Nav: Home

Jumbled chromosomes may dampen the immune response to tumors

January 19, 2017

How well a tumor responds to immunotherapy may depend in part on whether its chromosomes are intact or in a state of disarray, a new study reports. The finding could help doctors better pinpoint which cancer patients would benefit from immunotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy can produce durable clinical responses, but only in a subset of patients. Why certain patients benefit more than others is still unclear. Many tumors are characterized by "aneuploidy," meaning they display an abnormal number of chromosomes and chromosomal segments. A high degree of aneuploidy is a feature of high-grade tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Here, Teresa Davoli and colleagues examined data from over 5,000 tumor samples representing 12 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. The team found that high-aneuploidy tumors had increased expression of genes implicated in DNA replication, cell cycle, mitosis, and chromosome maintenance, yet decreased expression of genes characteristic of the infiltrating immune cells responsible for tumor destruction. In a retrospective analysis of clinical trial data, they found that melanoma patients with highly aneuploid tumors were less likely to benefit from immune checkpoint blockade therapy than patients whose tumors showed fewer chromosomal disruptions. These findings are highlighted in a Perspective by Maurizio Zanetti.
-end-


American Association for the Advancement of Science

Related Chromosomes Articles:

Andalusian experts indicate new elements responsible for instability in chromosomes
The researchers state that RNA joins with DNA by chance or because of a disease, the structure of the chromatin, the protein envelope of the chromosomes is altered, causing breaks in the DNA.
Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution
Researchers have gone back in time, at least virtually, computationally recreating the chromosomes of the first eutherian mammal, the long-extinct, shrewlike ancestor of all placental mammals.
Newly discovered DNA sequences can protect chromosomes in rotifers
Rotifers are tough, microscopic organisms highly resistant to radiation and repeated cycles of dehydration and rehydration.
For keeping X chromosomes active, chromosome 19 marks the spot
After nearly 40 years of searching, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have identified a part of the human genome that appears to block an RNA responsible for keeping only a single X chromosome active when new female embryos are formed, effectively allowing for the generally lethal activation of more than one X chromosome during development.
Researchers assemble five new synthetic chromosomes
A global research team has built five new synthetic yeast chromosomes, meaning that 30 percent of a key organism's genetic material has now been swapped out for engineered replacements.
Jumbled chromosomes may dampen the immune response to tumors
How well a tumor responds to immunotherapy may depend in part on whether its chromosomes are intact or in a state of disarray, a new study reports.
Aging and cancer: An enzyme protects chromosomes from oxidative damage
EPFL scientists have identified a protein that caps chromosomes during cell division and protect them from oxidative damage and shortening, which are associated with aging and cancer.
Protective barrier inside chromosomes helps to keep cells healthy
Fresh insights into the structures that contain our genetic material could explain how the body's cells stay healthy.
How human eggs end up with the wrong number of chromosomes
One day before ovulation, human oocytes begin to divide into what will become mature eggs.
Genes versus chromosomes: A battle for expression in fly testes
Unique sex chromosomes occur in many species. An unequal pair of sex chromosomes, each carrying a different complement of genes, requires specific efforts to regulate and balance the expression of sex-chromosomal genes.

Related Chromosomes Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Climate Crisis
There's no greater threat to humanity than climate change. What can we do to stop the worst consequences? This hour, TED speakers explore how we can save our planet and whether we can do it in time. Guests include climate activist Greta Thunberg, chemical engineer Jennifer Wilcox, research scientist Sean Davis, food innovator Bruce Friedrich, and psychologist Per Espen Stoknes.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#527 Honey I CRISPR'd the Kids
This week we're coming to you from Awesome Con in Washington, D.C. There, host Bethany Brookshire led a panel of three amazing guests to talk about the promise and perils of CRISPR, and what happens now that CRISPR babies have (maybe?) been born. Featuring science writer Tina Saey, molecular biologist Anne Simon, and bioethicist Alan Regenberg. A Nobel Prize winner argues banning CRISPR babies won’t work Geneticists push for a 5-year global ban on gene-edited babies A CRISPR spin-off causes unintended typos in DNA News of the first gene-edited babies ignited a firestorm The researcher who created CRISPR twins defends...