Nav: Home

Doing more with less

January 14, 2019

In adults, mesenchymal stems cells (MSCs) are primarily found in bone marrow and they play a vital role in repair of damaged organs. The transformation of a single MSC into complex tissue like cartilage and bone starts with its association with other MSCs in order to form microscopic clusters via a process termed as condensation. While it is known that this condensation step is important for skeletal development the exact role it plays in formation of bone and cartilage is not understood. A team led by Prof. Dr. Prasad Shastri and Dr. Melika Sarem of the Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry at the University of Freiburg present evidence for autonomous control of chondrogenesis in MSCs. These findings are published in the journal Stem Cell Research & Therapy.

They discovered that reducing the number of cells participating in condensation process leads to the activation of an intrinsic differentiation program. This prompts MSCs to become cartilage cells even in absence of chondro-inductive growth factors irrespective of donor age and sex. Sarem and Shastri further identified that two cell-membrane proteins, Caveolin-1 and N-Cadherin are differentially regulated during the condensation step and function as interactive forces like a Yin-Yang of chondrogenic differentiation. "The fact that we need lesser cells to create better quality tissue is extremely exciting as it opens new avenues for stem cell therapies" summarizes Sarem.

In collaboration with Dr. Oliver Otto, at the University of Greifswald, the Freiburg researchers demonstrated that the chondrogenic potential of MSCs correlates with emergence of a stiffer phenotype and increase in cell size. Their findings allude to a hitherto unknown mechanobiology paradigm in MSC differentiation. "Since MSCs harvested from adult bone marrow are a heterogeneous population of cells and their ability to undergo differentiation into cartilage or bone cells varies from donor to donor, our findings have significant implication for MSC-based strategies for engineering cartilage and bone tissue," explains Shastri.
-end-
Prasad Shastri is the Professor of Biofunctional Macromolecular Chemistry at the Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry and the Professor of Cell Signalling Environments in the Cluster of Excellence BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies at the University of Freiburg.

Original publication:

Sarem, M., Otto, O., Tanaka, S., Shastri, V. P. (2019): Cell number in mesenchymal stem cell aggregates dictates cell stiffness an chondrogenesis. In: Stem Cell Research & Therapy. DOI: 10.1186/s13287-018-1103-y

Contact:

Institut für Makromolekulare Chemie & BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies

University of Freiburg

University of Freiburg

Related Bone Marrow Articles:

Researchers reveal developmental mechanisms behind rare bone marrow disorder
Myelodysplastic syndrome is an umbrella term used to describe disorders characterized by the bone marrow's inability to produce normal blood cells.
Researchers propose noninvasive method to detect bone marrow cancer
For the first time, researchers have shown that using magnetic resonance imaging can effectively identify bone marrow cancer (myelofibrosis) in an experimental model.
Bone marrow inflammation predicts leukemia risk
Cancer is generally thought to arise from genetic damage within individual cells, but recent evidence has suggested that abnormal signaling in the surrounding tissue also plays an important role.
New approach could make bone marrow transplants safer
Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy for the millions of people living with blood disorders like sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and AIDS.
Bone marrow lesions can help predict rapidly progressing joint disease
A new study from the Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, shows lesions, which can best be seen on MRI scans, could help identify individuals who are more likely to suffer from more rapidly progressing osteoarthritis.
Fat cells originating from bone marrow found in humans
Researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that fat cells produced by stem cells from the bone marrow may be linked to chronic illnesses like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and some cancers.
Zebrafish reveal drugs that may improve bone marrow transplant
Using large-scale zebrafish drug-screening models, researchers at Boston Children's Hospital have identified a potent group of chemicals that helps bone marrow transplants engraft or 'take.'
The secrets of bone marrow: What leads to healthy blood cell production?
The Medical College of Wisconsin has received a five-year, $635,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute to identify new potential treatments for diseases that inhibit the growth of blood cells and diseases in which the blood cells develop abnormally.
Clinical trial uses patients' own cells for treatment after bone marrow transplant
A clinical trial using personalized cellular therapy has begun enrolling children and adults suffering from graft-versus-host-disease, a life-threatening complication of bone marrow transplantation in which donor immune lymphocytes attack the organs of the bone marrow transplant recipient.
3-D engineered bone marrow makes functioning platelets
An international research team has reported development of the first three-dimensional tissue system that reproduces the complex structure and physiology of human bone marrow and successfully generates functional human platelets.

Related Bone Marrow Reading:

Manual of Stem Cell and Bone Marrow Transplantation
by Joseph H. Antin (Author), Deborah Yolin Raley (Author)

Bone Marrow Nei Kung: Taoist Techniques for Rejuvenating the Blood and Bone
by Mantak Chia (Author)

Clinical Manual of Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation
by Syed A. Abutalib (Editor), Parameswaran Hari (Editor)

Diagnostic Pathology: Blood and Bone Marrow
by Kathryn Foucar MD (Author), Devon Chabot-Richards MD (Author), David R. Czuchlewski MD (Author), Kristin Hunt Karner MD (Author), Kaaren K. Reichard MD (Author), Mohammad A. Vasef MD (Author), Carla S. Wilson MD PhD (Author), Qian-Yun Zhang MD PhD (Author), Karissa Culbreath PhD D(ABMM) (Author)

BMTCN® Certification Review Manual
by Beth Faiman (Author)

Diagnosis of Blood and Bone Marrow Disorders
by Sa A. Wang (Editor), Robert P. Hasserjian (Editor)

Bone Marrow Pathology
by Barbara J. Bain (Author), David M. Clark (Author), Bridget S. Wilkins (Author)

The Very Marrow of Our Bones: A Novel
by ECW Press

Marrow: Love, Loss, and What Matters Most
by Elizabeth Lesser (Author)

Blood, Bone, and Marrow: A Biography of Harry Crews
by Ted Geltner (Author), Michael Connelly (Foreword)

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Bias And Perception
How does bias distort our thinking, our listening, our beliefs... and even our search results? How can we fight it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas about the unconscious biases that shape us. Guests include writer and broadcaster Yassmin Abdel-Magied, climatologist J. Marshall Shepherd, journalist Andreas Ekström, and experimental psychologist Tony Salvador.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#513 Dinosaur Tails
This week: dinosaurs! We're discussing dinosaur tails, bipedalism, paleontology public outreach, dinosaur MOOCs, and other neat dinosaur related things with Dr. Scott Persons from the University of Alberta, who is also the author of the book "Dinosaurs of the Alberta Badlands".