Controlling quantum interactions in a single material

February 05, 2018

The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. But finding or designing materials that can host such quantum interactions is a difficult task.

"Harmonizing multiple quantum mechanical properties, which often do not coexist together, and trying to do it by design is a highly complex challenge," said Northwestern University's James Rondinelli.

But Rondinelli and an international team of theoretical and computational researchers have done just that. Not only have they demonstrated that multiple quantum interactions can coexist in a single material, the team also discovered how an electric field can be used to control these interactions to tune the material's properties.

This breakthrough could enable ultrafast, low-power electronics and quantum computers that operate incredibly faster than current models in the areas of data acquisition, processing, and exchange.

Supported by the US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation of China, German Research Foundation, and China's National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, the research was published online today in the journal Nature Communications. James Rondinelli, the Morris E. Fine Junior Professor in Materials and Manufacturing in Northwestern's McCormick School of Engineering, and Cesare Franchini, professor of quantum materials modeling at the University of Vienna, are the paper's co-corresponding authors. Jiangang He, a postdoctoral fellow at Northwestern, and Franchini served as the paper's co-first authors.

Quantum mechanical interactions govern the capability of and speed with which electrons can move through a material. This determines whether a material is a conductor or insulator. It also controls whether or not the material exhibits ferroelectricity, or shows an electrical polarization.

"The possibility of accessing multiple order phases, which rely on different quantum-mechanical interactions in the same material, is a challenging fundamental issue and imperative for delivering on the promises that quantum information sciences can offer," Franchini said.

Using computational simulations performed at the Vienna Scientific Cluster, the team discovered coexisting quantum-mechanical interactions in the compound silver-bismuth-oxide. Bismuth, a post-transition metal, enables the spin of the electron to interact with its own motion -- a feature that has no analogy in classical physics. It also does not exhibit inversion symmetry, suggesting that ferroelectricity should exist when the material is an electrical insulator. By applying an electric field to the material, researchers were able to control whether the electron spins were coupled in pairs (exhibiting Weyl-fermions) or separated (exhibiting Rashba-splitting) as well as whether the system is electrically conductive or not.

"This is the first real case of a topological quantum transition from a ferroelectric insulator to a non-ferroelectric semi-metal," Franchini said. "This is like awakening a different kind of quantum interactions that are quietly sleeping in the same house without knowing each other."
-end-


Northwestern University

Related Quantum Computers Articles from Brightsurf:

Optical wiring for large quantum computers
Researchers at ETH have demonstrated a new technique for carrying out sensitive quantum operations on atoms.

New algorithm could unleash the power of quantum computers
A new algorithm that fast forwards simulations could bring greater use ability to current and near-term quantum computers, opening the way for applications to run past strict time limits that hamper many quantum calculations.

A new technique prevents errors in quantum computers
A paper recently published in Nature presents a protocol allowing for the error detection and the protection of quantum processors in case of qubit loss.

New method prevents quantum computers from crashing
Quantum information is fragile, which is why quantum computers must be able to correct errors.

Natural radiation can interfere with quantum computers
Radiation from natural sources in the environment can limit the performance of superconducting quantum bits, known as qubits.

New model helps to describe defects and errors in quantum computers
A summer internship in Bilbao, Spain, has led to a paper in the journal Physical Review Letters for Jack Mayo, a Master's student at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

The first intuitive programming language for quantum computers
Several technical advances have been achieved recently in the pursuit of powerful quantum computers.

Hot qubits break one of the biggest constraints to practical quantum computers
A proof-of-concept published today in Nature promises warmer, cheaper and more robust quantum computing.

Future quantum computers may pose threat to today's most-secure communications
Quantum computers that are exponentially faster than any of our current classical computers and are capable of code-breaking applications could be available in 12 to 15 years, posing major risks to the security of current communications systems, according to a new RAND Corporation report.

Novel error-correction scheme developed for quantum computers
Experimental quantum computers are plagued with errors. Here Dr Arne Grimsmo from the University of Sydney and colleagues from RMIT and the University of Queensland offer a novel method to reduce errors in a scheme applicable across different types of quantum hardware.

Read More: Quantum Computers News and Quantum Computers Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.