Nav: Home

A new mechanism helps explain differences between eukaryotic and bacterial proteomes

January 11, 2019

What makes distinct species have different proteins? Is there a key that allows eukaryotic cells to produce proteins involved in multicellularity that are mostly absent in prokaryotes?

These are some of the questions addressed by the scientists headed by ICREA researcher Lluís Ribas, group leader of the Gene Translation lab at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona). Their work has led to the discovery of a mechanism that allows eukaryotic cells to synthesize proteins that bacteria find hard to produce.

Published recently in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, the study has been done in collaboration with the team headed by Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, ICREA researcher at the Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Barcelona.

"We discovered and described a mechanism evolved in eukaryotes that facilitates the synthesis of large, unstructured proteins such as those present in the extracellular matrix. Those are the proteins that surround each cell and allow them to associate and communicate with their environment" says Lluís Ribas.

The results of the research explain that the emergence of this functional improvement in some transfer RNAs (tRNA) facilitated the synthesis of proteins highly enriched in a specific set of amino acids, and drove an enrichment of genes coding for these tRNAs in eukaryotic genomes.

Many of these proteins are highly relevant to human health, and understanding the mechanisms essential to their synthesis may allow the development of strategies to inhibit their production in those diseases caused by their overabundance.
-end-
This study has been supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (now called Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities).

Reference article:

Àlbert Rafels-Ybern, Adrian Gabriel Torres, Noelia Camacho, Andrea Herencia-Ropero, Helena Roura Frigolé, Thomas F Wulff, Marina Raboteg, Albert Bordons, Xavier Grau-Bove, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Lluís Ribas de Pouplana

The expansion of Inosine at the wobble position of tRNAs, and its role in the evolution of proteomes Molecular Biology and Evolution (2018) DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msy245

Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

Related Evolution Articles:

Artificial evolution of an industry
A research team has taken a deep dive into the newly emerging domain of 'forward-looking' business strategies that show firms have far more ability to actively influence the future of their markets than once thought.
Paleontology: Experiments in evolution
A new find from Patagonia sheds light on the evolution of large predatory dinosaurs.
A window into evolution
The C4 cycle supercharges photosynthesis and evolved independently more than 62 times.
Is evolution predictable?
An international team of scientists working with Heliconius butterflies at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama was faced with a mystery: how do pairs of unrelated butterflies from Peru to Costa Rica evolve nearly the same wing-color patterns over and over again?
Predicting evolution
A new method of 're-barcoding' DNA allows scientists to track rapid evolution in yeast.
Insect evolution: Insect evolution
Scientists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have shown that the incidence of midge and fly larvae in amber is far higher than previously thought.
Evolution of aesthetic dentistry
One of the main goals of dental treatment is to mimic teeth and design smiles in the most natural and aesthetic manner, based on the individual and specific needs of the patient.
An evolution in the understanding of evolution
In an open-source research paper, a UVA Engineering professor and her former Ph.D. student share a new, more accurate method for modeling evolutionary change.
Chemical evolution -- One-pot wonder
Before life, there was RNA: Scientists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich show how the four different letters of this genetic alphabet could be created from simple precursor molecules on early Earth -- under the same environmental conditions.
Catching evolution in the act
Researchers have produced some of the first evidence that shows that artificial selection and natural selection act on the same genes, a hypothesis predicted by Charles Darwin in 1859.
More Evolution News and Evolution Current Events

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: Reinvention
Change is hard, but it's also an opportunity to discover and reimagine what you thought you knew. From our economy, to music, to even ourselves–this hour TED speakers explore the power of reinvention. Guests include OK Go lead singer Damian Kulash Jr., former college gymnastics coach Valorie Kondos Field, Stockton Mayor Michael Tubbs, and entrepreneur Nick Hanauer.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#562 Superbug to Bedside
By now we're all good and scared about antibiotic resistance, one of the many things coming to get us all. But there's good news, sort of. News antibiotics are coming out! How do they get tested? What does that kind of a trial look like and how does it happen? Host Bethany Brookeshire talks with Matt McCarthy, author of "Superbugs: The Race to Stop an Epidemic", about the ins and outs of testing a new antibiotic in the hospital.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dispatch 6: Strange Times
Covid has disrupted the most basic routines of our days and nights. But in the middle of a conversation about how to fight the virus, we find a place impervious to the stalled plans and frenetic demands of the outside world. It's a very different kind of front line, where urgent work means moving slow, and time is marked out in tiny pre-planned steps. Then, on a walk through the woods, we consider how the tempo of our lives affects our minds and discover how the beats of biology shape our bodies. This episode was produced with help from Molly Webster and Tracie Hunte. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.