Nav: Home

Research finds early childhood program linked to degree completion at age 35

January 30, 2018

Participating in an intensive early childhood education program from preschool to third grade is linked to higher educational attainment in mid-life, according to a new study by University of Minnesota researchers.

The study, published in JAMA Pediatrics, tracked the progress of more than 1,500 children from low-income neighborhoods in Chicago, from the time they entered preschool in 1983 and 1984 in Child-Parent Centers (CPC) until roughly 30 years later. The children were part of the Chicago Longitudinal Study, one of the longest-running follow-ups of early childhood intervention.

"Children from low-income families are less likely to attend college than their higher-income peers," said lead author Arthur J. Reynolds, a professor at the University of Minnesota Institute of Child Development and director of the Chicago Longitudinal Study. "A strong system of educational and family supports in a child's first decade is an innovative way to improve educational outcomes leading to greater economic well-being. The CPC program provides this."

The JAMA Pediatrics study is the first of a large-scale public program to assess impacts on mid-life educational attainment and the contributions of continuing services in elementary school. The study's co-authors include Suh-Ruu Ou and Judy A. Temple of the University of Minnesota's Human Capital Research Collaborative.

For the study, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the researchers followed the progress of 989 graduates of the Chicago Public School District's CPC program, which provided intensive instruction in reading and math from preschool through third grade as part of a school reform model.

The program provides small classes, intensive learning experiences, menu-based parent involvement, and professional development. The children's parents received job skills training, parenting skills training, educational classes and social services. They also volunteered in their children's classrooms, assisted with field trips, and attended parenting support groups.

The authors compared the educational outcomes of those children to the outcomes of 550 children from low-income families who attended other early childhood intervention programs in the Chicago area. The researchers collected information on the children from administrative records, schools and families, from birth through 35 years of age. More than 90 percent of the original sample had available data on educational attainment.

On average, CPC graduates--whether they participated in preschool only, or through second or third grade--completed more years of education than those who participated in other programs.

For children who received an intervention in preschool, those in the CPC group were more likely to achieve an associate's degree or higher (15.7 percent vs. 10.7 percent), a bachelor's degree (11.0 percent vs. 7.8 percent), or a master's degree (4.2 percent vs. 1.5 percent). These differences translate to a 47 percent increase in an earned associate's degree and a 41 percent increase in an earned bachelor's degree.

CPC graduates through second or third grade showed even greater gains: a 48 percent increase in associate's degree or higher and a 74 percent increase for bachelor's degree or higher.

"Every child deserves a strong foundation for a successful future, and this report provides more concrete, compelling evidence that investments in early childhood education pay dividends for decades," said Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel. "Chicago is expanding access to early childhood education so every child, regardless of their zip code or parents' income, can have the building blocks for a lifetime of success."

According to the study's authors, successful early childhood programs not only may lead to higher adult educational achievement, but also to improved health. The authors note that adults with less education are more likely to adopt unhealthy habits like smoking and to experience high blood pressure, obesity, and mental health problems than those who complete more schooling.

"This study shows that a well run early childhood intervention program can have benefits well into adult life," said James Griffin, Ph.D., Deputy Chief of the Child Development Branch at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health.

In previous studies, the researchers showed that CPC program participants have attained higher incomes, and experienced lower rates of serious crime, incarceration, and depression than participants of other programs. CPC has also shown a return on investment: cost-benefit analyses have shown economic returns of 7 to 10 dollars per dollar invested.

The CPC program expanded beyond Chicago beginning in 2012. The program is now also in parts of Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin.
-end-
Funding for the study is from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. To read the full research paper titled, "A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age," visit the JAMA Pediatrics website.

The University of Minnesota's Institute of Child Development (ICD) is dedicated to scholarship, teaching and outreach devoted to the understanding and fostering of child development. Founded in 1925 and now part of the College of Education + Human Development, the Institute is one of the oldest departments studying children's development in the United States.

The Human Capital Research Collaborative, an interdisciplinary research center at the University of Minnesota offers a multitude of resources for CPC P-3 implementation, including monitoring tools, manuals, and extensive resources on the website, CPCP3.org.

University of Minnesota

Related Education Articles:

Education a top priority
Various studies have revealed that a majority of Western European populations support increased investment in education.
Dementia on the downslide, especially among people with more education
In a hopeful sign for the health of the nation's brains, the percentage of American seniors with dementia is dropping, a new study finds.
A vision for revamping neuroscience education
The expanding scope and growing number of tools used for neuroscience is moving beyond what is taught in traditional graduate programs, say leaders in American neuroscience education, funding, and policy.
Scientific education through films?
Magic swords, wands, cauldrons and cloaks of invisibility do not exist in reality.
What should be the role of computer games in education?
Game advocates are calling for a sweeping transformation of conventional education to replace traditional curricula with game-based instruction.
Up, up and away, in the name of science education
US researchers extol the virtues of high-altitude balloons for science education in a research paper published in the International Journal of Learning Technology.
Minorities underrepresented in US special education classrooms
Although minority children are frequently reported to be overrepresented in special education classrooms, a team of researchers suggests that minority children are less likely than otherwise similar white children to receive help for disabilities.
Accentuate the positive when it comes to nutrition education
If you want people to choose healthier foods, emphasize the positive, says a new Cornell University study.
How do students use video in higher education?
A new SAGE white paper out today reveals the types of educational videos that appeal to students and where they go to find them.

Related Education Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Bias And Perception
How does bias distort our thinking, our listening, our beliefs... and even our search results? How can we fight it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas about the unconscious biases that shape us. Guests include writer and broadcaster Yassmin Abdel-Magied, climatologist J. Marshall Shepherd, journalist Andreas Ekström, and experimental psychologist Tony Salvador.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#514 Arctic Energy (Rebroadcast)
This week we're looking at how alternative energy works in the arctic. We speak to Louie Azzolini and Linda Todd from the Arctic Energy Alliance, a non-profit helping communities reduce their energy usage and transition to more affordable and sustainable forms of energy. And the lessons they're learning along the way can help those of us further south.