Nav: Home

Potential new approaches to treating eye diseases

February 04, 2016

Potential new approaches to treating eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are described in a new study, "IL-33 amplifies an innate immune response in the degenerating retina," in the February Journal of Experimental Medicine.

AMD is a leading cause of vision impairment in old age, and is caused by the degeneration of cells in the retinal layer of the eye. Retinal cell death can be induced by phagocytic immune cells that infiltrate the tissue in response to injury or infection, but the molecular signals that trigger phagocyte invasion are largely unknown. A team of researchers led by Hongkang Xi and Menno van Lookeren Campagne, of the Department of Immunology at Genentech, Inc., in South San Francisco, Calif., discovered that a pro-inflammatory signaling protein, or cytokine, called IL-33, plays a key role in recruiting phagocytes to damaged retina and inducing retinal degeneration.

Working with rats and mice, Xi and colleagues found that specialized retinal cells called Müller glial cells release IL-33 in response to retinal injury. The cytokine then binds to its receptor on the surface of the Müller cells and induces the release of additional inflammatory proteins that attract phagocytes to the damaged retina. Blocking the IL-33 receptor inhibited this process and prevented injury-induced retinal degeneration.

The researchers also found that IL-33 levels are increased in the retinas of AMD patients, suggesting that the same pathway may occur in humans. Inhibiting IL-33 may therefore help treat AMD and other retinal degenerative diseases.

"This study for the first time shows increased expression of IL-33 in AMD and further demonstrates a role for glia-derived IL-33 in the accumulation of myeloid cells in the outer retina, loss of photoreceptors, and functional impairment of the retina in preclinical models of retina stress," the authors note.
-end-
© 2016 Xi et al. J Exp. Med.http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20150894

About The Journal of Experimental Medicine

The Journal of Experimental Medicine (JEM) is published by The Rockefeller University Press. All editorial decisions on manuscripts submitted are made by research-active scientists in conjunction with our in-house scientific editors. JEM provides free online access to many article types immediately, with complete archival content freely available online since the journal's inception. Authors retain copyright of their published works, and third parties may reuse the content for non-commercial purposes under a creative commons license. For more information, please visit jem.org.

Rockefeller University Press

Related Cytokine Articles:

Cytokine profile differentiating Old World and New World hantaviral infections
Hantavirus infection is acute zoonosis clinically manifesting in two forms: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), caused by Old World hantaviruses, and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), caused by New World hantaviruses.
Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus and therapeutic approaches to prevent it
The devastating effects of Zika virus on the brain of the developing fetus during infection in pregnancy have led to intensive research to understand the routes of Zika virus transmission and how the virus travels to and infects the fetus.
Cytokine controls immune cells that trigger inflammatory bowel disease, study finds
A certain cytokine, or small protein that helps cells communicate during immune responses, can control whether immune cells promote or suppress inflammatory bowel disease, a finding that could lead to new treatments, according to a study led by Georgia State University.
Negative regulator stops extreme immune response to parasite, averting multi-organ damage
A new study from Osaka University identified a role for the BATF2 protein in negatively regulating the immune response to infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is responsible for Chagas disease.
New understanding of chronic lung inflammatory diseases unfolding
Researchers studying chronic inflammation that can lead to the development of lung diseases such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and cancer, are focusing on the role cytokines play in regulating the behavior of fibroblast cells and the extracellular matrix.
Scientists stimulate immune system, stop cancer growth
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago report that increasing expression of a chemical cytokine called LIGHT in mice with colon cancer activated the immune system's natural cancer-killing T-cells and caused primary tumors and metastatic tumors in the liver to shrink.
Rapamycin tones down the toxicity of HIV-1 reactivation strategies
This week in the JCI, work performed in Robert Siliciano's lab at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine suggests that a strategy combining T cell activation with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin could reactivate latent HIV-1 reservoirs without causing toxic side effects.
Identification of autophagy-dependent secretion machinery
A group of researchers identified a molecular machinery by which autophagy*1 mediates secretion.
Studies suggest inflammatory cytokines are associated with depression and psychosis, and that anti-cytokine treatment can reduce depression symptoms
Studies presented at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
Seymour and Vivian Milstein Award for Excellence in cytokine and interferon research
The International Cytokine and Interferon Society (ICIS) announced today that the Seymour and Vivian Milstein Award has been given to 3 premier scientists who have translated basic research findings into clinical benefit for thousands of patients.

Related Cytokine Reading:

Cytokine Bioassays: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)
by Ivana Vancurova (Editor)

Cytokines are pleiotropic regulatory proteins involved in essentially all biological processes and associated with a wide variety of diseases, including inflammatory disorders as well as many types of cancer and leukemia. Knowledge about the quantitative and qualitative nature of cytokine production is critical in the understanding of normal and pathological processes. The cytokine detection in biological and clinical samples faces many challenges including their low abundance, the need to distinguish between active and latent cytokine forms, and the need to measure multiple cytokines in a... View Details


Cytokines: Stress and Immunity, Second Edition
by Robert E. Faith (Editor), Anthony J. Murgo (Editor), Robert A. Good (Editor), Nicholas P. Plotnikoff (Editor)

Cytokine involvement in the immune system's response to stress is now very well documented. Cytokine activity has been implicated in a variety of mental and physical diseases, and has been shown to have a significant role in fueling the vicious circle of depression and illness.

