Brightsurf Science News & Current Events Archive (September 2019)

Science news and science current events archive September, 2019.

Show All Years  •  2019  ||  Show All Months (2019)  •  September

Week 35

Week 36

Week 37

Week 38

Week 39

Week 40

Top Science News & Current Event Articles from September 2019

IMpower131
Patients with Stage IV squamous non-small cell lung cancer enrolled in clinical trial to test the immunotherapy atezolizumab and chemotherapy against chemotherapy alone experienced a longer survival rate, among a subgroup of patients with high PD-LI.

A breakthrough in imaginative AI with experimental validation to accelerate drug discovery
Deep Knowledge Analytics salutes its parent company, Deep Knowledge Ventures, in the landmark Nature Biotechnology publication of its portfolio company, Insilico Medicine, demonstrating the design, synthesis and preclinical validation of a novel drug candidate in just 46 days.

Earthquake symmetry
A recent study investigated around 100,000 localized seismic events to search for patterns in the data. University of Tokyo Professor Satoshi Ide discovered that earthquakes of differing magnitudes have more in common than was previously thought. This suggests development of early warning systems may be more difficult than hoped. But conversely, similarities between some events indicate that predictable characteristics may aid researchers attempting to forecast seismic events.

Prehistoric AC
Tyrannosaurus rex, one of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs on the planet, had an air conditioner in its head, suggest scientists from the University of Missouri, Ohio University and University of Florida, while challenging over a century of previous beliefs.

Not just images
Hebrew University scientists have successfully transformed an MRI from a diagnostic camera into a device that can record changes in the biological makeup of brain tissue. The development will help doctors understand whether a patient is merely aging or developing a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.

Lessons in learning
A new Harvard study shows that, though students felt like they learned more from traditional lectures, they actually learned more when taking part in active learning classrooms.

Grains in the rain
Of the major food crops, only rice is currently able to survive flooding. Thanks to new research, that could soon change -- good news for a world in which rains are increasing in both frequency and intensity.

Can AI spot liars?
Though algorithms are increasingly being deployed in all facets of life, a new USC study has found that they fail basic tests as truth detectors.

Special journal issue brings focus to importance of studying landscape pattern
A new special issue of the journal Landscape Ecology organized by scientists at the USDA Forest Service and North Carolina State University assesses the state of the science of landscape pattern analysis. Appearing three decades after the first scientific papers on landscape patterns were published, the special issue includes 14 articles by scientists tackling current problems in the field, introducing new approaches, and suggesting promising research directions and applications.

Mysterious vaping illness characterized by fat-laden cells in the lung
University of Utah Health investigators have identified a previously unrecognized characteristic of the vaping-related respiratory illness that has been emerging in clusters across the US in recent months. Within these patients' lungs are large immune cells containing numerous oily droplets, called lipid-laden macrophages. The finding may allow doctors to definitively diagnose the nascent syndrome more quickly and could provide clues into causes of the condition. The research publishes in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The effects of variation in T6SS and bacteria on competition in host environment
A group of scientists studying the ways plant-associated bacteria interact were surprised to find that strains predicted to be more sensitive to bacteria were able to coexist with aggressor strains. 'Our findings are not consistent with a 'winner-take-all' result,' says Jeff Chang, 'and may cause researchers to think differently about bacterial behaviors that are generally assumed to be hostile and open new directions to pursue on the role of microbe-microbe interactions in plant-microbe interactions.'

Model of health
Until now, there's never been a tool that could determine how long it will take a patient to heal from a tibial fracture. But researchers at Lehigh University's P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science have found that a virtual mechanical test can do just that. Mechanical engineering professor Hannah Dailey is lead author of the paper, which appeared in the July 3, 2019 issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Just add water
Chemists uncover a mechanism behind doping organic semiconductors

GPM satellite finds heavy rainfall on northern side of typhoon Lingling
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite analyzed the rainfall rates happening within Typhoon Lingling and found the heaviest precipitation on its northern side.

Buzzkill?
They say love is blind, but if you're a queen honeybee it could mean true loss of sight. New research from UC Riverside finds male honeybees inject toxins during sex that cause temporary blindness.

Addressing food insecurity in health care settings
A review of articles covering food insecurity interventions in health care settings from 2000-2018 found that interventions focused on either referrals or direct provision of food or vouchers both suffered from poor follow-up, a general lack of comparison groups, and limited statistical power and generalizability.

Scientists in New York City discover a valuable method to track rats
A new paper in The Journal of Urban Ecology, published by Oxford University Press, finds that rats can be baited to, or repelled from, locations using pheromones found in the scents of other rats.

