Safe uti­li­za­tion of die­ta­ry su­gars requi­res dy­na­mic cont­rol of re­dox ba­lance

January 27, 2017

Animal diet has a tremendous natural variation, ranging from meat-eating carnivores to sugar-loving nectarivores. Omnivores, like humans, can adopt different types of diets and still remain healthy. However, if the diet is highly unbalanced and calorie rich, it will eventually lead to metabolic problems and disease. The genetic factors of the individual define how easily and quickly such problems develop.

"A key to the nutritional flexibility of the animals is the ability of the body to monitor its nutrient status and regulate metabolism accordingly. Many metabolic pathways depend on reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions. That is why coordinating the redox balance with cellular metabolism is critical", describes Associate Professor Ville Hietakangas from the University of Helsinki.

The system how the redox balance is controlled in response to changes of sugar feeding has so far been insufficiently understood. Now the study by Mari Teesalu, Bohdana Rovenko and Ville Hietakangas reveals a new mechanism that allows animals to increase their reductive power during conditions of high sugar intake.

"This reductive power is necessary to allow conversion of excess sugar into fat and provide protection against oxidative stress that can occur during sugar metabolism. Without the mechanism to increase the reductive power after sugar feeding larvae of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster lose their sugar tolerance, and they are not able to grow and survive on high sugar diet", says Hietakangas.

The new regulatory mechanism involves protein kinase SIK3, which controls the activity of other proteins by phosphorylating them. SIK3 phosphorylates and activates a key enzyme of glucose metabolism called Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD, which is an important regulator of cellular redox balance.

SIK3 controls G6PD in synergy with another important regulator of sugar tolerance, the sugar-sensing transcription factor complex Mondo-Mlx. Simultaneous inhibition of SIK3 and Mondo-Mlx leads to devastating consequences, causing lethality even on moderate levels of dietary sugar.
-end-


University of Helsinki

Related Diet Articles from Brightsurf:

What's for dinner? Dolphin diet study
More evidence has emerged to support stricter coastal management, this time focusing on pollution and overfishing in the picturesque tourist waters off Auckland in New Zealand.

Can your diet help protect the environment?
If Americans adhere to global dietary recommendations designed to reduce the impact of food production and consumption, environmental degradation could be reduced by up to 38%, according to a new paper published in the journal Environmental Justice.

Diet may help preserve cognitive function
According to a recent analysis of data from two major eye disease studies, adherence to the Mediterranean diet - high in vegetables, whole grains, fish, and olive oil -- correlates with higher cognitive function.

Diet quality of young people in US
This observational study used national survey data from young people up to age 19 to estimate the overall diet quality of children and teens in the United States and to explore how diet quality has changed from 1999 to 2016.

The keto diet can lead to flu-like symptoms during the first few weeks on the diet
A ketogenic diet can lead to several flu-like symptoms within the first few weeks on the diet.

Reconstructing the diet of fossil vertebrates
Paleodietary studies of the fossil record are impeded by a lack of reliable and unequivocal tracers.

Your gums reveal your diet
Sweet soft drinks and lots of sugar increase the risk of both dental cavities and inflammation of the gums -- known as periodontal diseases -- and if this is the case, then healthy eating habits should be prioritized even more.

Poor diet can lead to blindness
An extreme case of 'fussy' or 'picky' eating caused a young patient's blindness, according to a new case report published today [2 Sep 2019] in Annals of Internal Medicine.

New research on diet and supplements during pregnancy and beyond
The foods and nutrients a woman consumes while pregnant have important health implications for her and her baby.

Special issue: Diet and Health
Diet has major effects on human health. In this special issue of Science, 'Diet and Health,' four Reviews explore the connections between what we eat and our well-being, as well as the continuing controversies in this space.

Read More: Diet News and Diet Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.