Study in Royal Society journal on sense of fairness in chimpanzees

January 25, 2005

Proceedings of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Tolerance for inequity increases with social closeness in chimpanzees by Dr SF Brosnan, Dr HC Schiff and Dr FBM de Waal
The evolution of the sense of fairness may have involved the strength of social connections, according to researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Atlanta. Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal observed variability in chimpanzees' responses to inequity depending on the strength of their social relationships. Chimpanzees in a close, long-term social group were less likely to react to unfair situations than were chimpanzees in short-term social groups. This is the first demonstration that reactions to inequity in nonhuman primates parallel the variation in the human response to unfair situations that is based on the quality of the relationship.
Contact: Dr Sarah Brosnan, Yerkes National Primate Research Centre, Emory University, 954 N Gatewood Drive, ATLANTA, GA 30329, United States

A bioeconomic analysis of bushmeat hunting by Dr R Damania, Dr EJ Milner-Gulland and Dr DJ Crookes

Unsustainable hunting of wildlife for food (bushmeat hunting) is a major conservation issue. Bushmeat hunting must be tackled in the context of a household's broader livelihood activities if interventions are to be effective. We present the first formal model of bushmeat hunting as a component of the household economy. Increasing bushmeat prices shifts effort into hunting with the most efficient technology (guns), and unsurprisingly leads to population depletion. But improved agricultural incomes can also have the undesirable side-effect of shifting hunting pressure from snares to guns, and hence may worsen the status of vulnerable animals which are predominately gun-hunted (such as primates).
Contact: Dr Eleanor Milner-Gulland, Department of Environmental Science & Technology, Manor House, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY

A single mutation alters production and discrimination of Drosophila sex pheromones by Dr F Marcillac, Dr Y Grosjean and Dr J-F Ferveur

Communication between individuals of the same species implies a strong genetic coadaptation for the genetic control underlying the emission of the signal and its reception. This problem is particularly acute in the case of inter-individual sexual communication where coadapted changes in signal emission and reception may create new species. Up to now, the known genes coding for these two aspects of communication were unlinked, and their association statistically increased (linkage desequilibrium). We induced a single mutation in one Drosophila gene that independently affected both the production of sex pheromones and their perception. This gene has multiple effects on pheromonal communication.
Contact: Dr J Ferveur, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Bourgogne 6 Bd. Gabriel, DIJON, F-21000, France

Journal of The Royal Society Interface

Parallel high-resolution confocal Raman SEM analysis of inorganic and organic bone matrix constituents by Dr AA van Apeldoorn, Dr Y Aksenov, Dr M. Stigter, Dr I. Hofland, Dr J. D. de Bruijn, Dr H. K. Koerten, Dr C. Otto, Professor J Greve and Professor CA van Blitterswijk
Scanning electron microscopy allows for observation of biological samples at very high magnification with high resolution. Until now the chemical analytical properties of the electron microscope were limited to the analysis of single atoms in a sample of interest. We combined a custom-made high resolution confocal Raman microscope, a device allowing for the analysis and imaging of molecular composition by using a laser, with a scanning electron microscope. By combining these two systems, we were able to study the composition and structure of bone extra-cellular-matrix formed by mesenchymal stem cells at high resolution. We found that combining our custom-made confocal Raman microscope with a scanning electron microscope allows study of specimens in a non-destructive manner and provides high resolution structural and chemical information about inorganic and organic constituents by parallel measurements on the same sample. This study is the first one showing the feasibility of using the combination of Raman and electron microscopy in one apparatus for biological studies, which proved to be a very powerful technique.
Contact: Dr Aart van Apeldoorn, Dept. of Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials, Favulty. of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Prof. Bronkhorstlaan 10-D, 3723MB Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Modelling the thermal evolution of enzyme-created bubbles in DNA by Dr D Hennig, Dr JFR Archilla and Dr JM Romero