Sex for cooperation
To understand the origins of human sociality studying the social dynamics of our closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, is important. Using behavioral and hormonal data from a habituated bonobo community at the long-term LuiKotale field site in the Democratic Republic of Congo researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Harvard University and the Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology have now shown that same-sex sexual behavior in female bonobos increases friendly social interactions, including cooperation.

Finding your niche
Researchers find a new way to explain population differences in personality structure among humans

ADHD medication: How much is too much for a hyperactive child?
When children with ADHD don't respond well to Methylphenidate (MPH, also known as Ritalin) doctors often increase the dose. Now a new review shows that increasing the dose may not always be the best option, as it may have no effect on some of the functional impairments associated with ADHD. This work is presented at the ECNP Conference in Copenhagen.

New research discovers the financial cost of trachoma surveys
The global health community is working to eliminate trachoma, a bacterial disease that causes blindness. Researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have analyzed the costs of surveys that must track trachoma levels as part of these elimination efforts.

Pain in the asp: Bird-deterring nets create haven for stinging pests
While collecting data from live oak trees in the world's largest medical center, Rice University evolutionary ecologists have discovered huge quantities of one of North America's most venomous caterpillars.

NASA estimates Hurricane Dorian's massive rainfall track
On Monday morning, September 9, Hurricane Dorian was a post-tropical storm after a mid-latitude weather front and cold seas had altered its tropical characteristics over the weekend. NASA compiled data on Hurricane Dorian and created a map that showed the heavy rainfall totals it left in its wake from the Bahamas to Canada.

Investigational drug with immunotherapy may provide new therapeutic opportunity for patients previously treated for kidney and lung cancer
Investigational drug with immunotherapy may provide new therapeutic opportunity for patients previously treated for kidney and lung cancer. Pegilodecakin with pembrolizumab and nivolumab shown to be safe in Phase 1B study

Study examines suicide at county level in US
This study examined patterns of suicide in the United States at the county level during an 18-year period and looked at associated geographic and community-level factors. Between 1999 and 2016, 453,577 people ages 25 to 64 died by suicide.

Cross clade immune responses found in South Africa from the RV144/Thai HIV vaccine regimen
A clade B/E based vaccine regimen induced cross-clade responses in South Africans and, at peak immunogenicity, the South African vaccines exhibited significantly higher cellular and antibody immune responses than the Thai vaccines.

Obesity linked to a nearly 6-fold increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, with genetics and lifestyle also raising risk
Obesity is linked to a nearly 6-fold increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), with high genetic risk and unfavorable lifestyle also increasing risk but to a much lesser extent. These are the conclusions of new research presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes in Barcelona, Spain (Sept. 16-20, 2019).

NASA-NOAA satellite provides forecasters a view of tropical storm Jerry's structure
Tropical Storm Jerry is the latest in a line of tropical cyclones to develop in the North Atlantic Ocean this season. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and provided forecasters with a view of its structure that helped confirm it was organizing.

EPA announces plan to end required animal tests for chemical safety testing
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Andrew Wheeler announced today that animal testing to assess the safety of products under EPA's authority will be substantially reduced in 6 years and phased out by 2035.

Scientists identify a personality feature that could predict how often you exercise
Individuals who make concrete plans to meet their goals may engage in more physical activity, including visits to the gym, compared to those who don't plan quite so far ahead, research shows. These findings suggest that self-reported levels of a trait called 'planfulness' may translate into real world differences in behavior.

SUTD researchers revolutionize 3D printed products with data-driven design method
SUTD demonstrated this new cost-effective, data-driven approach by designing and 3D printing an ankle brace that has varying degrees of rigidity to provide both comfort and support for the user.

Biomarker identified for early beta cell death in Type 1 diabetes
Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin. Their death is a key feature of Type 1 diabetes, and that loss starts long before diagnosis. However, there has been no straightforward way to measure that early loss. Researchers now have identified an early biomarker of Type 1 diabetes-associated beta-cell loss in humans -- microRNA-204. This biomarker may provide a much needed approach to assess early T1D-associated human beta-cell loss, even before onset of overt disease.

MD Anderson study confirms protein as potential cause of most common type of pancreatic cancer
An oncogene, UPS21, has been confirmed as a frequently amplified gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the most common and often lethal form of pancreatic cancer. The discovery could lead to new treatment options.

