Nav: Home

Jumbled chromosomes may dampen the immune response to tumors

January 19, 2017

How well a tumor responds to immunotherapy may depend in part on whether its chromosomes are intact or in a state of disarray, a new study reports. The finding could help doctors better pinpoint which cancer patients would benefit from immunotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy can produce durable clinical responses, but only in a subset of patients. Why certain patients benefit more than others is still unclear. Many tumors are characterized by "aneuploidy," meaning they display an abnormal number of chromosomes and chromosomal segments. A high degree of aneuploidy is a feature of high-grade tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Here, Teresa Davoli and colleagues examined data from over 5,000 tumor samples representing 12 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. The team found that high-aneuploidy tumors had increased expression of genes implicated in DNA replication, cell cycle, mitosis, and chromosome maintenance, yet decreased expression of genes characteristic of the infiltrating immune cells responsible for tumor destruction. In a retrospective analysis of clinical trial data, they found that melanoma patients with highly aneuploid tumors were less likely to benefit from immune checkpoint blockade therapy than patients whose tumors showed fewer chromosomal disruptions. These findings are highlighted in a Perspective by Maurizio Zanetti.
-end-


American Association for the Advancement of Science

Related Chromosomes Articles:

Andalusian experts indicate new elements responsible for instability in chromosomes
The researchers state that RNA joins with DNA by chance or because of a disease, the structure of the chromatin, the protein envelope of the chromosomes is altered, causing breaks in the DNA.
Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution
Researchers have gone back in time, at least virtually, computationally recreating the chromosomes of the first eutherian mammal, the long-extinct, shrewlike ancestor of all placental mammals.
Newly discovered DNA sequences can protect chromosomes in rotifers
Rotifers are tough, microscopic organisms highly resistant to radiation and repeated cycles of dehydration and rehydration.
For keeping X chromosomes active, chromosome 19 marks the spot
After nearly 40 years of searching, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have identified a part of the human genome that appears to block an RNA responsible for keeping only a single X chromosome active when new female embryos are formed, effectively allowing for the generally lethal activation of more than one X chromosome during development.
Researchers assemble five new synthetic chromosomes
A global research team has built five new synthetic yeast chromosomes, meaning that 30 percent of a key organism's genetic material has now been swapped out for engineered replacements.
Jumbled chromosomes may dampen the immune response to tumors
How well a tumor responds to immunotherapy may depend in part on whether its chromosomes are intact or in a state of disarray, a new study reports.
Aging and cancer: An enzyme protects chromosomes from oxidative damage
EPFL scientists have identified a protein that caps chromosomes during cell division and protect them from oxidative damage and shortening, which are associated with aging and cancer.
Protective barrier inside chromosomes helps to keep cells healthy
Fresh insights into the structures that contain our genetic material could explain how the body's cells stay healthy.
How human eggs end up with the wrong number of chromosomes
One day before ovulation, human oocytes begin to divide into what will become mature eggs.
Genes versus chromosomes: A battle for expression in fly testes
Unique sex chromosomes occur in many species. An unequal pair of sex chromosomes, each carrying a different complement of genes, requires specific efforts to regulate and balance the expression of sex-chromosomal genes.

Related Chromosomes Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Bias And Perception
How does bias distort our thinking, our listening, our beliefs... and even our search results? How can we fight it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas about the unconscious biases that shape us. Guests include writer and broadcaster Yassmin Abdel-Magied, climatologist J. Marshall Shepherd, journalist Andreas Ekström, and experimental psychologist Tony Salvador.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#513 Dinosaur Tails
This week: dinosaurs! We're discussing dinosaur tails, bipedalism, paleontology public outreach, dinosaur MOOCs, and other neat dinosaur related things with Dr. Scott Persons from the University of Alberta, who is also the author of the book "Dinosaurs of the Alberta Badlands".