Digging deep into distinctly different DNAJanuary 22, 2018
A University of Queensland discovery has deepened our understanding of the genetic mutations that arise in different tissues, and how these are inherited.
Researchers from UQ's Queensland Brain Institute, led by Dr Steven Zuryn, found the rates of genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA vary across differing tissue types, with the highest rate occurring in reproductive cells.
"Mitochondria are known as the cell's power plant - they are found in all animal and human cells - and in humans they generate about 90 per cent of the body's energy from the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe," Dr Zuryn said.
"In addition to regular DNA, which is contained in the nucleus, each cell also contains DNA in the mitochondria.
"Mitochondrial DNA is only passed down from the mother's side, and transmits the genetic information from one generation to the next."
The team studied the transparent roundworm (C. elegans), which shares about 60-80% of the same genes as humans, to shed light on the importance of mechanisms regulating the frequency of gene mutations in different cells and organs.
"C. elegans and humans share very similar mitochondria, and it is a useful organism as we can genetically tease apart the mechanisms of what is happening at a cellular level," he said.
The researchers developed an exceptionally pure method of isolating mitochondria from specific cells in the body to study them in detail.
"We now suspect that there is a mechanism in all animals that can filter out these mutations before they are passed to future offspring, which could otherwise cause a multitude of diseases affecting the brain," Dr Zuryn said.
In humans, mutations in mitochondrial DNA can cause rare but devastating diseases, especially in organs such as the brain, which relies heavily on mitochondria for energy.
The study is published in Nature Cell Biology.
University of Queensland
Related Dna Articles:
New license-free tools will allow researchers to estimate the size of DNA fragments for a fraction of the cost of currently available methods.
How can long DNA filaments, which have convoluted and highly knotted structure, manage to pass through the tiny pores of biological systems?
Since a couple of decades, metal-containing drugs have been successfully used to fight against certain types of cancer.
A Caltech-led study has shown that the electrical wire-like behavior of DNA is involved in the molecule's replication.
DNA, the stuff of life, may very well also pack quite the jolt for engineers trying to advance the development of tiny, low-cost electronic devices.
Northwestern University biomedical engineers have developed imaging technology that is the first to see DNA 'blink,' or fluoresce.
A Salk team developed a tool that maps functional areas of the genome to better understand disease.
In a carefully designed polymer, researchers at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences have imprinted a sequence of a single strand of DNA.
The African clawed frog X. laevis genome contains two full sets of chromosomes from two extinct ancestors.
Church's team at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and the Harvard Medical School developed a new electronic DNA sequencing platform based on biologically engineered nanopores that could help overcome present limitations.
Related Dna Reading:
The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy
by Blaine T. Bettinger (Author)
Unlock the secrets in your DNA!
Discover the answers to your family history mysteries using the most-cutting edge tool available. This plain-English guide is a one-stop resource for how to use DNA testing for genealogy. Inside, you'll find guidance on what DNA tests are available, plus the methodologies and pros and cons of the three major testing companies and advice on choosing the right test to answer your specific genealogy questions. And once you've taken a DNA test, this guide will demystify the often-overwhelming subject and explain how to interpret DNA test results,... View Details
DNA: The Story of the Genetic Revolution
by James D. Watson (Author), Andrew Berry (Author), Kevin Davies (Author)
The definitive insider's history of the genetic revolution--significantly updated to reflect the discoveries of the last decade.
James D. Watson, the Nobel laureate whose pioneering work helped unlock the mystery of DNA's structure, charts the greatest scientific journey of our time, from the discovery of the double helix to today's controversies to what the future may hold. Updated to include new findings in gene editing, epigenetics, agricultural chemistry, as well as two entirely new chapters on personal genomics and cancer research. This is the most comprehensive and... View Details
The Innovator's DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators
by Jeff Dyer (Author), Hal Gregersen (Author), Clayton M. Christensen (Author)
A new classic, cited by leaders and media around the globe as a highly recommended read for anyone interested in innovation.
In The Innovator’s DNA, authors Jeffrey Dyer, Hal Gregersen, and bestselling author Clayton Christensen (The Innovator’s Dilemma, The Innovator’s Solution, How Will You Measure Your Life?) build on what we know about disruptive innovation to show how individuals can develop the skills necessary to move progressively from idea to impact.