Extreme flooding from storm surge and heavy precipitation projected to increase higher probability of compound flooding from precipitation and storm surge in Europe under anthropogenic climate change
Risk of compound flooding, which can result when rapid sea level rises associated with storms occur along with heavy rains, is currently concentrated along Mediterranean countries but will greatly increase for Northern European in the future as the climate warms, according to a new modeling study. This is the first study of compound flooding to consider future changes.

Climate change expected to accelerate spread of sometimes-fatal fungal infection
Valley fever is endemic to hot and dry regions like the southwestern United States and California's San Joaquin Valley, but a new study predicts climate change will cause the fungal infection's range to more than double in size this century, reaching previously unaffected areas across the western U.S.

Genome study shows that iran's population is more heterogeneous than previously believed
An international research endeavour has provided a genome-wide genetic characterization of the Iranian population, enabling further research on genetic diseases and historical migration movements / Publication in 'PLOS Genetics'

New study confirms protective effect of diabetes drugs against kidney failure
A new meta-analysis published in Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology has found that SGLT2 inhibitors can reduce the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes.

Study shows nearly half of cancer patients who enter a comprehensive tobacco treatment program quit smoking
In the largest smoking cessation study of cancer patients to date, researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found that comprehensive tobacco treatment can help cancer patients successfully quit and abstain from smoking.

Evidence suggests rare deer lived 50 years beyond 'extinction'
Schomburgk's deer (Rucervus schomburgki) was added to the extinction list in 1938. But new evidence, gleaned from antlers obtained in late 1990 or early 1991, shows that it survived for at least an additional half century and might still be around today.

BioMILD trial demonstrates lung cancer screening using MicroRNA blood test enhances prevention
Lung cancer screening efforts have accelerated in the last decade, with researchers showing that low dose CT screening is effective in reducing lung cancer mortality. Now, researchers in Milan report that using a blood test, accompanied by low dose CT screening, is safe and effective. The results were shared today at the IASLC 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer hosted by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer

Stanford scientists find potential diagnostic tool, treatment for Parkinson's disease
Investigators at the Stanford University School of Medicine have pinpointed a molecular defect that seems almost universal among patients with Parkinson's disease and those at a high risk of acquiring it.

Land restoration in Latin America shows big potential for climate change mitigation
Land restoration in Latin America and the Caribbean is picking up pace and scaling up projects will help the region meet its pledges under the Bonn Challenge, which aims to restore 350 million hectares of degraded and deforested land worldwide by 2030. A new study supplies a first map of restoration projects in Latin America and shows their potential to mitigate climate change through restoring forests.

A decade of renewable energy investment, led by solar, tops US $2.5 trillion
A UN-backed report shows global investment in new renewable energy capacity this decade -- 2010 to 2019 inclusive -- is on course to hit USD 2.6 trillion, with more gigawatts of solar power capacity installed than any other generation technology. Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2019 is released ahead of the UN Global Climate Action Summit (Sept. 23, 2019).

Home-based education reduces hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation
Home-based and personalized education keeps patients with atrial fibrillation out of hospital, according to late breaking results from the HELP-AF study presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

World's largest evidence review: Nutritional supplements for mental health
We've all heard that 'food is good for your mood'. Now a new study into mental health and nutrient supplementation has taken a leap forward by establishing the gold standard for which nutrients are proven to assist in the management of a range of mental health disorders.

Short-term study suggests vegan diet can boost gut microbes related to body weight, body composition and blood sugar control
New research presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (Sept. 16-20) suggests that a 16-week vegan diet can boost the gut microbes that are related to improvements in body weight, body composition and blood sugar control.

LSU Health research targets metformin as breast cancer prescription
Research conducted by Suresh Alahari, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry and Genetics at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has found that metformin, a commonly prescribed drug for Type 2 Diabetes, may be effective in treating cancers that lack a protein called Nischarin.

Symptoms of depression in caregivers may predict future health problems
Caregivers of stroke survivors who show signs of depression may have a higher risk of suffering their own health challenges down the line, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

Novel molecules designed by artificial intelligence in 21 days are validated in mice
Experimental validation confirms the ability of artificial intelligence to accelerate drug discovery

Big game hunting for a more versatile catalyst
For the first time, researchers at Harvard University and Cornell University have discovered exactly how a reactive copper-nitrene catalyst works, a finding that could revolutionize how chemical industries produce everything from pharmaceuticals to household goods. In a paper in Science, the team describes how the catalyst performs its magic and how to bottle the tool to break stubborn carbon-hydrogen bonds and make products like solvents, detergents, and dyes with less waste, energy, and cost.

Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.