Nav: Home

Plants can smell, now researchers know how

January 23, 2019

Plants don't need noses to smell. The ability is in their genes. Researchers at the University of Tokyo have discovered the first steps of how information from odor molecules changes gene expression in plants. Manipulating plants' odor detection systems may lead to new ways of influencing plant behavior.

The discovery is the first to reveal the molecular basis of odor detection in plants and was more than 18 years in the making.

"We started this project in 2000. Part of the difficulty was designing the new tools to do odor-related research in plants," said Professor Kazushige Touhara of the University of Tokyo.

Plants detect a class of odor molecules known as volatile organic compounds, which are essential for many plant survival strategies, including attracting birds and bees, deterring pests, and reacting to disease in nearby plants. These compounds also give essential oils their distinctive scents.

Touhara's team exposed tobacco cells and 4-week-old tobacco plants to different volatile organic compounds. They discovered that odor molecules change gene expression by binding to other molecules called transcriptional co-repressors that can turn genes on or off.

In plants, the odor molecules must move into the cell and accumulate before they affect plant behavior. In animals, odor molecules are recognized by receptors on the outside of cells in the nose and immediately trigger a signaling pathway to recognize the odor and change behavior.

"Plants can't run away, so of course they react to odors more slowly than animals. If plants can prepare for environmental change within the same day, that is probably fast enough for them," said Touhara.

Speed is unnecessary for plants, but they may be able to recognize a much greater variety of odor molecules.

"Humans have about 400 odor receptors. Elephants have about 2,000, the largest number in animals. But based on how many transcription factor genes are in plants, plants may be able to detect many more odors than animals," said Touhara.

Touhara imagines applying these discoveries to influence crop quality or character without the complications of gene editing or pesticide use. Farmers could spray their fields with an odor associated with a desired plant behavior. For example, an odor that triggers plants to change the taste of their leaves to deter insects.

"All creatures communicate with odor. So far, our lab has studied within-species communication: insect to insect, mouse to mouse, human to human. This understanding of how plants communicate using odor will open up opportunities to study 'olfactory' communication between all creatures," said Touhara.

The University of Tokyo research team made their discoveries using tobacco plants, a common model organism. They expect research teams around the world will soon verify the discovery in many other types of plants.
-end-
The research is published by The Journal of Biological Chemistry on February 15, 2019, available online on December 28, 2018.

Journal Article

Nagashima A, Higaki T, Koeduka T, Ishigami K, Hosokawa S, Watanabe H, Matsui K, Hasezawa S, Touhara K. Transcription regulators involved in responses to volatile organic compounds in plants. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 15 Feb 2019. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.005843

Related Links

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo website: https://www.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp/english/

Kazushige Touhara website: http://park.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/biological-chemistry/profile_english/index.html

Research Contact

Professor Kazushige Touhara
Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, JAPAN
Tel: +81-(0)3-5841-5109
E-mail: ktouhara@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Press Contact

Ms. Caitlin Devor
Division for Strategic Public Relations, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654, JAPAN
Tel: +81-(0)3-5841-0876
Email: press-releases.adm@gs.mail.u-tokyo.ac.jp

About the University of Tokyo

The University of Tokyo is Japan's leading university and one of the world's top research universities. The vast research output of some 6,000 researchers is published in the world's top journals across the arts and sciences. Our vibrant student body of around 15,000 undergraduate and 15,000 graduate students includes over 2,000 international students. Find out more at http://www.u-tokyo.ac.jp/en/ or follow us on Twitter at @UTokyo_News_en.

University of Tokyo

Related Genes Articles:

How status sticks to genes
Life at the bottom of the social ladder may have long-term health effects that even upward mobility can't undo, according to new research in monkeys.
Symphony of genes
One of the most exciting discoveries in genome research was that the last common ancestor of all multicellular animals already possessed an extremely complex genome.
New genes out of nothing
One key question in evolutionary biology is how novel genes arise and develop.
Good genes
A team of scientists from NAU, Arizona State University, the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, the Center for Coastal Studies in Massachusetts and nine other institutions worldwide to study potential cancer suppression mechanisms in cetaceans, the mammalian group that includes whales, dolphins and porpoises.
How lifestyle affects our genes
In the past decade, knowledge of how lifestyle affects our genes, a research field called epigenetics, has grown exponentially.
Genes that regulate how much we dream
Sleep is known to allow animals to re-energize themselves and consolidate memories.
The genes are not to blame
Individualized dietary recommendations based on genetic information are currently a popular trend.
Timing is everything, to our genes
Salk scientists discover critical gene activity follows a biological clock, affecting diseases of the brain and body.
New genes on 'deteriorating' Y chromosome
Decoding Y chromosomes is difficult even with latest sequencing technologies.
Newly revealed autism-related genes include genes involved in cancer
Researchers in Italy have applied a computational technique that accounts for how genes interact, to find new networks of related genes that may be involved in autism spectrum disorder.
More Genes News and Genes Current Events

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

In & Out Of Love
We think of love as a mysterious, unknowable force. Something that happens to us. But what if we could control it? This hour, TED speakers on whether we can decide to fall in — and out of — love. Guests include writer Mandy Len Catron, biological anthropologist Helen Fisher, musician Dessa, One Love CEO Katie Hood, and psychologist Guy Winch.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#541 Wayfinding
These days when we want to know where we are or how to get where we want to go, most of us will pull out a smart phone with a built-in GPS and map app. Some of us old timers might still use an old school paper map from time to time. But we didn't always used to lean so heavily on maps and technology, and in some remote places of the world some people still navigate and wayfind their way without the aid of these tools... and in some cases do better without them. This week, host Rachelle Saunders...
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dolly Parton's America: Neon Moss
Today on Radiolab, we're bringing you the fourth episode of Jad's special series, Dolly Parton's America. In this episode, Jad goes back up the mountain to visit Dolly's actual Tennessee mountain home, where she tells stories about her first trips out of the holler. Back on the mountaintop, standing under the rain by the Little Pigeon River, the trip triggers memories of Jad's first visit to his father's childhood home, and opens the gateway to dizzying stories of music and migration. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.