The first edition of Cytokines: Stress and Immunity pointed out that the immune system does not stand alone, but is profoundly affected by other organ systems, especially the central nervous and the neuroendocrine systems, with cytokines being the common tool of communication. This edition continues on the... View Details


The Cytokines of the Immune System: The Role of Cytokines in Disease Related to Immune Response
by Zlatko Dembic (Author)

The Cytokines of the Immune System catalogs cytokines and links them to physiology and pathology, providing a welcome and hugely timely tool for scientists in all related fields. In cataloguing cytokines, it lists their potential for therapeutic use, links them to disease treatments needing further research and development, and shows their utility for learning about the immune system. This book offers a new approach in the study of cytokines by combining detailed guidebook-style cytokine description, disease linking, and presentation of immunologic roles.

Supplies new ideas for... View Details


Cytokines (Handbook of Immunopharmacology)
by Anthony R. Mire-Sluis (Editor), Robin Thorpe (Editor)

This book provides comprehensive coverage of the cytokines from a pharmacological approach. The chapters are presented in a consistent format allowing easy cross-reference, with sample diagrams and a summary table of essential facts for each chapter at the end of the book.
Cytokines is unique in stressing cytokine biology and the application of research data to provide disease therapy. With 33 detailed and up-to-date chapters about individual cytokines, this comprehensive reference will provide both clinicians and researchers in immunology and pharmacology with invaluable... View Details


Cytokines: Mechanisms, Functions and Abnormalities (Cell Biology Research Progress: Immunology and Immune System Disorders)
by Masous H. Manjili (Author), Masous H. Manjili (Editor)

Cells of the immune system communicate with each other, and respond to abnormal conditions by releasing soluble proteins, named cytokines. Abnormal or dangerous conditions include infection, trauma and injury, neurological disorders, and cancer. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can comfort or exacerbate the symptoms in these diseases. This book focuses on counter-regulatory and the role of cytokines in different diseases. The goal is to understand contribution of cytokines in the progression of the disease as well as therapeutic potential of cytokines in the treatment... View Details


MIF Family Cytokines in Innate Immunity and Homeostasis (Progress in Inflammation Research)
by Richard Bucala (Editor), Jürgen Bernhagen (Editor)

The role of the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the immune response and in the immunopathogenesis of different inflammatory, autoimmune, and infectious disorders is now well-established. Recent studies continue to broaden considerably the role of MIF in both normal physiology and pathology, which range from such diverse areas as oncogenesis, metabolism, and cellular stress responses.  MIF’s molecular mechanism of action in these contexts is becoming increasingly understood and the role of variant MIF alleles in different conditions continues to be defined. New... View Details


Cytokines

Cytokines

Last updated: 9/29/12
Total questions: 3 View Details


Cytokines in the Genesis and Treatment of Cancer (Cancer Drug Discovery and Development)
by Michael A. Caligiuri (Editor), Michael T. Lotze (Editor)

Cytokines in the Genesis and Treatment of Cancer provides a comprehensive picture of the dual role of host responses in promoting and inhibiting tumor progression. This volume represents an important investigation into the emerging intersection of cancer biology and cancer immunology. The book brings together an impressive array of internationally distinguished investigators who are devoted to the study of cytokines and cancer.

View Details


Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues
by Maria Foti (Editor), Massimo Locati (Editor)

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues discusses the cytokines networks in the context of the specific-tissue environment. It is an up-to-date collection of articles that addresses the specific issue of how the cytokines are able to condition tissue specific homeostasis. The book helps the reader understand how cytokines network inside the tissues and highlights whether tissue-protection or exacerbation will be finally controlled. It describes the cytokines detected and regulated in different tissues, such as the brain, lungs, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine, also addressing... View Details


Cytokines: From Basic Mechanisms of Cellular Control to New Therapeutics (Perspectives CSHL)
by Robert Schreiber (Editor), Warren J. Leonard (Editor)

Cytokines (e.g., interleukins and interferons) are small signaling proteins that are essential for communication between cells. They are important regulators of the immune system, helping to control lymphocyte development and function, orchestrate inflammation, and defeat microbial and viral invaders. But they also play important roles in the nervous system, embryonic development, and diseases such as cancer.

Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology covers the spectrum of cytokines that are produced and their... View Details

Best Science Podcasts 2018

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2018. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

The Person You Become
Over the course of our lives, we shed parts of our old selves, embrace new ones, and redefine who we are. This hour, TED speakers explore ideas about the experiences that shape the person we become. Guests include aerobatics pilot and public speaker Janine Shepherd, writers Roxane Gay and Taiye Selasi, activist Jackson Bird, and fashion executive Kaustav Dey.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#478 She Has Her Mother's Laugh
What does heredity really mean? Carl Zimmer would argue it's more than your genes along. In "She Has Her Mother’s Laugh: The Power, Perversions, and Potential of Heredity", Zimmer covers the history of genetics and what kinship and heredity really mean when we're discovering how to alter our own DNA, and, potentially, the DNA of our children.