By identifying behaviors of the world’s best innovatorsfrom leaders at Amazon and... View Details
Move Your DNA: Restore Your Health Through Natural Movement Expanded Edition
by Katy Bowman (Author)
Humorous, fascinating, and science based, the bestselling first edition of Move Your DNA has been updated and expanded to include a comprehensive three-level exercise program.
In layperson-friendly terms Move Your DNA addresses the vast quantities of disease we are suffering from, identifying our lack of movement as the primary cause. Readers can use the corrective exercises and lifestyle changes Katy Bowman has created to help each of us transition to healthy, naturally moving bodies. Move Your DNA explains the science behind our need for natural movement right down... View Details
The DNA of Relationships
by Gary Smalley (Author)
“Life is relationships; the rest is just details.” We are designed for relationships, yet they often bring us pain. In this paradigm-shifting book, Dr. Gary Smalley unravels the DNA of relationships: We are made for three great relationships―with God, others, and ourselves―and all relationships involve choice. Gary exposes a destructive relationship dance that characterizes nearly every relationship conflict, and he offers five new dance steps that will revolutionize relationships. The DNA of Relationships, the cornerstone book in Gary Smalley's relationship campaign, will help you... View Details
GENETICS: BREAKING THE CODE OF YOUR DNA (Inquire and Investigate)
by Carla Mooney (Author), Samuel Carbaugh (Illustrator)
Why do children resemble their parents and siblings? Introducing young readers to the fascinating world of genetics, this educational resource presents the main concepts of the science, including what a chromosome does, how DNA is structured, and how genetic inheritance works. Students learn about new discoveries in the field of genetics and how those discoveries have helped to cure or even prevent certain diseases, as well as examine controversial issues in genetics such as genetically modified foods and stem cell research. Combining inquiry-based, age-appropriate activities with biology,... View Details
DNA Science: A First Course, Second Edition
by David Micklos (Author), Greg Freyer (Author)
This is the second edition of a highly successful textbook (over 50,000 copies sold) in which a highly illustrated, narrative text is combined with easytouse thoroughly reliable laboratory protocols. It contains a fully uptodate collection of 12 rigorously tested and reliable lab experiments in molecular biology, developed at the internationally renowned Dolan DNA Learning Center of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which culminate in the construction and cloning of a recombinant DNA molecule. Proven through more than 10 years of teaching at research and nonresearch colleges and universities,... View Details
The Social Life of DNA: Race, Reparations, and Reconciliation After the Genome
by Alondra Nelson (Author)
2017 Hurston/Wright Legacy Award for Nonfiction (Finalist)
The unexpected story of how genetic testing is affecting race in America
We know DNA is a master key that unlocks medical and forensic secrets, but its genealogical life is both revelatory and endlessly fascinating. Tracing genealogy is now the second-most popular hobby amongst Americans, as well as the second-most visited online category. This billion-dollar industry has spawned popular television shows, websites, and Internet communities, and a booming heritage tourism circuit.
The... View Details
Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA
by Brenda Maddox (Author)
In 1962, Maurice Wilkins, Francis Crick, and James Watson received the Nobel Prize, but it was Rosalind Franklin's data and photographs of DNA that led to their discovery.Brenda Maddox tells a powerful story of a remarkably single-minded, forthright, and tempestuous young woman who, at the age of fifteen, decided she was going to be a scientist, but who was airbrushed out of the greatest scientific discovery of the twentieth century. View Details
DNA (Science Readers: Content and Literacy)
by Teacher Created Materials;Wendy Conklin (Author)
DNA is known as the blueprint for life! Found in every cell of every living thing, DNA strands are packed inside a cell’s nucleus carrying instructions and genetic information. Climb the double helix ladder and crack the DNA code in this fact-filled life science book to explore genetics and why parts of you may appear identical to your great, great, great grandparent. Fifth-grade readers will learn about DNA structure and replication, proteins and genes, chromosomes, inherited traits and alleles, cloning, and more through this high-interest informational text filled with vibrant... View Details