Chemists crack secrets of nature's super glue

January 12, 2004

ARLINGTON, Va.-Researchers have discovered that iron in seawater is the key binding agent in the super-strong glues of the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. This is the first time researchers have determined that a metal such as iron is critical to forming an amorphous, biological material.

In addition to using the knowledge to develop safer alternatives for surgical and household glues, the researchers are looking at how to combat the glue to prevent damage to shipping vessels and the accidental transport of invasive species, such as the zebra mussel that has ravaged the midwestern United States.

National Science Foundation CAREER awardee Jonathan Wilker, Mary Sever and their colleagues at Purdue University announce their discovery in the Jan. 12 issue of Angewandte Chemie.

En route to crafting synthetic versions of the glue, the researchers discovered that bivalves extract the metal iron from the surrounding seawater and use it to join proteins together, linking the fibrous molecules into a strong, adhesive mesh. The 800 mussels in Wilker's laboratory have an uncanny ability to stick to almost anything, even Teflon®.

Comment from Wilker regarding research:
"Mussel glues present the first identified case in which transition metals are essential to the formation of a non crystalline biological material," says NSF CAREER awardee Jonathan Wilker of Purdue University.

"We are curious as to whether or not this newly discovered, metal- mediated protein cross-linking mechanism of material formation is a prevalent theme in biology. We will be exploring systems such as barnacle cement, kelp glue and oyster cement to see how other biomaterials are produced," says NSF CAREER awardee Jonathan Wilker of Purdue University.

"The biological origin of this glue and the ability to stick to nearly all surfaces invite applications such as the development of surgical adhesives," says NSF CAREER awardee Jonathan Wilker of Purdue University.

"Understanding how marine glues are formed could be key to developing surfaces and coatings to prevent adhesion processes. Current antifouling paints rely upon releasing copper into surrounding waters, thereby killing barnacles in their larval state. We are hoping our results will help make antifouling paints that do not require the release of toxins into the marine environment," says NSF CAREER awardee Jonathan Wilker of Purdue University.

NSF comments regarding the research discovery and the Wilker group:
"It appears that the strength, sticking power and endurance of these extraordinary biological materials may derive from inorganic chemistry," says chemist Mike Clarke, the NSF program officer who oversees Wilker's award.

"Proteins often rely on metal ions to tie them together and provide stability, but this is the first time that a transition metal ion has been determined to be an integral part of a biological material," says chemist Mike Clarke, the NSF program officer who oversees Wilker's award.

"The research wonderfully illustrates the potential for metal ions to strengthen materials by cross-linking polymer chains. More important to researchers is the tantalizing suggestion that the remarkable adhesive properties of these biological glues lie in an iron-dependent oxidation to radicals," says chemist Mike Clarke, the NSF program officer who oversees Wilker's award.

"This discovery could lead to the creation of unusual new materials with designed plasticity, strength and adhesiveness for household, structural and biological uses. Perhaps, these properties could even be made dependent upon electrochemical potential thereby creating new vistas for electronic materials," says chemist Mike Clarke, the NSF program officer who oversees Wilker's award.
-end-
Images: http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/04/pr0402_images.htm

Additional Resources:
NSF chemistry expert and program officer: Mike Clarke, 703-292- 4967, mclarke@nsf.gov
Principal Investigator: Jonathan Wilker, 765-496-3382, wilker@purdue.edu
Purdue University Media Officer: Chad Boutin, 765-494-2081, cboutin@purdue.edu

Wilker Research Group Web Site:
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/wilker/
Purdue University News
http://news.uns.purdue.edu
NSF CAREER Award homepage
http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/career/start.htm

The National Science Foundation is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering, with an annual budget of nearly $5.3 billion. National Science Foundation funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 universities and institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 30,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes about 10,000 new funding awards. The National Science Foundation also awards over $200 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is a Foundation-wide activity that offers the National Science Foundation's most prestigious awards for new faculty members. The CAREER program recognizes and supports the early career- development activities of those teacherscholars who are most likely to become the academic leaders of the 21st century. CAREER awardees will be selected on the basis of creative, career- development plans that effectively integrate research and education within the context of the mission of their institution. NSF encourages submission of CAREER proposals from new faculty at all CAREER eligible institutions. Such plans should build a firm foundation for a lifetime of integrated contributions to research and education.

Receive official National Science Foundation news electronically through the e-mail delivery system, NSFnews. To subscribe, send an e-mail message to joinsfnews@lists.nsf.gov. In the body of the message, type "subscribe nsfnews" and then type your name. (Ex.: "subscribe nsfnews John Smith")

Useful National Science Foundation Web Sites:
NSF Home Page: http://www.nsf.gov
News Highlights: http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa
Newsroom: http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/media/start.htm
ScienceStatistics: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/stats.htm
AwardsSearches: http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov/a6/A6Start.htm

National Science Foundation

Related Iron Articles from Brightsurf:

How stony-iron meteorites form
Meteorites give us insight into the early development of the solar system.

Bouillon fortified with a new iron compound could help reduce iron deficiency
Iron fortification of food is a cost-effective method of preventing iron deficiency.

Iron nanorobots go undercover
Customizable magnetic iron nanowires pinpoint and track the movements of target cells.

Iron deficiency in corals?
When iron is limited, the microalgae that live within coral cells change how they take in other trace metals, which could have cascading effects on vital biological functions and perhaps exacerbate the effects of climate change on corals.

Blocking the iron transport could stop tuberculosis
The bacteria that cause tuberculosis need iron to survive. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now solved the first detailed structure of the transport protein responsible for the iron supply.

Observed: An exoplanet where it rains iron
Nature magazine is publishing today a surprising study about the giant, ultra-hot planet WASP-76b in which researchers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) have taken part.

An iron-clad asteroid
Mineralogists from Jena and Japan discover a previously unknown phenomenon in soil samples from the asteroid 'Itokawa': the surface of the celestial body is covered with tiny hair-shaped iron crystals.

It's Iron, Man: ITMO scientists found a way to treat cancer with iron oxide nanoparticles
Particles previously loaded with the antitumor drug are injected in vivo and further accumulate at the tumor areas.

The brain may need iron for healthy cognitive development
Iron levels in brain tissue rise during development and are correlated with cognitive abilities, according to research in children and young adults recently published in JNeurosci.

The regulators active during iron deficiency
Iron deficiency is a critical situation for plants, which respond using specific genetic programmes.

Read More: Iron News and Iron Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.