One of the key functions of DNA is the synthesis of proteins. Part of this process is achieved by the separation of the two DNA strands forming large bubbles, called transcription bubbles. Some molecules, called enzymes, are able to produce small bubbles. Using computers it is possible to simulate their evolution at different temperatures. At very low ones the small bubbles remain stationary, but at higher ones they start to move, without loosing their form. Our conjecture is that the small moving bubbles can merge transforming into larger ones, bringing about an explanation to the formation of the transcription bubbles.
Contact: Dr Juan Archilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, University of Sevilla, Avda Reina Mercedes s/n, SEVILLA 41012, Spain

Proceedings of The Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences

Hamilton long-wave expansions for water waves over a rough bottom by Professor W Craig, Dr P Guyenne, Dr DP Nicholls and Dr C Sulem
This paper is a study of wave motion in the surface of a fluid body with a variable depth. The problem is important to coastal oceanography, where bathymetric variations contribute to the dynamics of ocean waves. Mathematically, it leads to difficult problems of determining properties of wave evolution, even in a perturbative scaling regime. The principal contributions of this paper are to adapt methods of Hamiltonian perturbation theory to the problem, and then to produce a systematic study of the principal nonlinear long-wave scaling regimes, for both two and three dimensional wave motion.
Contact: Professor Walter Craig, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ONTARIO, L8S 4K1, Canada

Limit-cycle oscillations of a heavy whirling cable subject to aerodynamic drag by Dr JD Clark, Dr WB Fraser, Dr CD Rahn and Dr A Rajamani

We investigate the behaviour of an experimental system consisting of a cable suspended from the edge of a rotating disk with a mass (drogue) attached to its lower end. If the rotational speed is steady the cable shape remains stable as it rotates. As the speed is increased through certain critical values the cable configuration becomes unstable and its shape changes to a new configuration. At a sufficiently high speed a new instability occurs and the drogue oscillates vertically with a period much less than its period of rotation. The stability of rotating cable and string systems is important for textile yarn spinning systems, and when drogues are towed by aircraft in circular paths.
Contact: Dr James Clark, School of Mathematics & Statistics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
-end-


Royal Society

Related DNA Articles from Brightsurf:

A new twist on DNA origami
A team* of scientists from ASU and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) led by Hao Yan, ASU's Milton Glick Professor in the School of Molecular Sciences, and director of the ASU Biodesign Institute's Center for Molecular Design and Biomimetics, has just announced the creation of a new type of meta-DNA structures that will open up the fields of optoelectronics (including information storage and encryption) as well as synthetic biology.

Solving a DNA mystery
''A watched pot never boils,'' as the saying goes, but that was not the case for UC Santa Barbara researchers watching a ''pot'' of liquids formed from DNA.

Junk DNA might be really, really useful for biocomputing
When you don't understand how things work, it's not unusual to think of them as just plain old junk.

Designing DNA from scratch: Engineering the functions of micrometer-sized DNA droplets
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have constructed ''DNA droplets'' comprising designed DNA nanostructures.

Does DNA in the water tell us how many fish are there?
Researchers have developed a new non-invasive method to count individual fish by measuring the concentration of environmental DNA in the water, which could be applied for quantitative monitoring of aquatic ecosystems.

Zigzag DNA
How the cell organizes DNA into tightly packed chromosomes. Nature publication by Delft University of Technology and EMBL Heidelberg.

Scientists now know what DNA's chaperone looks like
Researchers have discovered the structure of the FACT protein -- a mysterious protein central to the functioning of DNA.

DNA is like everything else: it's not what you have, but how you use it
A new paradigm for reading out genetic information in DNA is described by Dr.

A new spin on DNA
For decades, researchers have chased ways to study biological machines.

From face to DNA: New method aims to improve match between DNA sample and face database
Predicting what someone's face looks like based on a DNA sample remains a hard nut to crack for science.

Read More: DNA News and DNA Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.