has continuously updated a workflow management system they first developed in 2010 to help computational scientists develop software, visualize data, and solve problems, saving time and effort expended in support of modeling and simulation experiments. Recently, the team published an article inSoftwareX that both details the history of the system and previews the potential benefits of upcoming versions.

Study of protein 'trafficker' provides insight into autism and other brain disorders
Researchers have discovered that the protein ASTN2 shuttles receptors away from the surface of neurons, a process that facilitates efficient brain activity.

Robots may need lizard-like tails for 'off-road' travel
Robots may one day tackle obstacles and traverse uneven terrains thanks to collaborative research analyzing the motion of lizards. The study, which featured a University of Queensland researcher, used a slow motion camera to capture the nuanced movement of eight species of Australian agamid lizards that run on two legs -- an action known as 'bipedal' movement.

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